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Management and Operations Assignment Sample 

Introduction: Management and Operations

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Operations are essential factors that help the organisation to increase the effectiveness and increase efficiency of the products and services which will in return help the organisation to increase the profit margins. Thus, it is very important to analyze the proper strategies to maintain the production of the organisation (Koo and Park, 2018). Leaders and managers of the organisation play a major role in managing business operations. In this study, the researcher will focus on explaining the role of leaders and managers in the operational management in the organisation. The researcher would focus on explaining the characteristics and skills of leaders and managers and how these skills affect their work is also discussed. Along with this, the report will also focus on explaining the different theories and concepts related to the research topic.

Introducing the Organisation and Management Structure

Tesco is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, and United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and the ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (Sparks, 2019). Key operations such as TQM, just in time, Kaizen are used by Tesco in their structure so that they can eliminate the waste, improve continuously and reduce the time at the stage of manufacturing. This helps the firm to improve and develop their process so that they can satisfy more customers and be able to make their environment more convenient for the customers.

P1 Define and compare the different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager.

Leader is someone who has the skills of a leader and can guide the group in one direction so that the company can work efficiently and effectively which is very important for any organization. A manager is a person who takes care of the entire firm and administrates them and controls them for doing their work right so that the firm can reach up to its standards(Saint-Michel, 2018).



  • The manager has to set the direction for the employees.
  • For example: the managers of Tesco are very good with this deal because they are experienced and have been in this field from a long time and that is a very positive factor for the company.
  • Managers treat their subordinates as the employees and in full professional way. The managers are also very adamant to follow all the managerial policies which the company formulate(Maslyn, Schyns and Farmer, 2017).
  • The managers of Tesco are very authoritative and the employees have a lot of employee’s issues with that because they are not having any authority in the company.
  • The managers have power which is why the employees of the organization listen to the managers. There can be a misuse of the power and no one can do anything about it which will make the company less effective
  • The managers are the people who are trying to be the heroes in the company and the managers are not the real people who are dealing with the employees directly.
  • The managers have better ideas for the company to function better and that why the profit can be earned more by the company.
  • The leader in the organization helps to provide to guidance to employees as they increase the knowledge and skills so that they can also achieve the personal goals and get motivated.
  • Leaders of Tesco help the employees to influence to get motivated and increase the efficiency of the company.
  • Leaders help to create the fan base as all the employees admire the leader which also helps the company to make the effective strategy.
  • The leaders of Tesco are very inspirational and the employees of the company look forward to have the skills of the leadership for the company so that the firm will be able to make the same leadership quality for themselves.
  • The power the leaders have is created by the leaders for themselves in the company so that the employees listen to them and the misuse of power can be very harmful for the leaders.
  • The leaders are the actual heroes in the company of Tesco because they are the actual people who are making the employees work in the organization and they create their own relationship with the workforce because they have a direct relationship with them.

M1 Applying the theories for explaining the role of leaders and managers

Both the leaders and managers are having different roles to play in the organisation and they need to make better use of the theories that can help them in being more effective while performing their role in the firm.The leaders of the company can show the idea into practical in a better idea by working appropriately(Powell and Butterfield, 2017).On the other handmanagers of the organization have the right way and direction of giving to the employees and that is a very important factor.The managers act according to the changes which have taken place in the firm. The changes made by the leader needs to be implemented well by the managers. Tesco has hired good leaders and managers this is the reason behind the great success of the firm. The leader needs to use effective leadership theories and motivational theories that can help them in motivating the employees in an appropriate manner.

Mayo’s theory of human relations is one of the important theory that help organisations on focusing on different factors that develops better relations among the workforce. The above-mentioned image explains that according to the human relation theory one should focus on all these factors for managing the workforce. Both the leaders and managers can use this theory for managing the firm in an effective manner. (McClean and et.al., 2018).

