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Sustainable building is an essential part of responsible waste management. In this case, waste management means waste disposal wherever possible, waste reduction wherever possible and material reuse that would otherwise become waste. The elimination, recycling and reuse of waste have been described as essential by solid waste management activities for sustainable resource management. Construction waste consists of unwanted building material and dismantling materials (Lu et al., 2019). A building site cannot be operated without any waste but the amount that ends up in waste can be limited. Therefore, “REDUCE”, “REUSE” and “RECYCLE” shall be required by law by all businesses prior to disposal.
However, 330,000 new homes have been constructed in Great Britain for the last 10 years and it is, therefore, no surprise that the building industry uses 400 million tonnes of natural resources every year (Menegaki & Damigos, 2018). Every business has the obligation to deal properly with their waste. The Environmental Agency enforces this and failure to do so will lead to a large penalty and harm the reputation of the business. A construction waste management strategy generally applies to minimizing the amount of material that goes into waste disposal during construction, by diverting waste and demolition from waste disposal. It often aims to restore recyclable recycled products to the production chain and to redirect reused goods to convenient sites. Furthermore, it is apparent that the construction site generally uses 23% of non-fuel raw materials. Construction waste raises the burden of progressively scarce landfills and polluting soil and water can be caused by waste not being properly handled with hazardous substances.
Construction industries must handle their waste wisely to save the resources of the worlds and mitigate environmental harm. In the adoption of government policies to support sustainable growth, the construction sector is important. Consequently, it is mandatory to adopt a holistic solution to waste management, while reducing waste, for sustainable development. According to Wrap, the UK’s largest buyer of natural capital in the construction sector. According to their report, the industry utilizes 400 million tons of material yearly, resulting in the production of 100 million tons of waste (Lu et al., 2019). To put this in perspective, over a third of the UK’s overall annual waste is generated by this level of waste in construction. The following research outlines the strategies, which can be adopted by construction sites to minimize the production of waste for improving the harmful impact on the environment.
The research aims to analyze the waste reduction strategies at construction sites for achieving sustainable objectives. The main objectives of the research are listed below:
Construction waste is a major global concern that can also be generated in diverse ways to damage the overall success of a project as well as the community and nature. Material time and cost result from the waste. The substantial physical damage to the building is caused by waste such as remaining materials, collapsed rubble and metal scrap (Kaliannan et al., 2018). There is an immediate need for incorporating sustainable business practices for eliminating wastes at construction sites to preserve the environment and natural resources. Therefore, evaluation of the effective method is an issue and the since the research tends to address a global concern and thus, a universal solution in every situation is not possible as the types of materials used tend to differ.
The problem statement of the research can be broken into several research questions, which are mentioned below:
According to Freitas & Magrini (2017), Construction waste management credit is generally designed to prevent settling material by a process of discharge from waste disposal by removing building waste, demolition and ground clearance waste; diverting recyclable reclaimed products to the manufacturing processes, and redirecting the recycled materials to suitable areas. The building or construction industry requires many processes and uses enormous amounts of resources. These activities have serious environmental effects that range from the mining and processing of raw materials used during the building process, the operation of the building to subsequent construction demolitions at the end of its existence(Tafesse, 2021). The construction industry is the main exploiter of non-renewable and polluter of the environment while contributing to the overall socio-economic growth of any region, thus lead to global degradation by resource depletion, energy consumption, air pollution and waste generation in the procurement of raw materials. In order to preserve the health and to ensure that waste from building and demolition works contributes substantially to the contaminated environment, waste management activity has been encouraged for construction (Coppola et al., 2018). This increased understanding of the environmental implications of waste materials has contributed to the introduction of waste control as an integral part of the construction project management process.
A construction firm will allocate the correct amount of materials used to finish the projects by creating a site waste management plan. In future, any waste that is left will be recovered and recycled to save all the amount of waste that would otherwise have been generated (Tan, 2018). In addition to being a cost-efficient option, such waste management plans can also be a great way to help the company deal responsibly and ethically with the building waste. Therefore it is important for all building companies to focus upon the development of their waste management solution as part of a Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP). SWMP would ensure more efficient handling of waste generated at the site(s) concerned, thus reducing the possible environmental harm caused by waste.
