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Introduction: Customer Experience Management

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Subway is an American fast-food company that is expanding worldwide and specialises in sandwiches, salads, and different types of drinks. This company was established by Fred DeLuca and it was financed by Peter Buck in 1965. When the company was founded then Fred DeLuca was 17 years old. This Report study has discussed this company and its structure data and unstructured data. Therefore, what is the role of this company and which are its benefitted and drawbacks are discussed in this report study? This company expands its business in the UK and all over the world and it only focuses on customer service. 

The role of structured & unstructured data

This Report study has discussed structural and unstructured data because the data collected is most important for business growth and many types of different have in this report. The data structure is quantitative and easy to understand and get a clear direction; on the other hand, the unstructured data is so much more qualitative (smallbusiness, 2022). As a result, the business process of the company is correct and its growth path is right. The data structure is explained easily and analysed. The structural data model is pre-arranged but the unstructured data model often has different type’s shapes and sizes.

 These two are more important for developing business growth and improving many features of the company. This company's financial data is normalized for the structural data and many types of business are easy to familiar with for using the business decisions (Tabrizchi & Kuchaki Rafsanjani, 2020). Many business tools are used to describe the food business and this company used high-quality machines and many perfect data for business growth. The company leaders are collected for correct data for this food business. Many unique strategies are developed by company managers because managers and leaders are tried to build good relationships with customers. This company always focused on how to fulfil customers' needs. 

Relational database compared to spreadsheets and its role

This company has based on databases and spreadsheets, these two are important tools and are fully different. But these two are thought the same thing because these two are focused only this business improvement and business growth. I have discussed these two topics that help to improve the business. Spreadsheets are the main part of the superpowers of the company. This is more productive and more flexible and it worked only in logical ways (Tabesh, Mousavidin & Hasani, 2019). Therefore, these two are similar when it looks at a glance and on the other hand, databases are more functional and versatile. An example of a database is CRM (customer relationship management) and followed by the company and many websites are used by the company.

 Many types of websites are developed in this recent years and Amazon, and Netflix have more power and it is used by these companies (smallbusiness, 2022). Data calculation and data storage are two tools that help to explain easily.  Spreadsheets allow hiding columns and getting more information. The main role of these two is stored data, databases are stored in a cell and they can be easily formatted. Many databases are rational and edited and deleted. All sales calculations and marketing calculations and customers' needs have been fulfilled in this study and it is expected by me that these help to improve company development and get many benefits from these two topics.

Benefits and drawbacks to choosing a cloud software

This company has expanded its business all over the world and in recent times this company followed many unique paths that help to improve the business. This company has many advantages and disadvantages that are discussed here (Tabrizchi & Kuchaki Rafsanjani, 2020). I have been explained many advantages and drawbacks of this company because many famous companies have some good things and bad things. Many types of benefits have this cloud software process and this software helps to improve the company's productivity and boost all types of data and make the security of the company work (Theamegroup, 2022). Advantages are-

Effective Cost: This company's software help people to allow easy access and collected all data and save time for any projects. I have expected that time saving is more important for improving a company and it helps to easily pay for good services (El Sibai et al. 2020). This company's payment structure helps to clear data and give the right amount of payment so that this company is highly successful in their work. 

Improving collaboration: In this company, the software help to utilize the relationship with the company employees and tries to fulfil all customer's needs and employees get many options to explain data and improve productivity (Attaran & Woods, 2019). Many external issues are controlled by the employees and easy to solve any issues. Managers of the company help employees from many sides to improve their business. All internal and external information gets from the company employees to use in this software and many types of sensitive needs are fulfilled to use this software.

Many types of disadvantages have the company and that affected the company's work I have discussed two drawbacks of the company and it is discussed by me how to improve these points.

Loss time: This company software helps in many ways but has most common issue is the server down. Most of the time the software is down but the internet plans are going on (zdnet, 2022). As a result, this company is faced with many types of issues that losses many times this company provides many mobile internets and at this time work is going on but facing many challenges.

No security: The Company provides but does not provide more security, as a result, many problems have occurred in this time and this company faced other external issues. I think if many cameras and other security systems are generated by the company so this company get more advantages and it value is more improved and business growth is increasing day by day.

Role and functionality of OLAP and OLTP database

The phrases "OLTP and OLAP" appear to be identical, but they relate to different kinds of systems. "Online transaction processing (OLTP)" is the real-time capture, archiving, and processing of data from various transactions (Alcaide, Díez & Almorza, 2019). Complex queries are used in "online analytical processing (OLAP)" to examine historical aggregated data from the system of OLTP.  OLTP helps in the capturing of data and maintaining it in a proper database. This software tool is oriented to the transaction and consists of a three-tier architecture which plays the role of day-to-day transitions. The main importance is given in the speed processing as the databases can be written, read and frequently updated. The modern-day ATM follows the application of OLTP. 

