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Management and Operations Assignment help

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Management and Operations Assignment 

1. INTRODUCTION - Management and Operations

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Operations are very essential factors that help the organisation to increase the effectiveness and increase the efficiency of the products and services which will in return help the organisation to increase the profit margins. Thus, it is very important to analyse the proper strategies to maintainthe production of the organisation (Koo and Park, 2018). Leaders and managers of the organisation play a major role in managing the business operations. In this study the researcher would focus on explaining the role of leaders and managers in the operational management in the organisation. The researcher would focus on explaining the characteristics and skills of leaders and managers and how these skillset affect their work is also discussed. Along with this the report will also focus on explaining the different theories and concepts related to the research topic.

1.1 Introducing the organisation and management structure

Tesco is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, and United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and the ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (Sparks, 2019). Key operations such as TQM, just in time, Kaizen are used by Tesco in their structure so that they can eliminate the waste, improve continuously and reduce the time at the stage of manufacturing. This helps the firm to improve and develop their process so that they can satisfy more customers and be able to make their environment more convenient for the customers.

2. MAIN BODY

P1 Define and compare the different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager.

Leader is someone who has the skills of a leader and can guide the group in one direction so that the company can work efficiently and effectively which is very important for any organization. Manager is that person who takes care of the entire firm and administrates them and controls them for doing their work right so that the firm can reach up to its standards(Saint-Michel, 2018).

Manager

Leader

  • The manager has to set the direction for the employees.
  • For example: the managers of Tesco are very good with this deal because they are experienced and have been in this field from a long time and that is a very positive factor for the company.
  • Managers treat their subordinates as the employees and in full professional way. The managers are also very adamant to follow all the managerial policies which the company formulate(Maslyn, Schyns and Farmer, 2017).
  • The managers of Tesco are very authoritative and the employees have a lot of employee’s issues with that because they are not having any authority in the company.
  • The managers have power which is why the employees of the organization listen to the managers. There can be a misuse of the power and no one can do anything about it which will make the company less effective
  • The managers are the people who are trying to be the heroes in the company and the managers are not the real people who are dealing with the employees directly.
  • The managers have better ideas for the company to function better and that why the profit can be earned more by the company.
  • The leader in the organization helps to provide to guidance to employees as they increase the knowledge and skills so that they can also achieve the personal goals and get motivated.
  • Leaders of Tesco help the employees to influence to get motivated and increase the efficiency of the company.
  • Leaders help to create the fan base as all the employees admire the leader which also helps the company to make the effective strategy.
  • The leaders of Tesco are very inspirational and the employees of the company look forward to have the skills of the leadership for the company so that the firm will be able to make the same leadership quality for themselves.
  • The power the leaders have is created by the leaders for themselves in the company so that the employees listen to them and the misuse of power can be very harmful for the leaders.
  • The leaders are the actual heroes in the company of Tesco because they are the actual people who are making the employees work in the organization and they create their own relationship with the workforce because they have a direct relationship with them.

M1 Applying the theories for explaining the role of leaders and managers

Both the leaders and managers are having different roles to play in the organisation and they need to make better use of the theories that can help them in being more effective while performing their role in the firm.The leaders of the company can show the idea into practical in a better idea by working appropriately(Powell and Butterfield, 2017).On the other handmanagers of the organization have the right way and direction of giving to the employees and that is a very important factor.The managers act according to the changes which have taken place in the firm. The changes made by the leader needs to be implemented well by the managers. Tesco has hired good leaders and managers this is the reason behind the great success of the firm. The leader needs to use effective leadership theories and motivational theories that can help them in motivating the employees in an appropriate manner.

Figure 1: Mayo’s theory of human relations

(Source: Slideteam, 2021)

Mayo’s theory of human relations is one of the important theory that help organisations on focusing on different factors that develops better relations among the workforce. The above-mentioned image explains that according to the human relation theory one should focus on all these factors for managing the workforce. Both the leaders and managers can use this theory for managing the firm in an effective manner. (McClean and et.al., 2018).

P2 Functions of manager and leader

Manager

Decision Making

There are a lot of functions which are played by the manager of Tesco and they are very important for the firm because those factors will affect the organisational work environment. The manager has to make decisions which are in acceptance of the entire workforce so that they can work for achieving the goals and objectives of the company. The manager of Tesco is making sure that the employees are having the best time in the firm so that they can work more efficiently and more productively. Tesco retail manager makes sure that the decisions the manager is making are in favour of the workforce and they are being followed by them so that the firm can work more efficiently.The managers needs to make significant decision related to the management of the day to day business operations in the company related to the supply of different products, offering instore services to the employees and many more.

Hiring and Staffing

It is very important for the manager to make sure that the organisation should have highly skilled and knowledgeable employees in the firm. If the firm is having right employees at correct position the they will be able to do their assign work in an appropriate manner and led the firm towards success and development(Blok and et.al., 2021).Tesco is doing everything possible for making the customers satisfied with the products the company is selling and are also trying to meet the demands of the customers. They are focusing on having better employees who can help them in offering satisfying customer experience to their customers.The needs and wants of the customers keep changing and the employees have to accept the changes which the manager will get in for the betterment for the company and the new recruits will be able to adapt to the changes very quickly and that will make the firm reach the objectives and goals very quickly.