According to de Magalhães, Danilevicz, & Saurin, (2017) Construction waste is a major environmental hazard. Construction firms also need to find appropriate ways of managing materials for construction and demolition that produce waste during construction activities. Sustainable construction is a major component of responsible waste management. Waste disposal in today’s building sector is a primary area of concern. Companies for sustainable waste management in construction should implement the following strategies:
Any waste related to construction may be reduced. Building materials, for example, maybe chosen based on design and fabrication for minimal packaging(Napier, 2016). It should also be taken into account the selection, use or reductions of recyclable materials and goods.
Effective segregation of waste
For efficient waste cost control, how waste is segregated and processed is essential. It can be done by:
Certain components can be reused again. For example, fine, resalable doors and windows may replace new ones, be donated and or offered for use in another project, a way of re-use that is useful. Materials and goods which can be removed, reduced or reused quickly or reliably in the result and are possibly disposed of at the lowest cost unless treated( Napier, 2016). Deposition fees on solid waste sites in certain parts of the world are far higher than the cost of separation and rehabilitation, including waste management.
Any waste generated in the building process can be disposed of. In order to be easily removed and reusable in other projects, for example, robust compact metal shape structures to be used in concrete construction may be chosen, reducing wooden waste associated to form made of plywood and dimensional lumbers(Kaliannan et al., 2018). Waste disposal may be beneficial in order to reduce the environmental and public health effects.
Demolition and deconstruction:
The demolition of buildings leads to heavy contamination and waste production, and deconstruction needs instead to be the priority. Deconstruction enables the extensive retrieval of used materials from frameworks and assemblies to complete buildings and structures at each stage (Goorhuis, 2020). It also improves the economy by creating new jobs, in addition to protecting energy and reducing deposit waste.
In order to achieve the ethical, social and environmental objectives, the United Kingdom Government used a mix of regulations, economic tools and voluntary arrangements to implement a waste management program. According to Blundell (2019), In June 2008, the Government’s sustainable development policy calls for a step-by-step shift in the sustainability of all built-up infrastructure led by innovation. The Strategy aims to increase the environmental efficiency of modern construction in an effort to reduce carbon emissions and resource use. The Strategy advocates for zero building waste to be generated by 2020, allowing the construction sector to promote its own resource efficiency project (Ghaffar, Burman & Braimah, 2020). The goals were also set by 2012, in accordance with 2008 standards, to start reducing the volume of building and demolition waste to the deposits due to waste diversion, reuse and recycling. For the industry, this is a major obstacle. Besides that, existing waste legislation should contribute to this, especially the Landfill tax (£56 per ton in 2011), making the new waste disposal methods too much expensive for construction undertakings, the Aggregates Levy (£2/ton for extraction of aggregates) and Site Waste Management Plans Regulations 2008(Ghaffar, Burman & Braimah, 2020). But the United Kingdom Government is likely to introduce further budgetary policies and regulations, leading the building industries to a close-loop manufacturing structure, that does not yet seem to have decreased waste production tremendously.
The UK construction industry pays more than £200 million annually on landfill tax. Waste normally cost businesses 4 per cent of sales by introducing a robust waste minimization program, with a 1 per cent possible savings (Blundell, 2019). “WRAP” also estimates the waste of £1.5 billion in goods shipped but not used on-site. Businesses that relate to construction will benefit from government grants to implement practices for reducing waste (Islam et al., 2019). In reality, the government awarded (£284 million) in waste and efficiency (BREW) taxes from April 2005 to March 2008. For waste control projects about 65 per cent of this funding has been funded. It is important that sustainability strategies, like waste reduction, be embraced and applied to increase construction efficiency in this competitive era. Customers are seeking more and more sustainable approaches and control the market in order to reduce pollution and cost on the ground. This is becoming progressively and extremely important for the whole supply chain to be obtained. In the light of such constraints, companies abandon their limited value philosophy in pursuit of an agenda that not only seeks to improve economic value but also takes into account corporate social responsibility and the commitment and engagement of stakeholders.
The reliability of the implementation by 3R represents resilience in the handling of building waste. One of the thrusts of the NSWM policy is to reduce solid waste by 3R. Construction waste is one of the solid wastes regulated. 3R practice has become popularized as it has become part of strategy and choice and is focused around the principle of completely using capital before disposal, among other alternative solutions for waste hierarchy definition (Ng et al., 2018). The principle of reduction, reuse and recycling is described in 3R activities.
Reduction: The most reliable and safe approach for the management of construction waste is called reduction. Therefore, Reduction does not only minimize the production of building waste but can also minimize shipping, storage and recycling costs of wastes.
