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In the past decade, the way of providing health care has revolutionised technology. Patients were equipped with the means to access information on wellbeing, control their medical attention and connect on a remote basis through smartphones, tablatures, personalised computers and machine devices (Dimitri, 2019). Historically, creativity and technology in infant welfare has developed in a comparatively emerging and formally poorly coordinated fashion (Gordon and Catalini, 2018). The goal is to step away from the conventional model of repurpose adult technology to provide the development of anatomically, physiologically and developmentally relevant, flexible, and planned for children and youths, a broad-based and organised approach to the development of specific health technology for children (Hussienet al., 2019).ADHD is a chronic disease which affects millions of children and often continually affects adulthood and is associated with care deficiency and hyperactivity (Sayal et al., 2018). ADHD comprises a group of persistent disorders such as concentration maintenance difficulties, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour.In the next five years, the overarching dynamics will shape the landscape of games and interactive media in general and increase the interference of conventional media, irrespective of their situation (Hussienet al., 2019). This is a unique summary of six business, technology and market developments, which together make a revolution. Along with Android the common options for digital gaming platforms are iPhone and Windows.
Digital gaming is a modern phenomenon, having first appeared about two decades ago. Since indoor sports, it was around; shifting just its shape (Reinhardt, 2017). Over the years, digital gaming has developed into an independent sector of tremendous artistic and technical potential. Along with Android the common options for digital gaming platforms are iPhone and Windows. Future opportunities for growth are at an all-explosive pace. Soon Virtual reality and 3D gaming and numerous innovative emerging innovations to act as peripherals for the improvement of interactive gaming experience shall penetrate the mass industry (Singh, 2019).
Origins of Digital Gaming (1940 - 1960)
The history of video games dates from attempts to create artificial intelligence Video games have experienced steady development along with hardware and software upgrades from the day when the first ENIAC was developed to the latest microprocessors. This is the reason it is impossible to determine precisely when the first video game was released, in this day and age, because it is interconnected and dependent on everything that came before it (Dillon ed., 2020). Any variety of puzzles, arcade and card sports, and also the first video games, may have disappeared from human experience in the far past.
Nascent Phase (1960 - 1990)
In 1960, Steve Russell, MIT employee, created 'Spacewar,' a widespread, highly influent video game. Atari, Inc. was founded in 1972 and ushered in the commercialization of the gaming industry's digital era. Within a short time, the innovative 'Pong' was published. Several American game development companies declared bankruptcy because of the 1983 recession and a flood of home computers and video game consoles. Video games such as 'Space Invaders' caused a large upheaval in the gaming industry in the 1980s which established popular games appeared on the scene during the evolving age of video games such as 'Donkey Kong' and 'Pac-Man'.
Golden Age (1990- 2010)
While the demand for video games started in the early 1990s, the leading companies like EA, Atari, and Nintendo and other giants, such as Nintendo, remained underground until around. 1990 saw the release of Super Nintendo. Sega created its own 'Sonic the Hedgehog' using the same 16-bit technology PC games began to become more common after the turn of the century. ID Software launched the network multi-player feature in the genus of FPS in 1996 with the first person shooter 'Quake.'
In 1996, Nintendo released the 64-bit Nintendo. With the PlayStation in the late 1990's, Sony influenced the entire industry, point out Reinhardt (2017). Microsoft entered the Xbox video game at about the same time. At the same time, mobile phones have become popular with video game consoles.Children aged 9 to 12 are becoming more competitive. This means they can play multiplayer games or games where they play on the same or online platform against others.
ADHD is a chronic disease which affects millions of childrenand often continually affects adulthood and is associated with care deficiency and hyperactivity (Sayalet al., 2018).ADHD is the most common psychiatric illness in children, with an estimated prevalence of 5.3 percent worldwide.ADHD comprises a group of persistent disorders such as concentration maintenance difficulties, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour. Children with ADHD may have difficulty with low self-esteem and disturbed relationships and bad academic success. Sometimes with age, symptoms are diminishing. Some people cannot overcome their signs of ADHD fully. But tactics to succeed can be learned. Via therapy ADHD cannot heal, but signs can be very helpful. Medicines and behavioural therapies usually provide treatment (Bélangeret al., 2018). The results can be greatly altered by early diagnostic and medication. Most children will not be tested for ADHD until they are in school, but children as young as four may be diagnosed as per the American Academy of Paediatrics guidelines (AAP). Many children are active and impulsive at that age. Early recognition and efficient management will greatly enhance people with ADHD and their families' ability to work normally and their overall quality of life.
Meaning of ADHD
ADHD is a general neurodiversity most often seen in young children. The CDC (2020)says that the average age at which parents discover that their child has autism is 7 years of age. There are twice as many boys with ADD/ADHD diagnosed than girls. Since adults can have symptoms, they can be identified and diagnosed, too.