Problem solving

The manager must know how to take decisions for solving the problems so that the company can work more efficiently and productively because that is a very important factor in the firm New employees will take time settling down in the new organizations so the manager of Tesco makes sure that the employees are settling in the firm faster and better so that the internal environment of the organisation is not being spoilt(Glinkowska, 2017). Managers needs to ensure that all the employee working in an appropriate manner and if they are facing any kind of issue then the manager is responsible for solving the issue.

Leader

Motivation

The leader has to make sure that the employees who are in the company are motivated so that the firm can get a lot of profit. When the workforceare motivated then the working of the company gets easier then they will be able to work more effectively and that is a very important factor. When the employees are demotivated then it is important for the leaders to motivate them in such situation and during the change management also employee motivation is required.Leader needs to apply the leadership theories such as Maslow’s theory of needs and Herzberg two factor theory of motivation for motivating the employees and inspiring them to work effectively.

Discipline

The leader has to make sure that the employees are disciplined and the manager of Tesco makes sure that the employees are meeting the standards of the company. There are different types of standards and discipline in every company and it is very important for the leader that the employees are following the discipline of the company so that the company will be able to work better and they will be able to achieve their goals and aims (Krutyakova and Anyushenkova, 2018).

Clear Instruction

The leaders must make sure that the instructions to the employees are very clear and they are being followed for the betterment of the company. This would help the organisation to meet their objective and aims. The employers must make sure that the employees have a clear direction because it is very important for them to work in one direction so that they can make the firm achieve their objectives which will make the company get a lot of profit and make a strong portfolio for the company in the market.

P3 and M2 Models of Approaches and their strengths and weaknesses

Situational Leadership

It is very important for the leaders and managers to have the decisions making power in the situations which rise in the company. Tesco is very good with dealing with situations and that is what is making the company be what it is today (Sobocka-Szczapa, 2019). There have to be decisions which have to be taken by the managers and leaders of the company because not everywhere the management is available and the managers and the leaders have a decision-making power in the company of Tesco therefore the company is being able to deal with the situations very quickly.Situational leadership is antheory according to which the leader needs to focus on analysing the situation in an appropriate manner and then they should use the different leadership styles and theories. The different pros and cons of the situational leadership is mentioned below:

 The customers can rise with the problems anytime and the manager and the leader of the firmhas to solve them on the spot so that the customers are satisfied with the firm and the company will be able to make a huge profit. Tesco is making a lot of profit recently because of the innovations and creativity they have done for the betterment of the company. There has to be a respect for everyone in the firm and that will make the internal environment of the company better. Tesco Company is one of the best with the internal factor of the organisation and that is making the company have a very strong portfolio in the market.

Systems Leadership

It is very important for the company to have systematic leadership skills so that the company’s employees can achieve their objective and aims. One of the strengths of using the system leadership is that it increases the change management ability of the organisation.Along with this it helps the organisation in leading the entire firm towards success.On the other hand the important disadvantage of this leadership theory is that it is not contingenciesin the organisation. The employees must maintain their balance for the professional and personal aims and objectives of themselves. The leaders must make sure that the workforceis satisfied with the work they are doing so that they can stay in the company for long. And this will make the company have loyal employees which will be very beneficial for the company because long term employees have experience in the firm and the right skills for the right kind of jobs. It is very important for the leaders to give the employees the right skills so that they can make the most from the company and they feel like staying in the company for long and that is very important. The communication between all the employees in the firmhas to be strong so that they can make the company get the right direction and make the right place for themselves in the market.

Contingency

There are a lot of measures which are taken by the manager and leaders which are not certain if they will work in the company but the decisions are tried by the manager so that the company can benefit from it and so can the employees. The main aim of the company still remains that but the decisions are taken so that the firm can achieve those aims and objectives through other ways so that the employees of the organisation feel better and the company can get a lot of profit and a good portfolio in the market. Tesco retail managers and leaders have made a lot of changes in the company so that the company can work efficiently and make a lot of profit in the market and that is very important for the firm because the company is expanding itself in different countries and the flow of cash should be strong in the company.

(Source: Kashni, 2019)

There are a lot of innovations of product which are taking place in the company because of which there have to be a lot of changes in the company which the managers and leaders have to make. The decisions are taken but the decisions can work and they may not work either and that can be blamed on the managers of the company and the firm will have to make the changes after a lot of thought process so that the company does not face any loses in the market.

P4 Key approaches to operations management

With the increasing complexities in the business management the supply chain is becoming more complex and due to this reason managing the business operations in an appropriate manner is difficult for the firms. The managers have to come out with new ideas and innovations for the company so that they can manage the business operations effectively. There is a lot of competition which is coming in the market in this field retail sector and there has to be something different in the company so that they can make a base in the market for themselves (Cannella and et.al., 2018).It had become important for the leaders and managers to ensure that they should focus on developing effective strategies and using the best technologies and approaches that can help them in managing the business operations in an appropriate manner.Tesco is focusing using the latest approaches and technologies for operation management that are explained below such as:

TQM-

Total quality management helps the company to maintain the level of work across all operations with reduced mistakes and errors so that the firm can satisfy their consumers. Tesco uses the strategy of providing them with quality products so that they can target and satisfy more customers. Tesco is considered as the leading chain of supermarkets in UK all because of their service and quality of products. Due to this reason they are more concern for the quality of the products and services offered by them. To maintain the level of quality they give credit to their department of human resource as they discuss every task with their associates and subordinates so that there is no miscommunication and every employee is clear with the role that they have to play.