P2 Functions of Manager and Leader


  • Decision Making- There are a lot of functions which are played by the manager of Tesco and they are very important for the firm because those factors will affect the organisational work environment. The manager has to make decisions which are in acceptance of the entire workforce so that they can work for achieving the goals and objectives of the company. The manager of Tesco is making sure that the employees are having the best time in the firm so that they can work more efficiently and more productively. Tesco retail manager makes sure that the decisions the manager is making are in favour of the workforce and they are being followed by them so that the firm can work more efficiently.The managers needs to make significant decision related to the management of the day to day business operations in the company related to the supply of different products, offering instore services to the employees and many more.
  • Hiring and Staffing- It is very important for the manager to make sure that the organisation should have highly skilled and knowledgeable employees in the firm. If the firm is having right employees at correct position the they will be able to do their assign work in an appropriate manner and led the firm towards success and development(Blok and et.al., 2021).Tesco is doing everything possible for making the customers satisfied with the products the company is selling and are also trying to meet the demands of the customers. They are focusing on having better employees who can help them in offering satisfying customer experience to their customers.The needs and wants of the customers keep changing and the employees have to accept the changes which the manager will get in for the betterment for the company and the new recruits will be able to adapt to the changes very quickly and that will make the firm reach the objectives and goals very quickly.
  • Problem solving- The manager must know how to take decisions for solving the problems so that the company can work more efficiently and productively because that is a very important factor in the firm New employees will take time settling down in the new organizations so the manager of Tesco makes sure that the employees are settling in the firm faster and better so that the internal environment of the organisation is not being spoilt(Glinkowska, 2017). Managers needs to ensure that all the employee working in an appropriate manner and if they are facing any kind of issue then the manager is responsible for solving the issue.


  • Motivation- The leader has to make sure that the employees who are in the company are motivated so that the firm can get a lot of profit. When the workforce are motivated then the working of the company gets easier then they will be able to work more effectively and that is a very important factor. When the employees are demotivated then it is important for the leaders to motivate them in such situations and during the change management also employee motivation is required. Leader needs to apply the leadership theories such as Maslow’s theory of needs and Herzberg two factor theory of motivation to motivate employees and inspiring them to work effectively.
  • Discipline- The leader has to make sure that the employees are disciplined and the manager of Tesco makes sure that the employees are meeting the standards of the company. There are different types of standards and discipline in every company and it is very important for the leader that the employees follow the discipline of the company so that the company will be able to work better and they will be able to achieve their goals and aims (Krutyakova and Anyushenkova, 2018).
  • Clear Instruction- The leaders must make sure that the instructions to the employees are very clear and they are being followed for the betterment of the company. This would help the organisation to meet its objectives and aims. Employers must make sure that the employees have a clear direction because it is very important for them to work in one direction so that they can make the firm achieve their objectives which will make the company get a lot of profit and make a strong portfolio for the company in the market.

P3 and M2 Models of Approaches and their strengths and weaknesses

  • Situational Leadership- It is very important for the leaders and managers to have decision-making power in the situations which arise in the company. Tesco is very good with dealing with situations and that is what makes the company be what it is today (Sobocka-Szczapa, 2019). There have to be decisions that have to be taken by the managers and leaders of the company because not everywhere the management is available and the managers and the leaders have decision-making power in the company of Tesco therefore the company is being able to deal with the situations very quickly. Situational leadership is a theory according to which the leader needs to focus on analysing the situation in an appropriate manner and then they should use different leadership styles and theories. The different pros and cons of situational leadership is mentioned in: The customers can rise with the problems anytime and the manager and the leader of the firmhas to solve them on the spot so that the customers are satisfied with the firm and the company will be able to make a huge profit. Tesco is making a lot of profit recently because of the innovations and creativity they have done for the betterment of the company. There has to be a respect for everyone in the firm and that will make the internal environment of the company better. Tesco Company is one of the best with the internal factor of the organisation and that makes the company have a very strong portfolio in the market.
  • Systems Leadership- It is very important for the company to have systematic leadership skills so that the company’s employees can achieve their objectives and aims. One of the strengths of using the system leadership is that it increases the change management ability of the organisation. Along with this it helps the organisation in leading the entire firm towards success.On the other hand the important disadvantage of this leadership theory is that it is not contingencies in the organisation. The employees must maintain their balance for their professional and personal aims and objectives of. The leaders must make sure that the workforceis satisfied with the work they are doing so that they can stay in the company for long. And this will make the company have loyal employees which will be very beneficial for the company because long term employees have experience in the firm and the right skills for the right kind of jobs. It is very important for the leaders to give the employees the right skills so that they can make the most from the company and they feel like staying in the company for long and that is very important. The communication between all the employees in the firm has to be strong so that they can make the company get the right direction and make the right place for themselves in the market.
  • Contingency -There are a lot of measures which are taken by the manager and leaders which are not certain if they will work in the company but the decisions are tried by the manager so that the company can benefit from it and so can the employees. The main aim of the company still remains that but the decisions are taken so that the firm can achieve those aims and objectives through other ways so that the employees of the organisation feel better and the company can get a lot of profit and a good portfolio in the market. Tesco retail managers and leaders have made a lot of changes in the company so that the company can work efficiently and make a lot of profit in the market and that is very important for the firm because the company is expanding itself in different countries and the flow of cash should be strong in the company. There are a lot of innovations of product which are taking place in the company because of which there have to be a lot of changes in the company which the managers and leaders have to make. The decisions are taken but the decisions can work and they may not work either and that can be blamed on the managers of the company and the firm will have to make the changes after a lot of thought process so that the company does not face any loses in the market.

