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Financial Decision Making Assignment Sample


The study focuses primarily on the review of future goals of the organization, as another organization would eventually have to be purchased. The ratio analyses for the past five years have been used to assess the financial health of a selected organization. Marks & spencer Group PLC is a luxury fashion house in London, England which is selected in this report for research. Various investment assessment technologieshas also been taken into account in identifying areas where investment can be made and analyzed in the same. The final segment of the study illustrates how another company can be acquired. Throughout 2019, the company produced sales of £2720.2 million. The data from 2019 indicate that 9862 employees work to satisfy worldwide customers' ideal fashion requirements and give the best outcomes in the world for better success.

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 1.Evaluation of financial performance

To evaluate the proper analysis of their financial positions, each company must also take a close look at its financial structure. The PLC analysis by the Marks & spencer Group was performed in several ways, to analyze the overall structure and future actions for growth and investment accordingly. The financial ratio restricts the use of historical information and makes the future difficult to forecast. This may lead to misinterpretation or research findings because the seasonal impact is not addressed (Platonova, et. al., 2018).

Profitability Ratios:

This ratio is used by management to identified profitability of company and recognises financial performance of organisation. Profitability ratio help management to identified major issues which can be hurdles in earning profit or margin for the year. Hair loss 5 year financial performance is evaluated through operating ratio which helps management to identify profitable trend to make decision which helps management in expansion projects.

These ratios are helpful not only to measure the company's financial viability but to compare the company with the other markets. The five-year comparison shows the actual organizational pattern throughout the period (Erin, et. al., 2018).

Profitability Ratio








Operating Profit Ratio

Operating Profit/Total Revenue







The above table shows that the profitability of the Marks & spencer Group has varied over the years. The fluctuations, however, are different in both size and direction. The operating profit margin of the enterprise decreased from 2015 to 2016 and 2017, i.e., by 17.4% at the previous rate, to 16% and, consecutively, by 14.2%, thereby increasing fixed costs in that period and increasing the number of taxes payable by the enterprise.But there has been a profit increase since 2018, as the ratio increased to 15% and 16.1% in 2019. Consequently, the increase in the operating profit ratio will make the investment less financially risky (Cristóbal, et. al., 2018).

Liquidity Ratios:

The organization's liquidity performance was very strong. The quick enterprise ratio exceeds 1 in all 5 years, indicating that the organizational level is free. The Company can sell all its new debts and recover existing debt from existing assets without the selling of stocks via current assets (Rashid, 2018).

Liquidity Ratio








Current Assets














Quick assets

Current Assets-Inventories






Quick Ratio

Quick Assets/ Current Liabilities






The table shows that the rapid ratio increased by 1.5-2 and slightly decreased by 2015-18 in 2019, with an impact on the performance of the organization. This rise reflects the boost in liquidity and allows the Company to invest a large amount of cash to produce future sales, secure bonuses, and essentially the fiscal situation (Rashid, 2018).

Efficiency Ratio:

This ratio can be measured for the organization's ability to use its assets to produce profits. The business has seen a steady increase in the use of assets over time (Brambilla, et. al., 2018).

Efficiency Ratio








Net Sales

Turnover-Cost of Sales






Average Total Assets

(Previous year total Assets + current year assets)/2






Total Assets Turnover Ratio

Net Sales/ Average Total Assets






Pragmatic was the reduction of the asset Ratio of sales between 0.85 and 0.79 in 2015 and 2016, which showed that fixed assets were not effectively utilized, but that the increase was noted in 2017. This increase could be due to aggressive payment policies and debts that could impede the margins of the organization. In this strategy, Marks & spencer is assisted to a minimum by only obtaining a few transitional overdrafts and then using his skills as an equity finance expert. This is a delay as a result of reduced asset payments, particularly property and commercial claims, and increased risks, particularly commercial payables (Minetto, et. al., 2018).


Financial Gearing Ratio:

The ratio of transactions compares a kind of ownership with the company's debts or loans. The gearing ratio is the financial ratio. Gearing is a measure of the financial strength of the company, which indicates the degree to which shareholders' funds are financed in comparison to borrower funds through their operations. The gearing ratio is a financial leverage calculation to indicate the extent to which share capital and debt financing finance operations of a company. This ratio helps to determine how long-lasting the company's solvency supports long-term debts (Kiarie, et. al., 2019).

Financial Leverage Ratio








Debt to Equity Ratio

Total Debt/Total Equity






The Marks & spencer ratio has declined over the years and it seems that the organization's funding has been fully funded rather than debt because the cash flow is not stable.

