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The Role Of Community Services In Conservation Of Protected Areas. A Case Of Shared Forest Management In The Udzungwa Scarp Nature Forest Reserve, Tanzania

Introduction: The Role Of Community Services In Conservation Of Protected Areas. A Case Of Shared Forest Management In The Udzungwa Scarp Nature Forest Reserve, Tanzania

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The requirement to conserve the forest is an essentiality and looking over to the matter to cover the nature reserves. The forest resources and materials and conjuring the livelihoods of the significant rural communities are seen as necessary changes from the government reserved management also looking to the involvement of the communities. The implications or usability of the joint forest management are focused upon the Udzungwa forestry reserve to improve the connection and engagement of the communities that are implied with locks to reserve tasks and activities. 

As per the ministry of natural resources and the tourism segment of “Tanzania”, there was the concept and revue of joint forest management that is leading to the matter to keep the forest well and adjust according to it, partnering among the communities and the management that is adhering to the forest upon the formal trust and reflecting the responsibilities and roles with regard to development and protecting the overall forest. Within the joint first management, the government and the local communities are subjected to share the time and cost equally. These take more fluency upon reserving the land for the management that looks up to the forest which involves Local government forest reserves and National, forest reserves. Within the sense of the topic, Tanzania, the joint forest management has integrated to operate by the sourcing out high-end partnerships among the forestry, forestry departments and beekeeping division, local communities in villages and tourism where all the reserved exists and living.

Significance of the study

The enactment of the joint forest manager has been signified since they have an outburst in the early 1990s that has been protectively covering above 4 million forests in around 2100 villages. Within the landscape of the Udzungwa Mountain, some of the villages that are surrounded are also considered to be the villages that come under joint first management. Udzungwa mountain forest is segmented in a sequence looking at a portion of the “Eastern Arc Mountains” that wholly improve the importance of the social, economic and environmental. The renewal and enhancement of the forest are makeable as it gets to the source to accumulate timber and non-timber items that are collected from the forest and other material from the river side of that area. As these also bring a major choice to the topic that deals with a source of hydroelectric power generation and endemism and wide biodiversity. Looking aside from the difference each of the forests is considered to be widely degraded before the execution of the joint forest management for tightening the protection. 

Statement of the Problem 

The issue caused while subjecting the project or proposal is that is a high-end time and cost to look up from the strategy that joint forest management is seeking in front of the Udsunga scarp nature forest reserve. The project will be facing wider issues looking to the probable measures and enhancement techniques that can be used further in the future by the approach of joint forest management. Costing to travel and visit places in Tanzania is also an issue for the project team staggering in crafting adequate information and in-depth studies of the topic. These could be probably mitigating the issues that is been countered. 

General and Specific Objectives of Study 

  • To assess joint forest management in Udzungwa Nature forest reserve
  • To investigate the importance of a joint management approach in Tanzania
  • To analyse the contribution of a joint forest management approach to reserve nature in Udzungwa
  • To identify the challenges that have been facing by local communities of Tanzania

Research Questions 

  • How joint forest management is enacting in the Udzungwa Nature forest reserve?
  • What is the importance joint management approach playing in Tanzania?
  • What is the major contribution of the joint forest management approach to reserve nature in Udzungwa?
  • What are the challenges that have been faced by local communities of Tanzania?

A brief Literature Review 

“To assess Udzungwa Nature forest reserve”

The enactment of joint forest management in the Udzungwa Nature forest reserve has been a strong considering part. 

