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Benefits of Inclusive & Authentic Leadership Models

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Introduction- Inclusive Leadership Models and Benefits

Question 1

a)A business organization requires to apply a leadership model for conducting functional areas effectively and to gain desired objectives with greater efficiency. In the context of applying a inclusive leadership model, there are some benefits and challenges as follows,

Benefits of applying leadership model

Establishing a productive workplace environment:

An inclusive leadership model assists in building a productive workplace environment by considering several internal environmental factors. In addition, internal environmental factors consist of organizational culture, policy and procedure, conflict, organizational justice and others where this leadership model considers all the aspects for building an effective workplace environment (Alilyyani et al. 2018). For instance, in the context of an organization conducting the work based on organizational policy and procedures, this model considers the value of all the internal stakeholders so that best effort can be gained from each member.

Developing group

An organization has the essential task to develop work groups for completing several essential tasks. In this process of group development, the inclusive leadership model assists in avoiding all the disputes or conflicts among the group members for building strong interpersonal relationships. Empowerment and growth is a crucial personality trait of an inclusive leader that helps in generating an effective cooperative work team (Buerhaus et al. 2017). Therefore, building effective interpersonal relationships among all the members is an essential benefit for the organization that supports in gaining an optimum outcome. 

Motivating employees to promote growth: It is a major task of a business firm to consider the satisfaction and motivational factors of employees for gaining a productive performance. In this dimension, the inclusive leadership model is associated with observing some satisfaction factors of employees such as remuneration, workplace environment, fairness, policy and procedure and some motivational factors such as growth, promotion and others. Therefore, the essential traits of an inclusive leader are to make an effective team that can help in promoting the success of the organization. In addition, this model primarily focused on the concept of business ethics that is involved with values, organizational justice, interpersonal relationship and others (Hahm, 2017). Meeting all aspects of business ethics, it assists in generating greater value for the employees that provides long term value to the organization in return.

Challenges

Cost- effective process orientation:  In the contemporary business environment, cost-effective process orientation is a major area of consideration for gaining maximum output by using minimum input. In addition, the inclusive leadership model is associated with observing the several elements of the business environment and it does not consider the statistics to measure the performance. Therefore, this model is not statistical and can be ineffective in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of business processes (Karam et al. ). In addition, operational efficiency largely depends on the “labor rate and quantity variance” and “materials price and quantity variance” where the statistics show the usage of proper inputs that can result in optimum outcome. In this dimension, implementation of inclusive leadership models may not be effective therefore it is a major area of challenge.

Managing organizational change: In the context of applying a leadership model, there can be a challenge regarding adjusting the workplace environment with any change such as policy change or technology. A business environment changes frequently where based on the change in the external environmental factors such as competition, consumer behavior, business needs make changes in the policy or technology (Lee, 2018). In the context of policy change, employees may have difficulty adjusting with changes where the model of inclusive leadership faces challenges in retaining talent within the organization. Add to that, in setting up a new policy, the major difficulty is convincing employees of the importance or the requirement of changes of the common goal of both for the organization as well as employees.

Cultural diversity in a work group: Inclusive leadership model can face a major challenge regarding cultural diversity within a work group. In addition, group members from different cultures differ from each other in working style, belief, thinking pattern and language where disputes among the members can be the result of operational inefficiency. A work team consisting of disputes among the members can resist the business in meeting the expected performance and efficiency. Therefore, there is a major challenge for the inclusive leadership model to manage cultural diversity and to bring the behavior of members to the organizational behavi.

b) In a business organization, a leader requires to gain productive performance from each member of the team by creating value for each individual member. In this dimension, identifying individualism value within the workplace or team environment, expected performance level can be accomplished. In addition, the concept of promoting individuality is mainly related to the feeling of members that they are properly supported so that they can utilize their ability effectively in completing the job. In this way the idea of individuality assists employees to enjoy the work. Add to that, for developing a productive workplace environment, a leader should evaluate the aspect of satisfaction factor of employees for bringing out the best from the efforts of each member of a team (Sfantou et al. 2017). In this dimension, supported feeling of members encourages them to give their best effort to complete a task. In addition, the objective of a leader is to generate innovative ideas for promoting the success of the company. In this dimension, the participation leadership model assists in promoting individuality by creating greater value for each member of the team where it allows the team members in participating decision making to share their innovative ideas. In this aspect, each team member feels proud for listening to their suggestions where they get motivated towards their job. In addition, a leader should also evaluate the parameter of individualism where an excess can harm the process in maintaining proper direction for gaining desired outcome. Individuality is involved with allowing employees to apply their own innovative ideas and the procedure to complete a task where an approach may be very different that may not assist in promoting the success of the organization (Shore et al. 2018). Therefore, individuality in the workplace is an important aspect for creating value for employees and considering their satisfaction but the parameters of individuality are needed to be evaluated for controlling the work progression.