Comparison of Marks & spencer & Ralph Lauren

(Chowdhury, et. al., 2017, pp.1519-1534)

The rival of Ralph Lauren is Marks & spencer Group Plc. It is therefore obvious that Marks & spencer Group Plc.’s performance is better at comparing the two companies' achievements (Valogo, et. al., 2018).

2.Investment Appraisal

The implications are the risk-considering approach to capital planning and its effect on risk are crucial to the efficiency evaluation or any speculation option. The danger is a state of risk where future outcomes have unintended consequences or a major misfortune. Uncertainty is a necessity without any doubt to communicate the impact of actions and choices. An evaluation of the risk of the decision is made using the likelihood of vulnerability (Warren & Seal, 2018).


An association can agree on development promotion and theory in particular. In these circumstances, the association should decide on the comparable easement of the NPV procedure and pedestal. The net present value is used to investigate the profitability of rendering or assumption. The distinction between close views on cash inflows and the judgment on cash outflows is controlled on several occasions.They must limit them to agree on the current profit outlook at a certain pace. A theory for the event at a comparable risk or expense will be used to solve the temperament. At the moment, NPV is taking liquidity. The example of money shows only that the rupee today adds significance to tomorrow (Marchioni&Magni, 2018).


The internal rate of return ( IRR) is a discount load that reduces the value of the grid to 0 (NPV). Finally, the typical complex annual rapidity of the review can gain an effort or a hypothesis. It is a theoretical framework that helps to predict meetings upside down. It has been shown that the initiative's affiliation figure was 12%, while the real blue calculation shows that it is reflected by cash inflows (Du, et. al., 2018). It has to be said, therefore, that Marks & spencer Group Plc. should establish this company in the event of everything happening, because the normal return is more than expected and benefits the company in the future and helps the company to enter the real market better (Du, et. al., 2018).

Calculation of NPV and IRR:














































Cash Inflow




Net Outflow






IRR – 52%


Implications of investment in the company

Both NPV and IRR procedures depend on Lifestyle proportion and wages. The protocol to manage wages and spending in cash with the aggregation site is typically unlike that which takes place in cash inflow and outflows. A scheme can be recorded in solitary times and the era of outlooks cash is collected (Drechsler, et. al., 2018). Costs can occur in one step, and ready money is paid in an era of perspective.The leaders generally make NPV and IRR estimates by using revenue time. Just as an entity positions a development into an asset, for example, overflowing notes are connected to the NPV and IRR reviews. The total reduction in target intervals does not constitute compensation and is excluded from NPV and IRR measurement. The coins gain, however (many times referred to as a lowering charge protector) is associated with cheapening, because the cost of record disintegration decreases the estimates charged individually (English, et. al., 2018).

Sensitivity Analysis:

A sensitivity analysis describes how various values for a particular variable under some set of assumptions affect a specific variable. Sensitivity analyses will then analyze how different sources of vulnerability lead to general process instability in a mathematical model. It is used in some limits that depend on or more of an input variable. In the business and economic fields the sensitivity analysis is used. It also serves as a "What if" survey for financial analysts and economists (Kami?ski, et. al., 2018).

The choice of a company often depends more on how it is chosen than on the number of NPV. Fund managers at Marks & spencer Luxury should investigate the impact so that they can understand the innate risk of the tasks and how hazards can be identified or mitigated during project implementation (Mukhametzyanov&Pamucar, 2018). The impact assessment helps –

  • The effect that will income of the undertaking.Detection of Initial Cash Outlay (ICO) Vulnerabilities. ICO's have a few distinct components regularly, for instance, property, hardware, building, and other equipment.
  • The impacts of various tax collection guidelines for a multi-year overflow.
  • Understanding the hazards related to the task.
  • The main parts of the tasks to be performed, refined, and repaid for uninterrupted transportation of anticipated income as this will directly impact the company's income (Hamdia, et. al., 2018).


3. Potential acquisition

The rationale for choosing Target Company:

There are many reasons why the association selected is suitable for securing purposes. This is London is one of the key reasons for enhanced assessment of deals for the unique bookkeeping schedule, with its packs and design. The group closed in the year with 837 million pounds of muscular cash, a 150 million pounds bid, and 171 million pounds of advantages the previous day. Therefore the Bureau introduced an expansion of 3 percent to 42.5p, for the full benefit, according to our complex benefits course of action, to achieve uncovered compensation of 52 percent per dividend point. The explanation for these policy interventions is that if a business has a competitive advantage, such as low cost and more effective operation, the needs of a target market can be better met. An economical business can supply the same product as a competitor at lower prices or can deliver a better product at the same cost.This represents the management’s confidence in the success of the company later on. Marks & spencer has a remarkable business, which does not matter. In this way, we know about the changes implemented by the corporate hegemony structures of 2018 and aim to educate our clients, not least of their cause, of all of the additional elements, honestly and entirely. Also, they develop systematic and simple methods to ensure that there is a meaningful two-way conversation between their employees and the forest. Also, they grow. 