Reuse: reuse is normally a preferred choice because any construction waste can be reused in other buildings. Reuse is more advantageous as contractors are able to save while recycling expenses are incurred. For the same purpose as construction shaping, Reuse employs the same material more than once (Napier, 2016). Material neither reusable nor recyclable will be sent to the recycling centre.
Recycling: Recycling is desired where reduction and reuse are impossible. Recycling can create some great materials. On-site and off-site recycling of construction waste may be classified (Ng et al., 2018). On-site recycling is known as the segregation of building waste for subsequent use in the construction project as raw materials. In the meanwhile, off-site recycling is the segregation of building waste which is then shipped to some other organization.
According to Lu et al., (2019) Rapid growth in construction practices raises the issue of construction waste nationwide. The environmental challenges of construction waste are significant as vast quantities of building waste limit the waste ability and contribute to environmental problems. Construction waste not only creates pollution problems but also mitigates human health and sanitation. Furthermore, the expansion of building waste reveals that renewable materials are dispersed in bulk.
Environmental: The construction industry’s environmental impacts in developing nations are substantial compared to developed countries, as developing countries continue to be developed and rapidly developed and industrialized. Building refuse can cause contamination in sites with waste. Construction waste, as it rains, will get into the earth, surface water to soil and pollute it(Napier, 2016). Environment contamination is caused by contractors throwing unregulated building waste to the roadside or to the river.
Human health: The traditional disposal approach involves vast areas which, due to health and ecological threats, impose hesitant and psychological fears. Properly managed construction waste will cause problems for human health.
Resource: Increased waste generated by construction would result in increased natural resources use. 3R is an economical and efficient way of reducing waste from deposits and reducing resource flow, as recycled material ensures the materials used to create a new product have had to be reduced(Menegaki & Damigos, 2018).
The phrase "philosophy of research" refers to research that is based on concepts of existence and production of knowledge. There are four basic research philosophies, including "positivism, realism, interpretivism, and pragmatism" (Iovino and Tsitsianis, 2020). It is a collection of concepts that guides researchers in the collection, evaluation, and use of data on a certain subject. Additionally, it describes the properties and structure of the data, as well as its origin and development. According to this definition, research philosophy is a set of beliefs associated with a particular research technique that idealise the quality of research results. The pragmatism philosophy will be utilised to conduct the dissertation, since it seeks to improve the pupil's efficiency via actions and experiences.
In the research for the method of data collection, a mixed approach would be applied. For mixed approach data collection processes, both qualitative and quantitative approach will be used (Queirós, Faria, & Almeida, 2017). The thesis shall therefore use both secondary and primary approaches to remove the problem of the disposal of waste materials from construction. In addition, the study also considers the use of secondary approaches for the analysis of environmental impacts of building operations(Taheri, Jami Pour and Asarian, 2019). Thus, both quantitative and qualitative research can be used to improve the validity and credibility of the research.
A mixed approach typically combines quantitative and qualitative methods in certain areas of the analysis method. It is clear, however, that with a mixed approach, information is generally better understood by the subject than by a single process for data and information collection (Baran, 2020). The use of both methods for data collection also allows gaining a better understanding of the research issues which is much more helpful than the use of a single data collection method. In addition, using this mixed approach; qualitative evidence is justified by quantitative results. The analysis of research typically involves the subjective experience of presumptions or records obtained from qualitative primary materials and non-numerical findings.
Qualitative evidence and information are normally collected by conduction of an interview to derive authentic information concerning the research topic. . A telephonic interview will also be conducted among the managers of top global construction firms (ACS Actividades de Construcción y Servicios S.A., VINCI and Bouygues) to understand the effectiveness of waste reduction strategies at construction sites (Baran, 2020). The quantitative information will be collected by the conduction of an online survey by using Google form among the workers of construction firms to understand and gather knowledge concerning the research topic
The final outcomes of the research study will generally be analyzed by using regression analysis as the relationship among independent and dependent variables can be determined. Therefore, the relationship within the performance of construction firms, waste management techniques as well as the environmental impact could be determined (Leavy, 2017). Thus, the main objectives of the research could be evaluated effectively by the use of the outcomes gathered from regression analysis.