Just in Time-

This strategy helps Tesco to reduce the time at the manufacturing stage and with that it also helps them to reduce the time of complaints or response from customers or suppliers. This method was created by Tesco and after its success many companies such as Tesco used it in their structure. This method helps the case company to work at a smaller location, with low resources of cash and with low level of employment. At the times of recession or downfall in the economy the firm will shift on to lower space where they will uselessly number of resources and less manpower to make their products available into the market(Liu and et.al., 2019).

Kaizen-

The word Kaizen refers to continuously improve in the market. This aspect involves all the levels from CEO to employee to the basic workers so that they can focus on improving their working. It helps Tesco in dealing with the aspects of purchase and logistics as well as the department of supply chain. This method helps companies operating in different sectors such as government, healthcare and banking. Tesco has improved the level of standard with the help of this method(Lazarev and Nekrasov, 2017).

P5 Explain the importance and values of management and operations in order to have achievement in business objectives.

Operational management have the proper level of involvements in overseeing, designing and level of controlling the process of productions and redesigning the operations of Tesco to have adequate productions of goods and services, it also helps them in creating their own product range. The functional of operation management is to have proper level of delivery in creating and delivery best quality products and services of firmin order to have achieved business objective to attain competitive edge into market development. The different task related to the operational management is having an major impact on the organisation and they are having an significant impact on the business objectives. The case company is working effectively for offering best quality products and customer service to their customers. For this the company needs to do all the operational management tasks in an appropriate manner that is explained below such as:

  • Control and distribution system- The function is having the level of responsibility in controlling the productions process which is ensuring the proper level of distribution in achieving the proper solubilisation of resources to improve the infrastructure logistics of organisation in more calculative manner. This helps the firm to have proper designing of right product. At the right time which should have consideration inn gaining right process. Tesco is having an effective distribution for both online and offline distribution of the products and this is helping them in operating in an effective manner.
  • Transformation of raw material into finished goods-Tesco is working in crating the best product and services to be transported to the people from raw to finished as they are providing the company own product and also, they are serving the finished goods to the people to help them in developing more of business in market. As a leading retailer it is importantfor them to develop the best from business and create an impact on overall procedure in market from audience.
  • Process designing- Creating the best of design to attract the customers and developing into the attraction through the services they are offering, it is vital to provide the process of resources to design in better attraction of market (Zhen and et.al., 2019). This process helps in increasing level of efficiency to have standardization in quality material which complies with respective benchmarking competitive advantage of firm.Tesco is focusing on better designing for gaining competitive advantage over others and leading the firm towards success.
  • Capacity management- On other hand capacity management have specification over production process so that there should be no excess of good creation will be there in turning quality of products. If Tesco would focus on this then it will help them in development of products in sustainable level which produces right capacity to customers according to the respective level of demand. There is requirement of close monitoring so that there is absence of any compromise in quality of product in order to meet capacity of goods which are being produced (Bazmohammadi and et.al., 2018).
  • Scheduling- it is considered as important parts in level of proper scheduling and distribution task as per there skills and resources available to them at particular moments of time. For the firms such as Tesco it is important to have effective scheduling so that they can manage the proper supply of the products and distribution. This can help the organisation in meeting the needs of the customers and satisfying them.It is considered as important part in order to have proper level of creation at the point of view of business in achieving the objectives. This helps in completions of systematic process of company to have the shortest level of possibility time in order to have gaining of level of competitive advantages in market (Zhang, Wang and Lin, 2019). As a top retailer the services need to be extreme good and it also required to have a better development in business through the fast process of providing the product and services.

M3 Evaluation of leaders in order to have an improvement in operational management in order to meet successive business objectives

Leader tends to have the increase in level of operational efficiencies of operational management to meet successful business objectives. Empowering the remote employee to have increase in work productivity (Qin and et.al., 2019). The leaders provide motivation to remote employeesin regard to have development in work productivity in order to meet demands of their potential customers. The leaders also play major roles in abolition of useless hierarchical position to ensure the smooth passage across various thinking points of lower management regarding the decision of company in more effective and efficient way of development. There is increase in development of collaboration which will increase level of efficiencies of both employee and employers along with development of understanding. The creation of incentive programs helps in motivating the employees to reach towards goals and objective along improvement in productivity of business.

P6 Assess the factor within the business environment which have an impact on operational management and decision-making by leaders and managers.