OLAP is also a type of software tool that uses detailed analysis of data to decide on a particular business plan. The software provides a facility to retrieve data from multiple databases at a particular point in time (Goodman, 2019). The recommendation system used in various OTT platforms and songs app uses this application method. OLTP facilitates the instant record activity in the business market while OLAP generates the active validation of data that is compiled over the entire time period. 

Data warehouse and data marts 

The Data warehouse is based on the orientation of data while the data mart is based on the orientation of the project. A Data warehouse contains a large amount of data that is retrieved from various sources while a data mart is just a sub base of the data warehouse (Bhatia, P. 2019). The former is focused on every department while the latter is focused on a particular group. The designing process is very much complicated in a data warehouse while the data mart is very easy in the process of designing. The former takes a very huge time handling data while the latter takes a very short amount of time handling data. The former has a capacity for large storage and thus uses a very fast system of computing. 

The focus of the data warehouse includes the entire company while the data mart is focused on a specific department (Hamoud et al. 2021). The implementation period of the former extends from months to years while the implementation period of the latter extends only to a few months. The latter is speedy and user-friendly and also uses a very less amount of data.

Role and use of analytical CRM

The role of the "analytical CRM" is to facilitate the easy processing of operations in the back office. It helps businesses to implement decisions that are supplemented by data through thorough evaluation of the behaviour of the customer (Kuznetcov, Fomin & Vinogradov, 2019). It also analyses the prior purchase intention of the customer. It facilitates businesses to retrieve information and organise it in a depository. It offers interactions in a personalised manner to improve the relationship among the customers and achieve the prospects. It helps in the segregation of profitable customers that is collected on the basis of data analysis. It strives to increase the satisfaction of the customer and maintain loyalty. 

The analytical CRM  (ACRM) increases the collection of huge amounts of data for customers that could possibly be very much difficult for a single person to process (Agapito, G., Zucco,& Cannataro, 2020). ACRM helps in the better understanding of the customers and helps in the better improvement in the production of sales. This method helps in the better targeting of sales by using suitable strategies accompanying better communication targets and products. It focuses on the exact enrichment and analysis of the data this is processed in a way to collect the valuable information that is needed.

Use of activity-based-costing in business-to-business and business-to-customers

"Activity-Based-costing" is a methodology of assigning the indirect and overhead costs to various services and products. This method of cost calculation helps in the identification of the relationship that is built between the activities of the overhead, costs and the products that are manufactured (Yoo, 2019). This is considered less arbitrary as compared to the traditional method of cost calculation. Since activity-based costing (ABC) improves the dependability of cost data, it produces virtually true costs and more accurately categorises the costs spent by the company during its production process. ABC is mostly utilised in the manufacturing industry.

The cost is providing managers with an accurate amount of the cost of the production. This provides businesses with more detailed information about the details of products that help in the production of cheaper products. It also helps individuals in the pricing of products and their further determination. It also helps in the identification of costs that is applied to a whole pool of products that are manufactured. This increases the valuation of the product and makes it more attractive to the customers. 

Role of operational CRM applications 

The operational application of the CRM is designed around improving business operations and storing data in a secure manner. It provides a platform that is focused on the simplification of sales and interactions related to marketing with clients (Holmlund et al. 2020). It provides automation of the whole process which furthers the operation of the tasks. It helps in the streamlining of processes that include the following steps sales, service and marketing. Customers need to be handled in a different manner that requires the identification of variables based on real value, customers and value that is determined in the future. 

The various benefits related to the applications of operation CRM includes the improvement in the process o marketing, increased communication internally, cross-selling, increased upselling, revenue increment and further satisfaction of the customer. This helps in strategic decision-making and further turns them into contacts and clients. The application mainly includes the operation of the system keeping the focus of the customer in mind (forbes.com, 2022). The use of automation and management of data serves every aspect of the strategies related to the relation of the customer. It is designed in such a way that it could store enough information about the company's intense interaction with the customer. It also provides an atmosphere for interaction with the other team members and collaboration accordingly. 

Company culture, change management and bringing the workforce

The culture of a company is very much essential for building a strong morale of the employee which further impacts the sales, profits and further in the process of recruitment. An organisation's culture helps in the attraction of a large number of people who show interest in working with the company. It will further motivate the employees to be more productive and remain positive throughout the entire work (geeksforgeeks.org, 2022). It also helps to increase the competition of the business and the brand value. The successful building of the work culture includes the sharing of values and beliefs among every member of the team. Strong culture improves the valuation of the employees as they enjoy more power over their jobs. A strong culture within the company helps the employees for more opportunities. This also results in enhanced training and development of careers which further improves the performance of the employees. 