The synergistic gain of the acquisition of the company:

This success is an intentionally important achievement and a declaration of desire. It will focus on the Marks & spencer calfskin product, covering all prototyping, product progress, construction, and creative coordination. The scheme comprises equipment and stock. The defense of their supply chains is being carried out by more and more luxurious companies, such as Hermes and Gucci. As a result, quality, cost, transportation, and sustainability are also more prominent.The task is for the company to accelerate the current medium?term program, to reinforce the lavish pyramid. Fusions will provide the opportunity for relations to create a universal business without colossal hard work. Or perhaps purchasers buy high-cost competing companies which are regularly indirect as a level of the merger. An industry can spend a large number of its shippers or suppliers lonely elsewhere. But the vendor had a ton on its overhead edges earlier by enterprising a supplier known as a perpendicular combination. Any participation in another dealer gives them the ability to move equipment at a small rate. Typically, little participation is achieved and give results on the same.

Proposed deal value and finance of acquisition:

A deal with Marks & spencer would provide a market meeting incentive of over £ 20 billion. Fusion is going to push certain extravagant brands to ask whether scales must be included. The pressure on the companies to change revenues will be increased as a means to boost profit. Marks & spencer is not obligated and therefore can be cautious and sensitive to the organizations' growth, as the market value for this company is valued at £6.2 billion (about $7.9 million). Furthermore, a merger could create the same number of problems as one organization would resolve.

Talks are currently not dynamic and must not be changed shortly after Marks & spencer’s greatest adversary. In the previous period, the total revenue of £742.9 million grew to £715.5 million and was mainly up 4% or 3%. 'Simple' figures are acclimated so they reject the acquisition’s budgetary impact, the retail effects of Marks & spencer’s share in the Spanish market, and the effects of adjustments between remote cash conversions. The sale resulted in a change from the Marks & spencer’s Discount Site to the supermarket channel. The cash-related effects of the applicable organizations are excluded from all notification periods when determining fundamental execution.

The implication of acquisition on firm’s performance:

The main stage is to help promote the picture, the dissemination, and at the same time developing the new offering of our products to the new location. Revenues amounted to £ 2.7 billion, levels were detailed and the CER was 2 percent up, without a nice discount.

  • The shown labor income was 437 million pounds, up 7%.
  • The profit from work was balanced to £438 million, unchanged in the CER.
  • EPS weakened earnings by 81.7p, up 19 percent.
  • EPS was 82.1p balanced, 7% higher than CER.

The findings indicate that acquisitions impact the development of organizations and that organizations are growing at a slower rate than maturity by in-speculation. This also has a more and more positive effect on the performance of the company, as productivity figures.There are already hypotheses that associations continue to enter into a specific kind of souk, a specific type in which the association now operates, for a variety of reasons, to establish synergistic reserve links between enterprises which meet similar obstacles to accessing different situations of economics between various companies that affect themselves equally. Also, a merger can decline genuine issues and helps to the behavior of the contestants, who are both a true environment for the acquirer.

Challenges and risk assessment of the acquisition:

A few risk assessments are carried out by the Association following Protection the Marks & spencer Group plc. Many saw differences in identity and are the most prominent clarification behind the mistake infusions and acquisitions. Agents are of the inner nature of a relationship and if there is no merger, they are forced to break into pieces. Therefore, the similarities of the two organizations should be tested before the merger.

Moreover, laws and rules were to be adopted by associations during fusion and mergers. This failure may lead to lawful exercises for supervisory bodies. For delegates, they want to vote on the pay and time rules. Previous arraignment data should be available. Knowledge about the other company's relationship is important because it can affect the company's income. Associations will fill in the correlation holes and allow for every nuance of the pastry, customer base, business nuances, and workforce of each affiliation. This ensures that noineligibility occurs after the fusion and the company is dissatisfied.


It can be concluded from the overall statement that Marks & spencer Group Plc'smonetary health is steady and beneficial, allowing the organization in turn to gain more market shares. In doing so, Marks & spencer's acquisition will also help to increase the company's total revenue to achieve greater company growth. Marks & spencer’s investment in the field of equity budgeting has allowed More revenues to increase the total value of the company for over ten years. To reach higher rates, the prices of Marks & spencer are handled efficiently, so that the company can satisfy its customers in many ways.


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