The business used to get majorly affected a large varsity of external factors which effects the bushiness operation's in making particular decision-making in Tesco. The different factors of external business environment such as social, political, legal, technological, environmental and economic factors affect the business operations to a greater extent.It is essential to have beneficial of impact on business environment so that there can be adaption of appropriates strategies and policy. The various level of external factor is such as the adaption of CSR activities. This helps Tesco in developing proper ethics in order to have improvement in welfare of their potential stakeholders along with encouragement of sustainable development.

To have proper maintenance of sustainability helps in focusing the needs to meet generation current demand without having future generation need compromising. This is also termed as more important in terms of company point of view in order to have assurance of various developments of strategies which is needed to be applied on organization in order to meet the level of sustainability without causing harm in cultural and social ethics development.

The next important factor that us needed to be taken in consideration is about meeting the needs of stakeholders by meeting and fulfilling the expectation for retailer in UK market. It is considered as major responsibility for company to have proper level of development with quality of products which is comparatively(Wu and et.al., 2017).

The next factor is considered as more important as the company tends to have proper level in encouraging, developing and suitability the level of internship in promoting growth and various level of innovative ideas to make profit for systematic profitably from the business. This approach also helps in developing the case of new situation which is been identified to have engagements in workforces under the consideration in single platform.

Entrepreneurship has the major role in growth and development of Tesco as it helps in creating the new level of opportunities and knew level of approaches which can be turn out to be more productive gaining the level of competitive edge in market. This also helps in creating the level of opportunity by having less utilization of resources which makes to have movement of suitability in more specifies order (Yoo and Kim, 2018). The manager and leader play an important role in having proper level of development in achieve the vision and mission company along with gong through the goal and objective of Tesco. There is the need for the proper employment of company which is helpful to have further level of improvement in making the company more level of efficient and effective.

M4 and D2 Analysis these factor affect on the business environment along with wider level of community

Tesco needs to focus on all the diverse factors of the business environment and manage their business operations in an appropriate manner. While operating in the international business environment it is important for the firms to focus on wider business environment because the businesses operation also affects them to a greater extent. The case company needs to focus on following all the rules and regulations and then on the basis of it they need to manage their business operations. Tesco needs to ensure that they are not affecting the environment and society in negative manner. Along with this they are also not affecting the entire business world negatively.

The business environment is generally being affected by the development of CSR policies which helps in improving brand image and promotes the company as social realizable in key concern along with stakeholder’s consideration(Cui and et.al., 2019). On the other hand, CSR activities also helps in creating values and having preservation which helps in providing satisfaction of their potential customers by fulfilling their responsibility towards the community in order to have level of operation. This makes the environment to have increase in level of reputation of company to have the further level of ethical in nature. Focusing on the environment is vital to develop in the overall process for Tesco as they are working on the top in retail market and it can help in development of business.

3. CONCLUSION

From the above studies it has been concluded that leaders of Tesco use the strategies such as Kaizen, lean manufacturing, six sigma, Just in Time in a proper way and it has helped to increase their productivity and profitability. The firm needs to focus on upgrading their portfolio as the whole industry is rapidly evolving and changes are implemented. The industry is getting huge and the market competition are increasing rapidly for which the company is developing new methods and techniques to evolve more in market. Organisations need to change the working and improve the process faster to get more business ethics and develop overall process of change in market. They need to provide the low prices product and company owned products to develop more market. Further the report concluded that working in retail industry it is essential for them to develop operation management and increase overall process of development and create an impact on the business so that they can develop a better process of development for company in retail market of UK.

4. REFERENCES

Books and Journals

Bazmohammadi and et.al., 2018. Optimal operation management of a regional network of microgrids based on chance-constrained model predictive control. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution12(15), pp.3772-3779.

Blok and et.al., 2021. Comparing nurse leader and manager perceptions of and strategies for nurse engagement using a positive deviance approach: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Nursing Management.

Cannella and et.al., 2018. Evolving trends in supply chain management: complexity, new technologies, and innovative methodological approaches.

Cui and et.al., 2019. Exploring critical factors of green business failure based on Grey-Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL). Journal of Business Research98, pp.450-461.

Glinkowska, B., 2017. Features of the international manager-leader of the near future-findings of the research. Management21(1), p.120.

Kashni, T., 2019. Management science, system theory and contingency theory [Online]. Available through: <https://www.slideshare.net/ErTARUNKASHNI/management-science-system-theory-contingency-theory-comparison>. [Accessed on 7th June 2021].

Koo, H. and Park, C., 2018. Foundation of leadership in Asia: Leader characteristics and leadership styles review and research agenda. Asia Pacific Journal of Management35(3), pp.697-718.

Krutyakova, M.S. and Anyushenkova, O.N., 2018. Changing functions of management at the present stage. ????? ? ???????????: ??????????, (5), pp.176-180.

Lazarev, A. and Nekrasov, I., 2017, October. Mathematical models for enterprise resource scheduling: Complexity of key approaches to problem formulation. In 2017 Tenth International Conference Management of Large-Scale System Development (MLSD) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Liu, and et.al., 2019. A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles. Frontiers of mechanical engineering14(1), pp.47-64.

Maslyn, J.M., Schyns, B. and Farmer, S.M., 2017. Attachment style and leader-member exchange. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

McClean and et.al., 2018. The social consequences of voice: An examination of voice type and gender on status and subsequent leader emergence. Academy of Management Journal61(5), pp.1869-1891.

