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Cancer Biology Assignment Sample

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Cancer Biology Assignment

Introduction - Cancer Biology

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Metastasis is a process in which the cancer cells often break away from their origin point or parent cell. After breaking away, these cells travel through the lymph or blood systems, and in the process, they help in forming new tumours. In other various parts of the body, they are known as Metastatic Tumour. They can cause cancer; the nature of the cancer is pretty similar to the nature of cancer caused by a primary tumour. Most of the existing theories or hypothesis suggests that the hallmark or fundamental aspects of Metastasis are impacted by the numbers of Mitochondria as well as functions of Mitochondria. That is why this is a proposal to conduct research to check those hypotheses inadequate scientific ways.


The spread of cancer cells from the place of origin to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph is simply known as Metastasis. It does not necessarily spread cancer, it forms tumours in various places, and then that will transform into cancer cells. The most usual places of Metastasis are Lung, Bones, Liver, Adrenal gland, and Peritoneum. On the other hand, the mitochondria are an essential part of the cell. This is also known as the energy centre of the cells, as it can generate ATP, which is like the energy currency of the cell (Cheng et al., 2019). There is a lot of literature present where it is evidently mentioned that the cancer cells are often appeared to be greater withstand interference with "ATP synthesis" within Mitochondria. Also, it is self-evident because they rely primarily on "Glycolysis", which is an "Energy Production Mechanism". The fundamental hallmarks for Metastasis are a total of four in number, and they are; Motility and Invasion, Plasticity and Colonisation, along with Modulation of "Microenvironments" (Altieri, 2017). Several hypotheses suggested that the mitochondrial functions are capable of impacting these hallmarks. There are several types of research by Kulawiec on "Cancer cell Mitochondria" or Bhandaray on "Mitochondria in relation to cancer metastasis", but this report is going to propose research which will evaluate these same hypotheses by an adequate amount of analysis and comparison and mapping in regards to Metastatic and non-metastatic cells, along with genome sequences.

Figure 1: Impact of “Mitochondria” in “Metastasis

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jack-Arbiser-2/publication/318182684/ Signaling-in-primary-tumor-and-metastasis-based-upon-mitochondrial-bioenergetic-profile.png)

Aim and Objectives

As it is mentioned before that there are already several types of research out there, but this report believes that the hypothesis has not been deducted by enough data (Quantitative) witness, so this proposed research will approach the hypothesis in an explicit manner and collect accurate scientific data about every other aspect directly or remotely linked with Metastasis or mitochondria or other cellular organelles, impacting mitochondria’s quantity in cells or affecting on mitochondria’s role within a cell (Denisenko, 2019). The proposed research will follow an aim and also few objectives which are broken down chronologically, and the wholesome findings from those objectives would lead to the expected area of finding in accordance with the Aim.

The research aim is;

To evaluate the existing hypothesis of deregulation in Mitochondria numbers in a cell being associated with Metastasis.

The research objectives are;

  • The research will Estimate the Mitochondria numbers from metastatic and non-metastatic (Tumour Tissues) in single cells.
  • The Genome sequence of single cells will be mapped to the human “Reference Genome”.
  • A comparison will be drawn to infer the “Relative numbers of Mitochondrial DNA” copies with the whole genome.


There would be no random assumption about a single aspect of this proposed research. Instead, the search would examine and collect every other data from live experiments or cell culture specifically for this very research; that is why the findings would be as accurate as possible. As for essential evaluation, this research will follow the impact of mitochondrial in myriad relevant ways, such as; the impact of Apoptosis of Mitochondria, as well as the “Reactive Oxygen species” of Mitochondria, to understand mitochondrial effects on causing metastasis (Emmings et al. 2019). Also, this research will estimate the average presence of mitochondria in metastatic and non-metastatic cells so that it would provide an idea of the average quantity of mitochondrial deregulation. The research will also use STS or "Sequence tagged site" for mapping the genome sequence in the reference genome. As it would be the most vital factor, in the end, this helps in comparison with other genomes so that it would help to get the "Relative numbers of Mitochondrial DNA copies". All these would be part of defining the origin of the hypothesis and conducting relevant experiments. In the end, this report will draw findings wholly based on accurate results from comparisons (frontiersin.org).

(Source: https://online.officetimeline.com/app/#/file/f0c39905-6611-44d1-8b2b-be73a373e53c/gantt-view)


In conclusion, this report is going to state that the proposed research will evaluate a fundamental hypothesis; there are lots of experiments going on based on that same hypothesis. That is why this proposed research is so much essential because it is capable of delivering accurate findings which will assure the viability of the hypothesis. Since the number of mitochondria is supposed to be vital, This Proposed research will conduct various experiments and cell culture to get an estimation of the average quantity of mitochondria in metastatic and non-metastatic single cells; the comparison can help in assuming the impact of mitochondrial deregulation in quantity. Also, the experimented single-cell genome would be mapped to the "Reference genome" so that the genome sequence could be compared with other regular copies, and it would help to understand that whether mitochondria number plays any particular part in causing Metastasis.



Altieri, D.C., 2017. Mitochondria on the move: emerging paradigms of organelle trafficking in tumour plasticity and Metastasis. British journal of cancer117(3), pp.301-305.

Cheng, G., Zhang, Q., Pan, J., Lee, Y., Ouari, O., Hardy, M., Zielonka, M., Myers, C.R., Zielonka, J., Weh, K. and Chang, A.C., 2019. Targeting lonidamine to mitochondria mitigates lung tumorigenesis and brain metastasis. Nature communications10(1), pp.1-14.

Denisenko, T.V., Gorbunova, A.S. and Zhivotovsky, B., 2019. Mitochondrial involvement in migration, invasion and Metastasis. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology7, p.355.

Emmings, E., Mullany, S., Chang, Z., Landen, C.N., Linder, S. and Bazzaro, M., 2019. Targeting mitochondria for treatment of chemoresistant ovarian cancer. International journal of molecular sciences20(1), p.229.

Online article

frontiersin.org, 2019, Mitochondrial involvement in migration, invasion and Metastasis, Available at, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2019.00355/full [Accessed on 25.05.2021 ]

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