Research sampling is important when determining the population or scale of the research. The latest analysis typically involves an organized analysis that assesses the appropriate results and assesses or evaluates the causes (Sharma, 2017). The research gathers not just journal articles from different sources, such as textbooks, articles, PDF files and early documents, for the purposes of obtaining relevant material. An interview and survey may usually be performed to collect insight into the efficiency of waste management strategies at building sites for undertaking this research report. Telephonic interview will be conducted mainly among four managers from top worldwide construction companies (ACS Actividades de Construcción y Servicios S.A., VINCI and Bouygues) owing to the current pandemic situation. (Baran, 2020) In addition, a survey will be performed among the 30 applicants, including employees of a building company.
In addition, the sampling procedure typically uses stratified random sampling. Stratified random sampling is a sampling system that divides a population into a smaller sub-group called strata (Sharma, 2017). In addition, the study will also include the alpha coefficient of Cronbach for the reliability analysis of independent and dependent variables
Development of Research Scope
Formation of Aims and Objectives and Questions
Selection of Research Methodology
Instigation of the Review of Literary Articles
As per the ethical concern of the research, the researcher shall comply with the collection of standards and directions for carrying out the investigation. Researchers need to consider and maintain proper preservation and security in research ethics and data collection (Bracken-Roche et al., 2017). The participants must not be insulted in the survey and interviews and the investigator should provide adequate safety and privacy to the survey participants and interview. Furthermore, telephonic interview as well as online survey in Google Form will be conducted due to the present crisis situation of Covid-19. The identity of the organization, in accordance with the ethic of the thesis, will remain private and the proper consent of the participants will be taken before data collection.
Baran, M.L., 2020.Mixed Methods Research Design. In Applied Social Science Approaches to Mixed Methods Research (pp. 26-52).IGI Global.
Blundell, S. (2019). How is the construction sector combatting their waste? [online] Planning, BIM & Construction Today. Available at: https://www.pbctoday.co.uk/news/planning-construction-news/waste-in-construction/65702/. [Accessed on: 16/5/2021]
Bracken-Roche, D., Bell, E., Macdonald, M.E. and Racine, E., 2017. The concept of ‘vulnerability’in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines. Health research policy and systems, 15(1), pp.1-18.
Coppola, L., Bellezze, T., Belli, A., Bignozzi, M. C., Bolzoni, F., Brenna, A., ... & Yang, F. (2018). Binders alternative to Portland cement and waste management for sustainable construction–Part 2. Journal of applied biomaterials & functional materials, 16(4), 207-221.
de Magalhães, R. F., Danilevicz, Â. D. M. F., & Saurin, T. A. (2017). Reducing construction waste: A study of urban infrastructure projects. Waste management, 67, 265-277.
Freitas, L. A., & Magrini, A. (2017). Waste management in industrial construction: Investigating contributions from industrial ecology. Sustainability, 9(7), 1251.
Ghaffar, S. H., Burman, M., & Braimah, N. (2020). Pathways to circular construction: An integrated management of construction and demolition waste for resource recovery. Journal of Cleaner Production, 244, 118710.
Goorhuis, P. H. J. (2020). Value retention: Preconditions for moving from demolition to deconstruction (Master’s thesis, University of Twente).
Islam, R., Nazifa, T. H., Yuniarto, A., Uddin, A. S., Salmiati, S., & Shahid, S. (2019). An empirical study of construction and demolition waste generation and implication of recycling. Waste management, 95, 10-21.
Kaliannan, S., Nagapan, S., Sohu, S., & Jhatial, A. A. (2018). Determining root cause of construction waste generation: a global context. Civil Engineering Journal, 4(11), 2539-2547.
Leavy, P., 2017. Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches.
Lu, W., Chi, B., Bao, Z., & Zetkulic, A. (2019). Evaluating the effects of green building on construction waste management: A comparative study of three green building rating systems. Building and Environment, 155, 247-256.
Menegaki, M., & Damigos, D. (2018). A review on current situation and challenges of construction and demolition waste management. Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 13, 8-15.
Napier, T. (2016). Construction Waste Management | WBDG - Whole Building Design Guide. Wbdg.org. https://www.wbdg.org/resources/construction-waste-management [Accessed on: 16/5/2021]
Ng, L. S., Tan, L. W., & Seow, T. W. (2018, April). Constraints to 3R construction waste reduction among contractors in Penang. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 140, No. 1, p. 012103). IOP Publishing.
Queirós, A., Faria, D., & Almeida, F. (2017). Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European Journal of Education Studies.
Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques. International journal of applied research, 3(7), 749-752.
Tafesse, S. (2021). Material waste minimization techniques in building construction projects. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology, 14(1), 1-19.
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