Ojanen, P. and Yrjölä, S., 2019, June. Assessment of spectrum management approaches to private industrial networks. In International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks (pp. 277-290). Springer, Cham.

Powell, G.N. and Butterfield, D.A., 2017. Linking leader anti-prototypes and prototypes to gender stereotypes. Gender in Management: An International Journal.

Qin and et.al., 2019. Applying big data analytics to monitor tourist flow for the scenic area operation management. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society2019.

Saint-Michel, S.E., 2018. Leader gender stereotypes and transformational leadership: Does leader sex make the difference?. M@ n@ gement21(3), pp.944-966.

Slideteam, 2021. Leadership and board behavioural Elton Mayo’s theory [Online]. Available through: <https://www.slideteam.net/leadership-and-board-behavioral-theory-of-management-by-elton-mayo-ppt-powerpoint-brochure.html>. [Accessed on 7th June 2021].

Sobocka-Szczapa, H., 2019, May. Competence of a leader-a manager in an organization. In 3rd International Conference on Social, Economic, and Academic Leadership (ICSEAL 2019) (pp. 74-80). Atlantis Press.

Sparks, L., 2019. Tesco: how supply chain strategy supports retail success. The Business & Management Collection.

Wu and et.al., 2017. Top management teams’ characteristics and strategic decision-making: A mediation of risk perceptions and mental models. Sustainability9(12), p.2265.

Yoo, S.K. and Kim, B.Y., 2018. A decision-making model for adopting a cloud computing system. Sustainability10(8), p.2952.

Zhang, W.J., Wang, J.W. and Lin, Y., 2019. Integrated design and operation management for enterprise systems.

Zhen and et.al., 2019. Operation management of green ports and shipping networks: Overview and research opportunities. Frontiers of Engineering Management6(2), pp.152-162.

1. INTRODUCTION

Operations are very essential factors that help the organisation to increase the effectiveness and increase the efficiency of the products and services which will in return help the organisation to increase the profit margins. Thus, it is very important to analyse the proper strategies to maintainthe production of the organisation (Koo and Park, 2018). Leaders and managers of the organisation play a major role in managing the business operations. In this study the researcher would focus on explaining the role of leaders and managers in the operational management in the organisation. The researcher would focus on explaining the characteristics and skills of leaders and managers and how these skillset affect their work is also discussed. Along with this the report will also focus on explaining the different theories and concepts related to the research topic.

1.1 Introducing the organisation and management structure

Tesco is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, and United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and the ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (Sparks, 2019). Key operations such as TQM, just in time, Kaizen are used by Tesco in their structure so that they can eliminate the waste, improve continuously and reduce the time at the stage of manufacturing. This helps the firm to improve and develop their process so that they can satisfy more customers and be able to make their environment more convenient for the customers.

2. MAIN BODY

P1 Define and compare the different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager.

Leader is someone who has the skills of a leader and can guide the group in one direction so that the company can work efficiently and effectively which is very important for any organization. Manager is that person who takes care of the entire firm and administrates them and controls them for doing their work right so that the firm can reach up to its standards(Saint-Michel, 2018).

Manager

Leader

  • The manager has to set the direction for the employees.
  • For example: the managers of Tesco are very good with this deal because they are experienced and have been in this field from a long time and that is a very positive factor for the company.
  • Managers treat their subordinates as the employees and in full professional way. The managers are also very adamant to follow all the managerial policies which the company formulate(Maslyn, Schyns and Farmer, 2017).
  • The managers of Tesco are very authoritative and the employees have a lot of employee’s issues with that because they are not having any authority in the company.
  • The managers have power which is why the employees of the organization listen to the managers. There can be a misuse of the power and no one can do anything about it which will make the company less effective
  • The managers are the people who are trying to be the heroes in the company and the managers are not the real people who are dealing with the employees directly.
  • The managers have better ideas for the company to function better and that why the profit can be earned more by the company.
  • The leader in the organization helps to provide to guidance to employees as they increase the knowledge and skills so that they can also achieve the personal goals and get motivated.
  • Leaders of Tesco help the employees to influence to get motivated and increase the efficiency of the company.
  • Leaders help to create the fan base as all the employees admire the leader which also helps the company to make the effective strategy.
  • The leaders of Tesco are very inspirational and the employees of the company look forward to have the skills of the leadership for the company so that the firm will be able to make the same leadership quality for themselves.
  • The power the leaders have is created by the leaders for themselves in the company so that the employees listen to them and the misuse of power can be very harmful for the leaders.
  • The leaders are the actual heroes in the company of Tesco because they are the actual people who are making the employees work in the organization and they create their own relationship with the workforce because they have a direct relationship with them.

M1 Applying the theories for explaining the role of leaders and managers

Both the leaders and managers are having different roles to play in the organisation and they need to make better use of the theories that can help them in being more effective while performing their role in the firm.The leaders of the company can show the idea into practical in a better idea by working appropriately(Powell and Butterfield, 2017).On the other handmanagers of the organization have the right way and direction of giving to the employees and that is a very important factor.The managers act according to the changes which have taken place in the firm. The changes made by the leader needs to be implemented well by the managers. Tesco has hired good leaders and managers this is the reason behind the great success of the firm. The leader needs to use effective leadership theories and motivational theories that can help them in motivating the employees in an appropriate manner.