According to the source lsen & Enghoff, (2020), the author conveys that the impact of the biodiversity reserve has been concentrated deep upon both the medium and long-term “mammals” which are briefly considered to be ungulates as they are subjected to be an excellent sources of forest procedure integrity and involving the species that properly targeted by the hunters living in the community. As considered from the period of 2005, most of the species that are regulated to monitor colobus monkeys are seen to get declined within the days passing by and gradual collapse started to occur. Around 60% of the whiter and black species were not been seen and more of the matter reflects the Udzungwa red colobus are subject to get decreases from their natural reserves which were unpredictable by the communities residing in the nature reserve. As around the corner of the matter, the decrement of the populations living down the reserved over wholly, these concise of the duikers and several medium-sized forest mammals that has been reported down by the study.  As reflecting upon the Udzungwa and several other forests mountains it has been showcased that the intensity of the mammals that Udzungwa carries is very small and deriving low abundance of both the duikers and primates involving the “Endangered Abbotts Duiker”. Due to the fact that a large number of bush pigs and ungu7lates have already been threatened and now targeting the smaller species that coming in hand such as snares. This considers the matter that the forest has been expelling staggering to follow the species such as buffalo, elephant and leopard that have deeply extirpated from the “Udzungwa Scarp Nature”. 

“To investigate the importance of a joint management approach in Tanzania”

The joint forest management approach in Tanzania has left a high implementation mark on the communities existing in Tanzania.

As per the opinion of Fernández et al. (2019), the author predicts that joint forest management work in Tanzania has been widely subject to a rise in the chances of global emphasis around and across the growing countries on the usage of the “collaborative management approaches” among the local communities and government to improve the natural reserve conservation and optimising the poor local communities who is not able to attract opportunities that need high investments upon the resources that need to converse the nature of the place. Decentralised has been the key source to reserve natural resources that have been seen as a better point than the centralised management ruled by the government prospects and agencies. It is also predicted to enhance the strength of local populations and create a livelihood for them in the community. These are convicted to be one of the key tools to preserve nature and complete goals that settled to protect the atmosphere by facing or subjecting solutions to the underlying economic, governance and social issues that accumulate to serve more unregulated resources damage and loss of the habitat. The positive impact that joint forest management served in Tanzania is being got faster that is optimising smoother formalisation and approval process. These look up to the local government stage in regard to the laws that by adhering on the other side to the national level with the approval of the joint forest management agreements via the village and governments that are subject to get involved in the joint forest management. The way these provide a benefit to the locals and communities that are confronted to get generated from saving the forest reserve in Tanzania.

‘To analyse the contribution of a joint forest management approach to reserve nature in Udzungwa”

A Joint Forest Management approach has been finalising an external impact over the reserving nature in consideration to Udzungwa. 

According to the Paddock et al. (2020),  the author provides an overview of the joint management approach that has been integrated into the entry portion that subjects to the sustainability livelihood to procure methods that can look up to the matter of reduction of poverty and assure more access to resources of the forest that are serving the majority of the whole livelihood assets. These incur regarding social, capital and physical assets. The majority of the natural resources, the rural poor that are suffering and are lacking to invest are been contracted to the part of capital requirements and the essentiality that signified among the forms of the capital. Joint forest management has been showcasing a large number of effective opportunities that will not only support the local communities but will be considered to empower the forest management committees that save and manage biodiversity. There is an advantage source to joint forest management that approaches tend to rise awareness of the essentials of managing and controlling atmosphere resources and materials indulging learning and forest experience regarding the governance of the forest. Formation of the self-support groups for economic and social rises the capability of the communities locally to take part in developing the tasks and activities. 

To identify the challenges that have been faced by local communities of Tanzania

There are so many challenges that are related to the local communities living and existing beyond the comfort zone of the citizens.  

As per the opinion of Cisneros?Araujo et al. (2021), the author depicts challenges that are being subject by local communities of Tanzania, as this place has probably undergone both economic and political development and growth and enhancements within social welfare within the closest years. Therefore country continues to seek more consideration to growth challenges, but not so probable impacts upon the places that involve population growth, stronger division among the state and party and economic distribution. Further, at a similar point in time, most of the newer opportunities are increasing which reflects having a decisive reaction to the necessary reforms and changes. The major cause was Poverty hitted hard to the local communities that is stabilised in Tanzania. Further they implied to stood to the Growth and development of the focusing telecommunications, retail trade and financial services. Development through the private sector predominantly focuses on urban areas and capital intensive.  Due to the fact government started to lose strength in the period of 1990, they started collaborating with the local communities and the outsiders to preserve the nature they carry within their place. 