P4 Key approaches to operations management

With the increasing complexities in business management the supply chain is becoming more complex and due to this reason managing the business operations in an appropriate manner is difficult for the firms. The managers have to come out with new ideas and innovations for the company so that they can manage the business operations effectively. There is a lot of competition which is coming in the market in this field retail sector and there has to be something different in the company so that they can make a base in the market for themselves (Cannella and et.al., 2018). It has become important for leaders and managers to ensure that they should focus on developing effective strategies and using the best technologies and approaches that can help them manage the business operations in an appropriate manner. Tesco is focusing on using the latest approaches and technologies for operation management are explained below such as:

  • TQM- Total Quality Management- Total quality management helps the company to maintain the level of work across all operations with reduced mistakes and errors so that the firm can satisfy their consumers. Tesco uses the strategy of providing them with quality products so that they can target and satisfy more customers. Tesco is considered as the leading chain of supermarkets in UK because of their service and quality of products. Due to this reason, they are more concerned for the quality of the products and services offered by them. To maintain the level of quality they give credit to their department of human resources as they discuss every task with their associates and subordinates so that there is no miscommunication and every employee is clear with the role that they have to play.
  • Just in Time-This strategy helps Tesco to reduce the time at the manufacturing stage and with that it also helps them to reduce the time of complaints or responses from customers or suppliers. This method was created by Tesco and after its success many companies such as Tesco used it in their structure. This method helps the case company to work at a smaller location, with low resources of cash and with low level of employment. At times of recession or downfall in the economy, the firm will shift on to lower space where they will uselessly number of resources and less manpower to make their products available into the market(Liu and et.al., 2019).
  • Kaizen- The word Kaizen refers to continuously improving in the market. This aspect involves all the levels from CEO to employee to the basic workers so that they can focus on improving their work. It helps Tesco in dealing with the aspects of purchase and logistics as well as the department of supply chain. This method helps companies operating in different sectors such as government, healthcare, and banking. Tesco has improved the level of standard with the help of this method(Lazarev and Nekrasov, 2017).

P5 Explain the importance and values of management and operations in order to have achievement in business objectives.

Operational management have the proper level of involvements in overseeing, designing and level of controlling the process of productions and redesigning the operations of Tesco to have adequate productions of goods and services, it also helps them in creating their own product range. The function of operation management is to have proper level of delivery in creating and delivery best quality products and services of firmin order to achieve achieved business objective to attain competitive edge into market development. The different task related to the operational management is having an major impact on the organisation and they have a significant impact on the business objectives. The case company is working effectively for offering best quality products and customer service to their customers. For this the company needs to do all the operational management tasks in an appropriate manner that is explained below such as:

  • Control and distribution system- The function is having the level of responsibility in controlling the productions process which is ensuring the proper level of distribution in achieving the proper solubilization of resources to improve the infrastructure logistics of organisation in more calculative manner. This helps the firm to have proper designing of right product. At the right time which should have consideration inn gaining right process. Tesco is having an effective distribution for both online and offline distribution of the products and this is helping them in operating in an effective manner.
  • Transformation of raw material into finished goods-Tesco is working in crating the best product and services to be transported to the people from raw to finished as they are providing the company own product and also, they are serving the finished goods to the people to help them in developing more of business in market. As a leading retailer, it is important for them to develop the best from business and create an impact on overall procedure in the market from the audience.
  • Process designing- Creating the best of design to attract customers and developing into the attraction through the services they are offering, it is vital to provide the process of resources to design in better attraction of market (Zhen and et.al., 2019). This process helps in increasing level of efficiency to have standardization in quality material which complies with the respective benchmarking competitive advantage of firm. Tesco is focusing on better design for gaining a competitive advantage over others and leading the firm toward success.
  • Capacity management- On other hand capacity management have specification over production process so that there should be no excess of good creation will be there in turning quality of products. If Tesco would focus on this then it will help them in development of products in sustainable level which produces right capacity to customers according to the respective level of demand. There is requirement of close monitoring so that there is absence of any compromise in quality of product in order to meet capacity of goods which are being produced (Bazmohammadi and et.al., 2018).
  • Scheduling- it is considered as important parts in level of proper scheduling and distribution task as per there skills and resources available to them at particular moments of time. For the firms such as Tesco it is important to have effective scheduling so that they can manage the proper supply of the products and distribution. This can help the organisation in meeting the needs of the customers and satisfying them.It is considered as important part in order to have proper level of creation at the point of view of business in achieving the objectives. This helps in completion of a systematic process of company to have the shortest level of possibility time in order to have gaining of level of competitive advantages in market (Zhang, Wang and Lin, 2019). As a top retailer, the services need to be extreme good and it also required to have a better development in business through the fast process of providing the product and services.