Figure 1: Mayo’s theory of human relations

(Source: Slideteam, 2021)

Mayo’s theory of human relations is one of the important theory that help the organisations on focusing on different factors that develops better relations among the workforce. The above-mentioned image explains that according to the human relation theory one should focus on all these factors for managing the workforce. Both the leaders and managers can use this theory for managing the firm in an effective manner. (McClean and et.al., 2018).

P2 Functions of manager and leader

Manager

Decision Making

There are a lot of functions which are played by the manager of Tesco and they are very important for the firm because those factors will affect the organisational work environment. The manager has to make decisions which are in acceptance of the entire workforce so that they can work for achieving the goals and objectives of the company. The manager of Tesco is making sure that the employees are having the best time in the firm so that they can work more efficiently and more productively. Tesco retail manager makes sure that the decisions the manager is making are in favour of the workforce and they are being followed by them so that the firm can work more efficiently.The managers needs to make significant decision related to the management of the day to day business operations in the company related to the supply of different products, offering instore services to the employees and many more.

Hiring and Staffing

It is very important for the manager to make sure that the organisation should have highly skilled and knowledgeable employees in the firm. If the firm is having right employees at correct position the they will be able to do their assign work in an appropriate manner and led the firm towards success and development(Blok and et.al., 2021).Tesco is doing everything possible for making the customers satisfied with the products the company is selling and are also trying to meet the demands of the customers. They are focusing on having better employees who can help them in offering satisfying customer experience to their customers.The needs and wants of the customers keep changing and the employees have to accept the changes which the manager will get in for the betterment for the company and the new recruits will be able to adapt to the changes very quickly and that will make the firm reach the objectives and goals very quickly.

Problem solving

The manager must know how to take decisions for solving the problems so that the company can work more efficiently and productively because that is a very important factor in the firm New employees will take time settling down in the new organizations so the manager of Tesco makes sure that the employees are settling in the firm faster and better so that the internal environment of the organisation is not being spoilt(Glinkowska, 2017). Managers needs to ensure that all the employee working in an appropriate manner and if they are facing any kind of issue then the manager is responsible for solving the issue.

Leader

Motivation

The leader has to make sure that the employees who are in the company are motivated so that the firm can get a lot of profit. When the workforceare motivated then the working of the company gets easier then they will be able to work more effectively and that is a very important factor. When the employees are demotivated then it is important for the leaders to motivate them in such situation and during the change management also employee motivation is required.Leader needs to apply the leadership theories such as Maslow’s theory of needs and Herzberg two factor theory of motivation for motivating the employees and inspiring them to work effectively.

Discipline

The leader has to make sure that the employees are disciplined and the manager of Tesco makes sure that the employees are meeting the standards of the company. There are different types of standards and discipline in every company and it is very important for the leader that the employees are following the discipline of the company so that the company will be able to work better and they will be able to achieve their goals and aims (Krutyakova and Anyushenkova, 2018).

Clear Instruction

The leaders must make sure that the instructions to the employees are very clear and they are being followed for the betterment of the company. This would help the organisation to meet their objective and aims. The employers must make sure that the employees have a clear direction because it is very important for them to work in one direction so that they can make the firm achieve their objectives which will make the company get a lot of profit and make a strong portfolio for the company in the market.

P3 and M2 Models of Approaches and their strengths and weaknesses

Situational Leadership

It is very important for the leaders and managers to have the decisions making power in the situations which rise in the company. Tesco is very good with dealing with situations and that is what is making the company be what it is today (Sobocka-Szczapa, 2019). There have to be decisions which have to be taken by the managers and leaders of the company because not everywhere the management is available and the managers and the leaders have a decision-making power in the company of Tesco therefore the company is being able to deal with the situations very quickly.Situational leadership is antheory according to which the leader needs to focus on analysing the situation in an appropriate manner and then they should use the different leadership styles and theories. The different pros and cons of the situational leadership is mentioned below:

 The customers can rise with the problems anytime and the manager and the leader of the firmhas to solve them on the spot so that the customers are satisfied with the firm and the company will be able to make a huge profit. Tesco is making a lot of profit recently because of the innovations and creativity they have done for the betterment of the company. There has to be a respect for everyone in the firm and that will make the internal environment of the company better. Tesco Company is one of the best with the internal factor of the organisation and that is making the company have a very strong portfolio in the market.

Systems Leadership

It is very important for the company to have systematic leadership skills so that the company’s employees can achieve their objective and aims. One of the strengths of using the system leadership is that it increases the change management ability of the organisation.Along with this it helps the organisation in leading the entire firm towards success.On the other hand the important disadvantage of this leadership theory is that it is not contingenciesin the organisation. The employees must maintain their balance for the professional and personal aims and objectives of themselves. The leaders must make sure that the workforceis satisfied with the work they are doing so that they can stay in the company for long. And this will make the company have loyal employees which will be very beneficial for the company because long term employees have experience in the firm and the right skills for the right kind of jobs. It is very important for the leaders to give the employees the right skills so that they can make the most from the company and they feel like staying in the company for long and that is very important. The communication between all the employees in the firmhas to be strong so that they can make the company get the right direction and make the right place for themselves in the market.