Question 2

 An organization requires an effective follower so that all approaches of the leader can be effectively followed for gaining a positive result from a working process. In the context of meeting the goal of an organizational project, effective followers are required so that due to an effective trust factor, feeling of support, organization can gain an effective outcome. Therefore, a leader is nothing without effective followers where any inefficiency can harm the business to meet the project goal.

 In addition, based on the autocratic leadership theory, a leader makes several essential decisions for conducting the working process or a project work where the trust and belief of effective followers assist in directing the applied approach by the leader in the job function. In addition, a business environment frequently changes where it is the essential task of the organization to make essential decisions regarding changes such as technology change and policy change. In addition, in this dimension, an essential role of a leader is to implement the change effectively and adjust the work culture based on any change (Y?k?lmaz and Sürücü, 2021). In this aspect, effective followers assist making adjustments with the required change effectively. In addition, In the context of absence of effective followers, employees may have dissatisfaction, lack of trust, feeling injustice due a new policy, feeling unsupported and others. Therefore in this dimension, the productivity of the organization may be affected due to unmotivated and unsatisfied workers. Furthermore, in the context of an autocratic leadership model, availability of effective followers are essential for working effectively according to the decision of the leader and to understand and adjust with the change in policy effectively (Francis and Stanley, 2020). Add to that, as it is a drawback of the autocratic leadership model that the leader makes all the essential decisions where workers or employees are not allowed to participate in the decision making function. In this dimension, in the absence of effective followers or the lack of trust, employees may have feelings of dissatisfaction or exploitation for a decision or to bring a new policy by the leader. Therefore, it is an essential area of consideration for a business to have various effective followers rather than having effective leaders.

Based on the LMX “leader member exchange” theory, a leader must consider relationships with other leaders and with all their followers where the essential aspect is the exchange relationship quality. In addition, the exchange relationship quality is related to the trust factor, mutual respect, pattern of thinking and the relationship quality nature. Therefore, this leadership theory is involved with making effective relationships with all the employees for having effective followers. In addition, based on this theory, it is a large area of consideration that greater value is needed to create for all the followers and other stakeholders for being effective in the working process so that project goals can be achieved with greater efficiency. In addition, this theory shows that without having an effective follower it is not possible to establish an effective workplace environment and to develop a productive team. In addition, in meeting organization project goals, entire project work is divided for gaining several small successes for meeting the requirements of entire tasks. In this dimension, a leader has the essential responsibility of developing a work group to build an effective team. In addition, group members have diverse goals where in an effective team all the team members remain cooperative and they have common goals (Ewell, 2018). In this dimension, the essential task of a leader is to convert a group into an effective work team where the effectiveness and performance of work teams are needed to be maintained. In this dimension, trust factor, value, interpersonal relationship, satisfaction and motivational factors are needed to follow so that the effectiveness of the work team can be maintained and to have effective followers.

A leader cannot be effective without the effective followers. In addition, organizational justice and the rights of employees are essential areas that assist in developing strong trust factors among all the employees. Add to that, in several situations, employees may have grievances regarding biasness, unequal distribution of wages in the same level, favoritism for the opportunity of growth and promotion opportunity and others. In this situation, there can be an unavailability of effective followers of a leader within the organization that can impact on the future productivity of the organization. In addition, too much autocratic behavior of leaders and favoritism in the workplace environment regarding growth and promotional opportunity can impact on approaches of leaders in meeting the goal of a project. In a business organization, a leader has essential responsibility in promoting the success of the company and to meet the goal of the project optimally where the work group consists of unmotivated and unsatisfied employees can resist the efforts of the leader and efficiency of the leader's approaches in the project operation. Therefore, it is important for a business organization to focus on having effective followers so that they assist in innovative ideas of leaders effective in the job for increasing the business performance and to make a differentiation. Furthermore, in making and having effective followers, some business organizations focus on implementing the democratic or participative leadership in the business operation. In addition, this is a kind of leadership model that allows all the members of the work team to participate in the decision making function where the suggestions of each team member are listened to by the leader. Add to that, implementation of this approach helps in encouraging the employees, building trusts and creating greater value. The main motive of this leadership model is to build effective relationships with all the team members so that several decisions of leaders are followed by the members effectively to meet the goal of the project. The principle of this democratic model is creating value so that employees remain satisfied and feel proud for listing their suggestions so that business can have effective followers (Francis and Stanley, 2020). Therefore, effectiveness of a leader and approaches of leadership largely depend on having effective followers for directing operational processes properly and to adjust and control the workplace environment with change. An organization must have effective leaders with essential characteristics, instant problem solving, self motivation, authenticity, decision making ability and others. In addition, effective leaders assist a business in making and implementing innovative ideas for increasing productivity and make a differentiation by the effectiveness of innovative approach and leadership largely dependent on the effective followers. Therefore, it is important for a business organization to consider having an effective follower rather than considering an effective leader.