The culture of the company impacts the engagement of the employees in various ways that include communication, collaboration, safety, and growth. In today's business environment that ranges from sales to recruitment, the culture of the company impacts a lot. Strong company culture can be considered one of the most important assets of a successful organisation.

Recommendation for the best CRM software

The following suggestions can be considered for choosing the best CRM software that includes:

 “CRM system improvement” is possible with its “implemented marketing and sales strategy improvements”. Advertising concepts and marketing strategies for an enterprise need to be specialized for bringing value to customers. “Salesforce Sales Cloud” comes at the top list of “recommended CRM software”. “Task automation, revenue growth, and decision making” is vastly helped with “Salesforce’s cloud-based interface”. It is recommended for “account management and execution”. The software has a “customized database and contact management facility”. “HubSpot Sales Hub” is another top recommendation for “sales developers”. It comes with “CPQ facilities” and tools for “sales engagement”. The software offers a “sales hub” for easy management of teams, customer information and tools possible in a unified structure. This is effective for managing “customer experience” at an “end-to-end level”. “HubSpot” allows its users to get “sales insights” in a quick progression.

“Zoho CRM” is known for giving an all-round “CRM experience”. ”Automation of workflow, sales funnels, management of contacts, marketing campaign management, forecast of sales, and AI-powered conversation” are some quality features of “Zoho CRM software”. It is ideal for a “company owner or CEO” to manage “administrative features”. The software is helpful for “enterprises and SMBs” and it has integrated features from “popular apps related to businesses”. The software offers “better report and inventory management and analytics”. “Monday sales CRM” maintains a “centralized software interface” for the management of entire sales aspects. Many “sales teams and business owners” can manage and overview their “customer information” along with “complete pipeline management of sales. This is useful for “project managers”.

Salesforce: The software operates on a system that is based on cloud computing which allows global access. It helps to satisfy the multiple demands of the business which include both marketing and sales. 


It is concluded in this report study that this company is famous for its food quality and this company provides all customers’ needs and try to fulfil this. The second concluded thing is that many structural and unstructured data are used for business growth so company-related data is correct.  Many advantages have the company and it helps to get more benefits for the company. I think that these are many issues in the company if this company provides all solutions to the issues then gets a good result for the company. It is expected that this company is developing their business in the future and expanding more countries.



Alcaide, J. C., Díez, M., & Almorza, C. (2019). Customer experience. Alpha Editorial.

Bhatia, P. (2019). Data mining and data warehousing: principles and practical techniques. Cambridge University Press.

Goodman, J. (2019). Strategic customer service: Managing the customer experience to increase positive word of mouth, build loyalty, and maximize profits. Amacom.


Agapito, G., Zucco, C., & Cannataro, M. (2020). COVID-warehouse: A data warehouse of Italian COVID-19, pollution, and climate data. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(15), 5596. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155596

Attaran, M., & Woods, J. (2019). Cloud computing technology: improving small business performance using the Internet. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 31(6), 495-519. DOI: 10.1080/08276331.2018.1466850

El Sibai, R., Gemayel, N., BouAbdo, J., &Demerjian, J. (2020). A survey on access control mechanisms for cloud computing. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 31(2), e3720. https://doi.org/10.1002/ett.3720

Hamoud, A. K., Marwah, K. H., Alhilfi, Z., & Sabr, R. H. (2021). Implementing data-driven decision support system based on independent educational data mart. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering11(6), 5301. DOI: 10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5301-5314

Holmlund, M., Van Vaerenbergh, Y., Ciuchita, R., Ravald, A., Sarantopoulos, P., Ordenes, F. V., & Zaki, M. (2020). Customer experience management in the age of big data analytics: A strategic framework. Journal of Business Research116, 356-365.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.01.022

Kuznetcov, Y., Fomin, M., & Vinogradov, A. (2019, October). Multidimensional Information Systems Metadata Repository Development with a Data Warehouse Structure Using" Data Vault" Methodology. In Proceedings of the XI International Scientific Conference Communicative Strategies of the Information Society (pp. 1-5). https://doi.org/10.1145/3373722.3373777

Tabesh, P., Mousavidin, E., &Hasani, S. (2019). Implementing big data strategies: A managerial perspective. Business Horizons, 62(3), 347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2019.02.001 

Tabrizchi, H., &Kuchaki Rafsanjani, M. (2020). A survey on security challenges in cloud computing: issues, threats, and solutions. The journal of supercomputing76(12), 9493-9532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-020-03213-1

Yoo, J. S. (2019, December). Crime data warehousing and crime pattern discovery. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Data Science, E-Learning and Information Systems (pp. 1-6).https://doi.org/10.1145/3368691.3368731

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