Conceptual Framework 

A major conceptual framework has been referred to acquire one or three theories or could be the concepts that have been searched from the literature studied. 

Minding Map of the literature review

Table No.1: Minding Map of the literature review

Referring to the mind map structure of the literature review, this project contributes to the information that it has accounted for in the literature review it will adapt to the background collecting to the nature reserve exhaling in Tanzania. The team of project rolled a large number of strategies which have subjectively contributed to the depth concept that will be used for these respective research proposals. This means that the team accounted to complete the discussion over the topic considering seeking the impacts of the natural preserve in Tanzania Paddock et al. (2020). The project team has been working under the guidance of a brief coordinator that has the immense industry knowledge and is highly capable to run views upon the approaches related to protecting natural habitats. Concentrating on the depth areas of the project has been an advantage and consideration for the project as to explore the impacts of joint forest management upon saving the natural preservation in Tanzania reflection to the local community’s advantages and for strong outcomes. Generating or building concepts and logical knowledge regarding joint forest management has been a consideration and through surfacing the essentiality of joint first management in the world it committed to focusing directly upon the areas that the project scaled according to tasks and activities of the assignment. The Evaluation of the literature review has been considered through the use of the mind map that the team of the proposal has constructed in relation to serving a successful report on the topic. Coding the work routines and placing the subject placements according to the author and their authentication regarding the topic predicting nature reserve by the joint forest management in the Udzungwa in Tanzania. It will create a path towards leading a standard report for the client and committing content that has equal judgment as per the author selected. 

Brief Research Methods 

“Research methods” 

Research methods are referred to as the proces or procedures or tools that are used in the gathering of statistics and data for recognising in order to uncover recent information or subjecting depth understanding of the topic. Quantitative research methods have been a method that will be used in these projects FjeldsÅ et al. (2021). These are considered regarding the statistical commitment and data that will be helping the project to assure authentic information with compact data. These concise surveys will be used managing to pre-existing utilising techniques that are computerised. Online surveys can be provided to the selected 20 members connecting all over the local communities or industry survivors that work for preserving nature in Tanzania.

“Research philosophy” 

Research philosophy is refer to the belief regarding the path within which data regarding the phenomenon will be collected, acknowledged and utilised. Pragmatism research philosophy will be used to go through the research design that progressively incorporates more of the operational decisions which will be predicting what will be working the most effective and can provide these research sustainability Cordeiro et al. (2022). It considers the major authentication to find the right answers for the questions that will be under the subject matter and investigation. It is a dynamic path that helps the researcher to get through real-life experiences.

“Research approach” 

The research approach has been defined as the process or procedure identified by the researcher to gather, recognise and commit it to the action. A quantitative research approach will be used in the research proposal, which will create a space for statistical collections regarding the topic that has been adopted Dinesen et al. (2021). The goal will be to analyse the study through the use of a quantitative research approach among the variables that will be collected by the team for the project. It will be running surveys to the individual that will be selected for the project for crafting real-life case studies for Udzungwa. 

“Research design”

Research design has been defined to the complete strategy that the researcher uses or chooses to investigate the information that will be needed for the adapted project in the most logical way. Survey research will be used in this project which will be helping to gather information from an large sample audiences that will, be responding to the questions asked.

“Sampling method”

Sampling has been defined to the term that adequate an set of individuals generate gathering from a large source population or size. Systematic sampling will be used which will be conduct by various discussion and meetings considering to the targeted audiences. 

“Data collection method” 

Data collection methods refer to the collection of data in the form of text and numbers. The primary data collection method will be used in this research, these will predict the project by considering a tool that will be used in the project which is a survey Posits, et al. (2021). These have been key tools that will be proceeded through Google forms as per the information regarding Udzungwa in Tanzania and the impact that joint forest management is serving in the place.   