Question 3

a) A business organization requires authentic leadership for the participation of honest permanence and to build a productive workplace environment. In addition, organizations that consider authentic behavior are likely to gain enthusiastic, engaged as well as motivated employees and to establish an effective work culture. The concept of authentic leadership shows the essential responsibilities and honest performance of leaders such as mitigating organization conflicts, considering the complication of employees in completing a task, motivating employees, complying with business ethics and others. There are several benefits of authentic leadership those are as follows:

Creating value and considering organizational justice:

With authentic leadership, an organization in considering the values and trust factor that can assist in generating greater interpersonal relationships with employees. In addition, corporate culture can get harmed for any injustice or breaching of trust factors such as unequal distribution of wages in the same level, favoritism for the promotion and growth and others. Add to that, these all the aspects of injustice can harm the satisfaction of employees and also the value of employees get damaged. In this dimension, the authentic leader considers the satisfaction and value aspects of employees for gaining enthusiastic, engaged as well as motivated employees and to establish an effective work culture (Hahm, 2017). Based on the participative leadership model, all the team members are allowed to take part in decision making for sharing their ideas for the working process. Adding to that, listening to members ' suggestions encourages them towards a job and they feel proud regarding applying the participative leadership theory in the organization. In addition this theory is largely based on establishing effective trust factors and maintaining relationships with all the stakeholders and those employees who lead. Therefore, considering the relationship as well as the satisfaction aspects of all the stakeholders this theory generates an effective interpersonal relationship with all the members. An authentic leader can help in creating greater value for the employees. Therefore, authentic leaders can assist in applying several theories in the working process properly to meet desired objectives of the organization.

Building strong interpersonal relationship:

An authentic leader considers solving conflicts among the team members and mitigating the organizational conflict. In addition, solving these conflicts helps in making effective interpersonal relationships among the team members and superiors and subordinates. In the context of solving organizational conflict, an authentic leader helps in applying the model of “WPM- workers participation in management” for generating a strong interpersonal relationship between management and employees and to set a common goal for both the organization along with employees (Posecion and Posecion, 2019). In addition, it is the responsibility of the leader to keep employees satisfied and motivated with the policy and decisions of management where the authentic leadership focuses on conducting the process of collective bargaining for bringing an optimum solution for employees and management. Apart from that, in the authentic leadership, group development process is essentially considered for building interpersonal relationships between team members. In addition, based on the Tuckman's model, there are five essential steps that are required to be considered for developing a group and to make an effective team. In addition, this model has five essential steps “forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning” that can support in solving all the disputes among the team members and to build effective interpersonal relationships between the members. In this dimension, an authentic leader can help in evaluating the organizational culture and in applying effective models based on the situation so that a positive outcome can be gained from a task. 

Complying with business ethics:

An authentic leadership considers the aspect of business ethics that is involved with fairness, values, and rights of employees, trust factor, organizational behavior and others. In addition, an authentic leadership assists in developing an honest and effective relationship with all employees and this leadership remains committed towards considering the interests of employees as well as organization. Authentic leadership is mission driven and it establishes discipline in the workplace environment for gaining desired objectives of the organization with greater efficiency (Pinelli et al. 2018). In addition, based on the concept of organizational behavior, it is a major task of an organization to bring the behavior of employees closer to the behavior of the organization so that work can be directed in a disciplined way of meeting the objective within appropriate time. In addition, each group member has some difference regarding working style, thinking, perception and cultural diversity that can be the reason for conflict within the group (Le and Tran, 2020). In addition, in this dimension, authentic leadership is associated with bringing the behavior of employees closer to the organizational behavior with some fixed working policy and procedure. Add to that these characteristics of authentic leadership theory assist in generating an effective team by complying with all the aspects of business ethics. In the context of business ethics, an authentic leader primarily considers maintaining trust factor as well as cohesion with all the stakeholders and those employees they lead. Therefore, it is an essential benefit of authentic leadership that complying with the concept of business ethics and maintaining proper discipline in the organizational culture so that tasks can be completed with greater efficiency.