M3 Evaluation of leaders in order to have an improvement in operational management in order to meet successive business objectives

The leader tends to have an increase in level of operational efficiencies of operational management to meet successful business objectives. Empowering the remote employee to have an increase in work productivity (Qin and et.al., 2019). The leaders motivate remote employees regarding development in work productivity to meet the demands of their potential customers. The leaders also play major roles in the abolition of useless hierarchical positions to ensure the smooth passage across various thinking points of lower management regarding the decision of the company more effectively and efficiently of development. There is an increase in the development of collaboration which will increase the level of efficiency of both employees and employers along with the development of understanding. The creation of incentive programs helps in motivating the employees to reach goals and objectives along with improvement in the productivity of the business.

P6 Assess the factors within the business environment that have an impact on operational management and decision-making by leaders and managers.

The business used to get majorly affected a large varsity of external factors which effects the business operation's in making particular decision-making in Tesco. The different factors of the external business environment such as social, political, legal, technological, environmental and economic factors affect business operations to a greater extent.It is essential to have a beneficial of impact on the business environment so that there can be an adaption of appropriate strategies and policies. The various levels of external factors is such as the adaption of CSR activities. This helps Tesco in developing proper ethics in order to have an improvement in the welfare of their potential stakeholders along with encouragement of sustainable development.

To have proper maintenance of sustainability helps in focus the needs to meet the generation's current demand without having future generations' need. This is also termed as more important in terms of the company's point of view to have the assurance of various developments of strategies which is needed to be applied on organization in order to meet the level of sustainability without causing harm in cultural and social ethics development.

The next important factor that we needed to take in consideration is about meeting the needs of stakeholders by meeting and fulfilling the expectations for retailers in UK market. It is considered as major responsibility for company to have proper level of development with quality of products which is comparatively(Wu and et.al., 2017).

The next factor is considered as more important as the company tends to have proper level in encouraging, developing and suitability the level of internship in promoting growth and various level of innovative ideas to make profit for systematic profitably from the business. This approach also helps in developing the case of new situation which is been identified to have engagements in workforces under the consideration in single platform.

Entrepreneurship has the major role in growth and development of Tesco as it helps in creating new level of opportunities and new level of approaches which can be turn out to be more productive gaining the level of competitive edge in market. This also helps create a level of opportunity by having less utilization of resources which moves suitability in a more specified order (Yoo and Kim, 2018). The manager and leader play an important role in having a proper level of development in achieving the vision and mission company along with going through the goals and objectives of Tesco. There is a need for the proper employment of the company which is helpful to have further level of improvement in making the company more level of efficient and effective.

M4 and D2 Analysis These factor affect on the business environment along with wider level of community

Tesco needs to focus on all the diverse factors of the business environment and appropriately manage its business operations. While operating in the international business environment the firms need to focus on wider business environment because the business's operation also affects them to a greater extent. The case company needs to focus on following all the rules and regulations and then based on it they need to manage their business operations. Tesco needs to ensure that they are not negatively affecting the environment and society. Along with this they are also not affecting the entire business world negatively.

The business environment is generally being affected by the development of CSR policies which helps in improving brand image and promotes the company as socially realizable in key concern along with stakeholder consideration(Cui and et.al., 2019). On the other hand, CSR activities also help in creating values and preservation which helps in providing satisfaction of their potential customers by fulfilling their responsibility towards the community to have level of operation. This makes the environment to have an increase in the level of reputation of company to have a further level of ethical. Focusing on the environment is vital to developing the overall process for Tesco as they are working on the top in retail market and it can help in the development of business.


From the above studies, it has been concluded that the leaders of Tesco use strategies such as Kaizen, lean manufacturing, Six Sigma, and Just in Time properly and it has helped to increase their productivity and profitability. The firm needs to focus on upgrading its portfolio as the whole industry is rapidly evolving and changes are being implemented. The industry is getting huge and the market competition are increasing rapidly for which the company is developing new methods and techniques to evolve more in the market. Organizations need to change the working and improve the process faster to get more business ethics and develop an overall process of change in the market. They need to provide low-priced products and company-owned products to develop more markets. Further, the report concluded that working in the retail industry it is essential for them to develop operation management and increase the overall process of development, and create an impact on the business so that they can develop a better process of development for the company in retail market of UK.


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