Peasgoodet al. (2016) suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was only officially classified as a disease when the APA did so in the late 1960s. Learn more about ADHD, such as when it was first recognised as a real condition, how it was defined, how it is currently diagnosed, and the cause, in order to find answers for the timeline.
First half of 1990s
ADHD was first recorded in an article published in a paper in 1902. Doctor Still mentioned the "malfunctioned deficits" in children. She noted that a group of the affected children's conduct was beyond the control of normal, but were still intelligent(Peasgoodet al. (2016).
Changes in medical definition
In 1980, the APA issued the DSM (DSM-III) for the third edition. The name of the condition was changed from hyperkinetic to attention deficit disorder (ADD). Hyperactivity is not thought to be a typical symptom of the condition by scientists. This list created two subtypes of ADD: hyperactive ADD and hyperactivity-free ADD.
In 1987, the APA published a revised DSM-III edition. It eliminated the difference between hyperactivity and changed the name to a hyperactivity condition for attention (ADHD),as per the findings of Feldman, Charach and Bélanger (2018). Three signs (inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity) were grouped into a common type and no subtypes of the disease could be identified.
In the fourth edition the three subtypes of ADHD used by medical practitioners today were determined:
Rise in the number of cases
In the 1990s cases of ADHD started to grow markedly. The increase in diagnosis may be due to a few factors:
As the number of ADHD cases increased, more and more drugs became available to treat the condition. The medicines were even more effective in the treatment of ADHD.
Researchers aim to classify the origins of ADHD and alternative therapies. Research shows that the genetic correlation is very deep. It is most likely to be seen in children who have parents or siblings with the condition.
Vajawat, Varshney and Banerjee (2020) opine that the role played by environmental factors in deciding the development of ADHD is currently not clear. The root cause of an illness is to be found by researchers. They are aimed at improving therapies and helping people find care.
Some important questions to be discussed in this study about digital gaming and its relationship with children with ADHD are as follows-
To start with, no proof exists that ADHD is caused by video games (Balfe, 2019).And one major Norwegian study that traced children's gaming patterns for many years beginning at the age of 6 showed that people with more signs of ADHD appear to play more as they get older. But the total amount of time on the television was not worse.
Researchers have various reasons why video games could pull certain children and young people with ADHD so strongly.
Stimulation: Immediate prizes are provided by video games, usually high tempo, and visually entertaining. Games could provide the kid with a way to master his own skills, to avoid life, and to feel better.
Social interactions: Children with ADHD also have difficulties building relationships. Online games allow them to make friends and hold them.
Hyperfocus: This is the opportunity to concentrate super on pleasant or fascinating material. In certain people, it may be a distinctive ADHD symptom. Your child might be so attached to the game that they can't hear your name crying.
4.1 Benefits of Video Games
Online gaming can be more than recreational for children with ADHD. It is suggested by Prax and Rajkowska (2018), the games will help them develop key skills such as:
If a child is playing, the games should be ensured according to their age. Certain games intended for older children or adults can be too aggressive. The classification ranges from "E" which stands for "Everyone" to "AO" for "adults only — 18 years and over."
Gameplay that requires material to create simulated shelters or carts and other traffic control to take characters to their destinations may well be included. Children may improve their preparation, sharpen their memory and acquire additional useful skills they may lack.
The first prescription computer game was approved as ADHD therapy by the FDA in 2020. EndeavorRx is available for young people between 8 and 12 years old. It takes players across various environments, like a river of lava and an eclipsing winter land. Children tap the button to collect goals. The game helped increase attention by a study sponsored by EndeavorRx's founder, reveal Zajac, Ginley and Chang (2020).
4.2 Warning Signs
Some children with ADHD may spend too long in video games. Parents should guide the children as to how much or where s/he should play. They should be ensure that video games does not become the replacement of other experiences for children, such as social contact, family time, physical exercise, etc.
The given list includes signs that a child must be restrained from excessive gaming:
Gaming produces dopamine, which is the same brain chemistry you would use to get stuff like alcohol or other drugs.
If it is found that a child is a difficult game, a paediatrician or mental health practitioner should be consulted by parents.
Internet connectivity is an advantage for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Many individuals with ADHD have difficulty with time control, planning, finishing assignments, and paying attention to small information. It is impossible to remain focused in school or the workplace while this occurs. Internet content will help people with ADHD remain on task, achieve their goals, and resist diversion.
Warnings on the phone or in advance may help the workers arrive on time or maintain their schedules. Diverting attention from a particular work activity for too long, which results in the person getting less done in total (Anderssonet al., 2018).
Online technologies will help people with ADHD get organised, boost morale, and make them more mindful of their job deadlines.
