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Chemical engineering assignment sample

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Chemical engineering assignment

Part 1

a)

Sample Planning

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Quality control is a good practice through which the business can maintain the quality of the product and ensure the consistency of the improvements. Quality control involves various processes such as sampling and testing of the units to determine whether the specification of the unit is matching with the standard scale or not. Thus by following the way, the quality of the final product can be maintained (Venkatasubramanian, 2019, p. 469). On the other side, the organization needs to execute an efficient sample planning process. Sample planning refers to a complete outline of the measurements that need to be taken to run the sampling process. In this context, this article has described three aspects, such as the choosing of the correct size of the sample and the determination of the number of particles in one sample (Chiang and Castillo, 2017, p. 64). Following these, the best location choosing is also can be included in the sample planning process.

In order to meet all these requirements, the following activities need to be executed.

Select Sample Size: The selection of the sample size must be executed based on the population. It is to be noted that the large samples are usually raised the invalid conclusion while the short of the sample may cause incorrect results. By considering this fact the value of the sample size must be chosen between these extreme values (Parra-Cabreraet al. 2018, p. 210). According to the experts, 10% of the total product is good as a sample size.

Identification of parameters: For selecting the size of the sample, the parameters are needed to measure properly. The identification of the parameter helps to identify the possible values and range of the unit and based on that the required resolutions also can be obtained.

Choosing of sampling method: The sample method is provides the details on when and how the samples are going to be identified.

Verification and execution: The sampling plan needs to verify before initiating the execution process.

On the other side, the determination of the number of particles also needs to take into account. By following the same the researchers use the mathematics equation N = n x NA.

This equation is useful to find out the number of molecules and atoms.

In this problem, the quality control measurement can be done by any of these processes. In this process the size of the samples and the quality of the samples is much effective in the research. According t o the researchers, the sample quality is very much important and that can help to find the issues in the process. As per the survey, the number of particles given in the problem can make it possible to identify the issues. The quality is determines d as the best checking and verification of any kind of sample and that is why the researchers have choose to make the sampling test headed for the quality of the samples.

b)

Potential unfavorable segregation during the brewing process

The brewing industry usually follows numerous unique ways in order to measure the concentration of the wort. In this case, °Plato is one of the measurement techniques. It is to be noted that the prevention of unflavored segregation is important to maintain product quality (Fletcher et al. 2017, p. 15). In the segregation process, the green malts have died in 80-degree Celsius. After this process, the malt sugar is used for the yeast culture. In this section, the additional flavor may reduce product quality. For this reason, the researcher needs to use a few strategies to mitigate it.

Mitigation Strategies

It is to be noted that voluntary segregation is impossible until the elimination action process is not to be executed to eliminate involuntary segregation. In order to mitigate the use, the organization usually made some modifications in its recipe (Smirnova and Gurikov, 2017, p.308). The organizations are usually reducing the application of the robust malt flavor to keep the product raw and real.

c)

  1. i)

The diameters of the particle are 12.5, 7.5, 5.0, 2.5, 1.5, 0.75, 0.40 and 0.20.

Therefore the mean size of the particle is (12.5+7.5+5.0+2.5+1.5+0.75+0.40 +0.20)/8

= 30.35/8

= 3.79 mm

  1. ii) The same kind of material at same kind of rate is included in the problem. Applying Kick's Law in the problem it can be easily analyzed and can help the system in this problem.

iii)

Kick's Law

According to Kick's law, the required net energy to crush a solid material to a specified fraction of the original size is equal regardless of the real size of the feed material. The ket advantage of the kick's law is that in coarse grinding, this law provides reasonably good results. On the other side, Rittinger's law is more efficient for fine grinding.

d)

Figure 1: Elutriation

(Source: Chiang and Castillo, 2017, p. 64)

The above figure has shown the elutriation to explain the flow of the powder. Through the elutriation process, the particles are separated based on their size. Based on the problem it can be seen that the water is flowing at a velocity of 5 mm s-1.

From the given table it can be seen that about 45% of particles are present that are about 50 mm diameters. Therefore, it can be said that almost 45% of the particles carried away and (100-45) % = 55% of the particles left behind.

Part 2

a)

In this experiment propylene glycol has been used because of its absorbing ability of water. This chemical formation also has ability to maintain a certain amount of moisture for some specific medicines and food products. This works as a solvent for food colors as well as for flavors. Through this chemical formation it can produce an artificial smoke used in fighting training. This is main reason why propylene has been used in the cooling system. (Chuang et al. 2017, p. 55).

b)

In order to find out the value of the temperature correction the following equation needs to use.