Contingency

There are a lot of measures which are taken by the manager and leaders which are not certain if they will work in the company but the decisions are tried by the manager so that the company can benefit from it and so can the employees. The main aim of the company still remains that but the decisions are taken so that the firm can achieve those aims and objectives through other ways so that the employees of the organisation feel better and the company can get a lot of profit and a good portfolio in the market. Tesco retail managers and leaders have made a lot of changes in the company so that the company can work efficiently and make a lot of profit in the market and that is very important for the firm because the company is expanding itself in different countries and the flow of cash should be strong in the company.

(Source: Kashni, 2019)

There are a lot of innovations of product which are taking place in the company because of which there have to be a lot of changes in the company which the managers and leaders have to make. The decisions are taken but the decisions can work and they may not work either and that can be blamed on the managers of the company and the firm will have to make the changes after a lot of thought process so that the company does not face any loses in the market.

P4 Key approaches to operations management

With the increasing complexities in the business management the supply chain is becoming more complex and due to this reason managing the business operations in an appropriate manner is difficult for the firms. The managers have to come out with new ideas and innovations for the company so that they can manage the business operations effectively. There is a lot of competition which is coming in the market in this field retail sector and there has to be something different in the company so that they can make a base in the market for themselves (Cannella and et.al., 2018).It had become important for the leaders and managers to ensure that they should focus on developing effective strategies and using the best technologies and approaches that can help them in managing the business operations in an appropriate manner.Tesco is focusing using the latest approaches and technologies for operation management that are explained below such as:

TQM-

Total quality management helps the company to maintain the level of work across all operations with reduced mistakes and errors so that the firm can satisfy their consumers. Tesco uses the strategy of providing them with quality products so that they can target and satisfy more customers. Tesco is considered as the leading chain of supermarkets in UK all because of their service and quality of products. Due to this reason they are more concern for the quality of the products and services offered by them. To maintain the level of quality they give credit to their department of human resource as they discuss every task with their associates and subordinates so that there is no miscommunication and every employee is clear with the role that they have to play.

Just in Time-

This strategy helps Tesco to reduce the time at the manufacturing stage and with that it also helps them to reduce the time of complaints or response from customers or suppliers. This method was created by Tesco and after its success many companies such as Tesco used it in their structure. This method helps the case company to work at a smaller location, with low resources of cash and with low level of employment. At the times of recession or downfall in the economy the firm will shift on to lower space where they will uselessly number of resources and less manpower to make their products available into the market(Liu and et.al., 2019).

Kaizen-

The word Kaizen refers to continuously improve in the market. This aspect involves all the levels from CEO to employee to the basic workers so that they can focus on improving their working. It helps Tesco in dealing with the aspects of purchase and logistics as well as the department of supply chain. This method helps companies operating in different sectors such as government, healthcare and banking. Tesco has improved the level of standard with the help of this method(Lazarev and Nekrasov, 2017).

P5 Explain the importance and values of management and operations in order to have achievement in business objectives.

Operational management have the proper level of involvements in overseeing, designing and level of controlling the process of productions and redesigning the operations of Tesco to have adequate productions of goods and services, it also helps them in creating their own product range. The functional of operation management is to have proper level of delivery in creating and delivery best quality products and services of firmin order to have achieved business objective to attain competitive edge into market development. The different task related to the operational management is having an major impact on the organisation and they are having an significant impact on the business objectives. The case company is working effectively for offering best quality products and customer service to their customers. For this the company needs to do all the operational management tasks in an appropriate manner that is explained below such as:

  • Control and distribution system- The function is having the level of responsibility in controlling the productions process which is ensuring the proper level of distribution in achieving the proper solubilisation of resources to improve the infrastructure logistics of organisation in more calculative manner. This helps the firm to have proper designing of right product. At the right time which should have consideration inn gaining right process. Tesco is having an effective distribution for both online and offline distribution of the products and this is helping them in operating in an effective manner.
  • Transformation of raw material into finished goods-Tesco is working in crating the best product and services to be transported to the people from raw to finished as they are providing the company own product and also, they are serving the finished goods to the people to help them in developing more of business in market. As a leading retailer it is importantfor them to develop the best from business and create an impact on overall procedure in market from audience.
  • Process designing- Creating the best of design to attract the customers and developing into the attraction through the services they are offering, it is vital to provide the process of resources to design in better attraction of market (Zhen and et.al., 2019). This process helps in increasing level of efficiency to have standardization in quality material which complies with respective benchmarking competitive advantage of firm.Tesco is focusing on better designing for gaining competitive advantage over others and leading the firm towards success.
  • Capacity management- On other hand capacity management have specification over production process so that there should be no excess of good creation will be there in turning quality of products. If Tesco would focus on this then it will help them in development of products in sustainable level which produces right capacity to customers according to the respective level of demand. There is requirement of close monitoring so that there is absence of any compromise in quality of product in order to meet capacity of goods which are being produced (Bazmohammadi and et.al., 2018).
  • Scheduling- it is considered as important parts in level of proper scheduling and distribution task as per there skills and resources available to them at particular moments of time. For the firms such as Tesco it is important to have effective scheduling so that they can manage the proper supply of the products and distribution. This can help the organisation in meeting the needs of the customers and satisfying them.It is considered as important part in order to have proper level of creation at the point of view of business in achieving the objectives. This helps in completions of systematic process of company to have the shortest level of possibility time in order to have gaining of level of competitive advantages in market (Zhang, Wang and Lin, 2019). As a top retailer the services need to be extreme good and it also required to have a better development in business through the fast process of providing the product and services.