5.1 Hindrances caused by Internet Access
The level of ADHD symptoms and the seriousness of Internet addiction among children were observed in a study of 535 primary school students. Singh (2018) state that the research indicates a significant risk factor for internet addiction could be the existence of ADHD signs, whether they be carelessness or hyperactivity/impulsive.
The use of technology calls for harmony and self-monitoring. The use of available tools to improve efficiency, but also to reduce distraction and hyperfocus can be helpful.
The UK government has not only established various policies to help children with ADHD to receive special care and attention, but has provided articulate guidelines to help the school authorities and the parents to deal with children diagnosed with ADHD. Some of the important steps to be followed by the schools, as per the governmental instructions will be mentioned ahead. According to Robinson (2017), the characteristics that are required to become an ADHD friendly adult have been identified by the Government. The ADHD-friendly adult:
Among the various strategies mentioned by the government, a few of the important ones are-
Much instructions have been provided to the parents as well. Given below will be some of the most important and easily followable ones, as pointed out by Robinson (2017)-
From the above literature review, it can be observed that digital gaming and internet access do not just exacerbate the condition of children with ADHD, rather they may also be of immense value in terms ofenhancing their attention, concentration and perception. Against the conventional belief that technology can only negatively affect a child with ADHD, fresh research suggests just the opposite. It is also important to note that excessive usage of these items can lead to a worsening of themental state: and this is true not just in the people with AHD, but also the general masses. Therefore the aim of this study is to conduct an inquiry into the impact of various kinds of digitalgames on children affected with ADHD.
Andersson, G., Rozental, A., Shafran, R. and Carlbring, P., (2018). Long-term effects of internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 18(1), pp.21-28.
Balfe, J.R., (2019). A Study of an ADHD Experience Video Game's Effect on Users' Attention (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University Graduate School).
Bélanger, S.A., Andrews, D., Gray, C. and Korczak, D., (2018). ADHD in children and youth: part 1—etiology, diagnosis, and comorbidity. Paediatrics & child health, 23(7), pp.447-453.
CDC, (2020). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). [Online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html. [Accessed on 19.03.21].
Dillon, R. ed., (2020). The Digital Gaming Handbook. CRC Press.
Dimitri, P., (2019). Child health technology: shaping the future of paediatrics and child health and improving NHS productivity. Archives of disease in childhood, 104(2), pp.184-188.
Feldman, M.E., Charach, A. and Bélanger, S.A., (2018). ADHD in children and youth: part 2—treatment. Paediatrics & child health, 23(7), pp.462-472.
Gordon, W.J. and Catalini, C., (2018). Blockchain technology for healthcare: facilitating the transition to patient-driven interoperability. Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 16, pp.224-230.
Hussien, H.M., Yasin, S.M., Udzir, S.N.I., Zaidan, A.A. and Zaidan, B.B., (2019). A systematic review for enabling of develop a blockchain technology in healthcare application: taxonomy, substantially analysis, motivations, challenges, recommendations and future direction. Journal of medical systems, 43(10), pp.1-35.
Jarrett, M.A., Wolff, J.C., Davis III, T.E., Cowart, M.J. and Ollendick, T.H., (2016). Characteristics of children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety. Journal of attention disorders, 20(7), pp.636-644.
Peasgood, T., Bhardwaj, A., Biggs, K., Brazier, J.E., Coghill, D., Cooper, C.L., Daley, D., De Silva, C., Harpin, V., Hodgkins, P. and Nadkarni, A., (2016). The impact of ADHD on the health and well-being of ADHD children and their siblings. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 25(11), pp.1217-1231.
Prax, P. and Rajkowska, P., (2018). Problem gaming from the perspective of treatment.
Reinhardt, J., (2017). Digital gaming in L2 teaching and learning. The handbook of technology and second language teaching and learning, pp.202-216.
Reinhardt, J., (2017). Digital gaming in L2 teaching and learning. The handbook of technology and second language teaching and learning, pp.202-216.
Robinson, M., (2017). ADHD in the United States and the United Kingdom: A comparison of teacher and parent perspectives (Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University).
Sayal, K., Prasad, V., Daley, D., Ford, T. and Coghill, D., (2018). ADHD in children and young people: prevalence, care pathways, and service provision. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(2), pp.175-186.
Singh, I., (2018). ADHD in the United Kingdom. Global perspectives on ADHD: Social dimensions of diagnosis and treatment in sixteen countries, p.97.
Singh, M., (2019). Compulsive digital gaming: an emerging mental health disorder in children. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 86(2), pp.171-173.
Vajawat, B., Varshney, P. and Banerjee, D., (2020). Digital Gaming Interventions in Psychiatry: Evidence, Applications and Challenges. Psychiatry Research, p.113585.
Zajac, K., Ginley, M.K. and Chang, R., (2020). Treatments of internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of the evidence. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 20(1), pp.85-93.
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