“Data analysis”

Within the whole research quantitative has been decided to be used for further proportionate research as these will be the effective technique that will gross attention of the reader. Survey will be used so that large number of responses could be gathered for consistent sustainability of the project.

“Ethical consideration”

Ethical consideration are been used in these projects, according to the data act protection 2018, these will be used in the project in reflection to sustain protection for the individual that will be selected for the survey that these projects will be assessing further Mwambala et al. (2022). Creating a space for the individuals to stay protected and safe and the team will be optimising their results as per their highest number of responses they will be providing to the questions that will be getting served. It will be keeping the information and the knowledge safer and with proper security. 

“WBS Table”

Tasks Start date End date Duration 
Collecting background information of the topic 27-dec27-Jan1month
Considering to aim, objectives and questions 28-Feb28-march 1month
Projecting literature review30–April30-may1month
Deriving research methods1-june 1-July1month
Ethical consideration 3-august 4-oct3month

Table No.1: WBS Table

Reference 

Cavada, N., Tenan, S., Barelli, C., & Rovero, F. (2019). Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on primate density at the landscape scale. Conservation Biology, 33(4), 873-882.

Cavada, N., Tenan, S., Barelli, C., & Rovero, F. (2019). Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on primate density at the landscape scale. Conservation Biology, 33(4), 873-882.

Cisneros?Araujo, P., Ramirez?Lopez, M., Juffe?Bignoli, D., Fensholt, R., Muro, J., Mateo?Sánchez, M. C., & Burgess, N. D. (2021). Remote sensing of wildlife connectivity networks and priority locations for conservation in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor (SAGCOT) in Tanzania. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 7(3), 430-444.

Cordeiro, N. J., Rovero, F., Msuha, M. J., Nowak, K., Bianchi, A., & Jones, T. (2022). Two ant?following bird species forage with three giant sengi (Rhynchocyon) species in East Africa. Biotropica.

Dinesen, L., Jensen, F. P., Sonne, J., Levinsky, I., & Mulungu, E. (2021). Status and habitat description of the globally threatened Udzungwa Forest Partridge Xenoperdix udzungwensis thirty years after discovery. Bird Conservation International, 1-16.

Fernández, D., Ehardt, C., & McCabe, G. (2019). Monitoring the Sanje mangabey population in Tanzania while engaging the local community. Primate research and conservation in the Anthropocene, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p, 33-51.

FjeldsÅ, J., Dinesen, L., Davies, O. R., Irestedt, M., Krabbe, N. K., Hansen, L. A., & Bowie, R. C. (2021). Description of two new Cisticola species endemic to the marshes of the Kilombero floodplain of southwestern Tanzania. Ibis, 163(4), 1330-1354.

Mwambala, A. N., Nyundo, B. A., & Kalumanga, E. (2022). Tree biomass, carbon stock characteristics and ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity in the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Nature Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Management, 1-11.

Mwasapi, B. S., & Rija, A. A. (2022). Local habitat characteristics influence abundance and community structure of rodents in a regenerating Lulanda reserved forest, southern Tanzania. Restoration Ecology, 30(1), e13501.

Olsen, S. A., Rosenmejer, T., & Enghoff, H. (2020). A mountain of millipedes IX: Species of the family Gomphodesmidae from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). European Journal of Taxonomy, (675).

Paddock, C. L., Bruford, M. W., & McCabe, G. M. (2020). Estimating the population size of the Sanje mangabey (Cercocebus sanjei) using acoustic distance sampling. American Journal of Primatology, 82(2), e23083.

Proswitz, K., Edward, M. C., Evers, M., Mombo, F., Mpwaga, A., Näschen, K., ... & Höllermann, B. (2021). Complex Socio-Ecological Systems: Translating Narratives into Future Land Use and Land Cover Scenarios in the Kilombero Catchment, Tanzania. Sustainability, 13(12), 6552.

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