M3 Evaluation of leaders in order to have improvement in operational management in order tomeet successive business objectives

Leader tends to have the increase in level of operational efficiencies of operational management to meet successful business objectives. Empowering the remote employee to have increase in work productivity (Qin and et.al., 2019). The leaders provide motivation to remote employeesin regard to have development in work productivity in order to meet demands of their potential customers. The leaders also play major roles in abolition of useless hierarchical position to ensure the smooth passage across various thinking points of lower management regarding the decision of company in more effective and efficient way of development. There is increase in development of collaboration which will increase level of efficiencies of both employee and employers along with development of understanding. The creation of incentive programs helps in motivating the employees to reach towards goals and objective along improvement in productivity of business.

P6 Assess the factor within the business environment which have impact in operational management and decision-making by leader and managers.

The business used to get majorly affected a large varsity of external factors which effects the bushiness operation's in making particular decision-making in Tesco. The different factors of external business environment such as social, political, legal, technological, environmental and economic factors affect the business operations to a greater extent.It is essential to have beneficial of impact on business environment so that there can be adaption of appropriates strategies and policy. The various level of external factor is such as the adaption of CSR activities. This helps Tesco in developing proper ethics in order to have improvement in welfare of their potential stakeholders along with encouragement of sustainable development.

To have proper maintenance of sustainability helps in focusing the needs to meet generation current demand without having future generation need compromising. This is also termed as more important in terms of company point of view in order to have assurance of various developments of strategies which is needed to be applied on organization in order to meet the level of sustainability without causing harm in cultural and social ethics development.

The next important factor that us needed to be taken in consideration is about meeting the needs of stakeholders by meeting and fulfilling the expectation for retailer in UK market. It is considered as major responsibility for company to have proper level of development with quality of products which is comparatively(Wu and et.al., 2017).

The next factor is considered as more important as the company tends to have proper level in encouraging, developing and suitability the level of internship in promoting growth and various level of innovative ideas to make profit for systematic profitably from the business. This approach also helps in developing the case of new situation which is been identified to have engagements in workforces under the consideration in single platform.

Entrepreneurship has the major role in growth and development of Tesco as it helps in creating the new level of opportunities and knew level of approaches which can be turn out to be more productive gaining the level of competitive edge in market. This also helps in creating the level of opportunity by having less utilization of resources which makes to have movement of suitability in more specifies order (Yoo and Kim, 2018). The manager and leader play an important role in having proper level of development in achieve the vision and mission company along with gong through the goal and objective of Tesco. There is the need for the proper employment of company which is helpful to have further level of improvement in making the company more level of efficient and effective.

M4 and D2 Analysis these factor effect on business environment along with wider level of community

Tesco needs to focus on all the diverse factors of the business environment and manage their business operations in an appropriate manner. While operating in the international business environment it is important for the firms to focus on wider business environment because the businesses operation also affects them to a greater extent. The case company needs to focus on following all the rules and regulations and then on the basis of it they need to manage their business operations. Tesco needs to ensure that they are not affecting the environment and society in negative manner. Along with this they are also not affecting the entire business world negatively.

The business environment is generally being affected by the development of CSR policies which helps in improving brand image and promotes the company as social realizable in key concern along with stakeholder’s consideration(Cui and et.al., 2019). On the other hand, CSR activities also helps in creating values and having preservation which helps in providing satisfaction of their potential customers by fulfilling their responsibility towards the community in order to have level of operation. This makes the environment to have increase in level of reputation of company to have the further level of ethical in nature. Focusing on the environment is vital to develop in the overall process for Tesco as they are working on the top in retail market and it can help in development of business.

3. CONCLUSION

From the above studies it has been concluded that leaders of Tesco use the strategies such as Kaizen, lean manufacturing, six sigma, Just in Time in a proper way and it has helped to increase their productivity and profitability. The firm needs to focus on upgrading their portfolio as the whole industry is rapidly evolving and changes are implemented. The industry is getting huge and the market competition are increasing rapidly for which the company is developing new methods and techniques to evolve more in market. Organisations need to change the working and improve the process faster to get more business ethics and develop overall process of change in market. They need to provide the low prices product and company owned products to develop more market. Further the report concluded that working in retail industry it is essential for them to develop operation management and increase overall process of development and create an impact on the business so that they can develop a better process of development for company in retail market of UK.

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