b) The leadership theory, LMX “leader member exchange” is associated with the relationship based procedure that mainly considers two ways that are the relationship between leaders and the members. In addition, based on this theory, leadership is involved with the exchange relationship quality between different leaders along with their all followers. In addition, the exchange relationship quality is related to the trust factor, mutual respect, pattern of thinking and the relationship quality nature. Add to that all the aspects associated with “job related well being” or the motivation and satisfaction of employees and the effectiveness of employees in performing a job. Therefore, this LMX leadership theory is involved with the best organizational setting and reviewing the process so that all the arising obstacles can be mitigated strategically to meet the desired goal of the organization effectively (Ewell, 2018). The authentic leadership is mainly considered on the maintaining trust factor and cohesion with all the stakeholders and those they lead. Therefore the essential relationship between authentic leadership theory and the LMX “ leader member exchange” theory is that both the theories essentially consider all the relationships and the value of all the stakeholders such as other leaders, team leaders, employees and others. Apart from that both the theories are largely associated with the trust factor, mutual respect, pattern of thinking, and the values that assist in generating an effective organizational culture and to establish a productive workplace environment.

References

Journals

Akdol, B. and Arikboga, F.S., 2017. Leader member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction: A research on Turkish ICT companies. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 6, pp.525-535.

Alilyyani, B., Wong, C.A. and Cummings, G., 2018. Antecedents, mediators, and outcomes of authentic leadership in healthcare: A systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 83, pp.34-64.

Buerhaus, P.I., Skinner, L.E., Auerbach, D.I. and Staiger, D.O., 2017. Four challenges facing the nursing workforce in the United States. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 8(2), pp.40-46.

Edwards, J.W. and Honeycutt, A.E., 2021. The Impact Of Leadership And Followership: An Organizational Phenomena. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 37(4), pp.95-98.

Ewell, J., 2018. Revitalizing a Student Organization by Applying Transformational Leadership. Journal of Leadership Education, 17(3).

Francis, E. and Stanley, R., 2020. Fyre: A Case Study of How Followership in Organizations Is Influenced by Narcissistic Leadership.

Hahm, S., 2017. Information sharing and creativity in a virtual team: Roles of authentic leadership, sharing team climate and psychological empowerment. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS), 11(8), pp.4105-4119.

Karam, E.P., Hu, J., Davison, R.B., Juravich, M., Nahrgang, J.D., Humphrey, S.E. and Scott DeRue, D., 2019. Illuminating the ‘face’of justice: A meta?analytic examination of leadership and organizational justice. Journal of Management Studies, 56(1), pp.134-171.

Keskes, I., Sallan, J.M., Simo, P. and Fernandez, V., 2018. Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of leader-member exchange. Journal of Management Development.

Le, B.P. and Tran, Q.T., 2020. Leadership practice for building trust of followers: Decisive factors of organizational performance. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 3(2), pp.45-57.

Lee, C.S., 2018. Authentic leadership and organizational effectiveness: The roles of hope, grit, and growth mindset. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 118(19), pp.383-401.

Lee, Y., 2019. A study on the effect of authentic leadership of hospital organization on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior: focusing on mediating effect of LMX. The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business, 10(3), pp.73-83.

Pinelli, N.R., Sease, J.M., Nola, K., Kyle, J.A., Heldenbrand, S.D., Penzak, S.R. and Ginsburg, D.B., 2018. The importance of authentic leadership to all generations represented within academic pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(6).

Posecion, O.T. and Posecion, A.T., 2019. Adjudging the teacher perceived authentic leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) model of management and managerial competence of educational leaders.

Sfantou, D.F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A.E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M. and Patelarou, E., 2017, December. Importance of leadership style towards quality of care measures in healthcare settings: a systematic review. In Healthcare (Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 73). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.

Shore, L.M., Cleveland, J.N. and Sanchez, D., 2018. Inclusive workplaces: A review and model. Human Resource Management Review, 28(2), pp.176-189.

Y?k?lmaz, ?. and Sürücü, L., 2021. Leader–member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creativity. Journal of Management & Organization, pp.1-14.

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