RITC = ((RT-AT)*TC)+ RI

Here, RT = Reference Temperature

TC = Temperature Co efficient

RI = Actual refractive index

AT = Actual temperature

The temperature correlation factor can used in the 77 Fahrenheit and that is depends on the permeable flow of the state.

c)

In order to find out the pressure drop, the following formula needs to be applied.

Re = (ρudi)/μ

Here, ρ = 1036 kgm-3

Pr = 0.067

u= 82.10-1 Ns/m2

In this problem, the sweet wort can be used in the malt of the grain and that includes milling and mashing process. This process can be skipped and help to extract the water part in the system. The pressure fall in the system can occurred in several reasons and that can change the views and paths in the system.

d)

It is to be noted that, due to the pressure drop, the heat loss also may occur. In order to track the total heat loss, the general heat loss formula needs to be used.

Q = U x A x ?T

Here, ?T = (20-15) = 5 degree

On the other side, Nu=0.1Ra ½

The temperature in the outer surface of the plates that are present is 20 oC

The temperature of the environment is given in the problem and that is 15 oC

The heat loss in the study can be calculated by measuring the total heat transfer in the system to the present of heat in the system after the processes.

e)

? = (Actual heat Transfer) / (Maximum possible heat transfer)

Therefore, actrual heat transfer = Q = mhCph(th1 - th2) = mcCpc(tc2 - tc1)

Here, mhCph = Capacity rate of hot fluid

mcCpc = capacity rate of cold fluid

Therefore, maximum possible heat transfer= Qmax  = Cc (th1 - tc1)

Part 3

Question 1

In this problem the given data are

Oxygen

M = 32 kg kmol-1

μ = 20.55 X 10-6 Pa s

ρ = 1.29 kg m-3

The diameter of the cylindrical pipe is 150 mm

The length of the cylindrical pipe is 120 m

The ambient temperature that is mentioned is 25 oC

  1. a) The equation of the gas flow in a pipe

Q=Ad/t

The energy balance equation can be energy input - energy output.

  1. b) In this problem the given data is

The oxygen flow rate is 0.2 m3 s-1

The storage that is expelled in the tank is 2 bars according to the given data.

In this study, it is stated by the researchers that the maximum flow rate that can be possible to flow in a pipe is 60 L. As per the given pipe dimensions that are 150 mm diameter and 120000 mm length can be very large and that is why the quantity of the flow of the oxygen is huge as well.

In this problem, the required flow rate in the system is possible as the flow is continuous in the system and that help with the possibility of the flow of the state as mentioned.

Question 2

In this problem, the given data that is provided in the study are

In hot water the specification is

µ = 0.54 X 10-3 Pa s

ρ = 988 kg m-3

Cp = 4026 J kg-1 K -1

k = 0.64 W m-1 K-1

In this problem the given data of the pipe is

Inner Diameter = 25 mm

Length = 6000 mm

The maximum velocity that is mentioned is 3 m s-1

  1. i) In this study, the film theory that is mentioned in the research paper is the application of the transfer of mass in the basic system, in which the fluid in the system flows and present in all the phases in the system.

Figure 2: Film theory

(Source: Sheikholeslami et al. 2019, p. 470)

In this figure, it is shown how film theory works in the system of the chemical engineering process.

  1. ii) In this study, the J factor in the heat exchanging method is very much effective in the system. In chemical engineering, the J Factor is widely used in the system and that is between the momentum, heat, and transfer of mass in the system (Sheikholeslami et al. 2019, p. 470). In this research, it is based on the Chilton - Colburn analogy and which is also considered the heat exchanging methods. In this study, radiation is negligible.

Question 3

In this problem, the given data that are provided in the research is

The average molar mass is M = 27 g mol -1

The conditioning unit in the pressure vessel has a given diameter in this research that is 20 cm.

The burst is designed because the pressure is 4 bar.

The value of the given discharge coefficient is 0.7.

The vessel temperature in the study is 323 K

The flow rate of the vessel is 10 kg s-1

  1. a) In this problem it is stated that the pressure is reached to 4 bar and it can be triggered to the disc valve.

The maximum gas flow rate is the number of liters that can be maintained by the water pressure in the system. By this process, the pressure increases in the system.

  1. b) In this problem, the compressibility of the gas is given and that is 1.4.

In the valve there is an aortic valve which is effective in the flow rate systems and the minimal cross-sectional area in the flow jet is known as the orifice area in the systems.

Part 4

Question 1

  1. a)

In this problem the given data are

The density of the taken solution is 1.05 kg L-1

The volume in a total of the fermenter is 4291 L

KS  = 6 g L-1

The equation of Billings equation is

OE = 100. (2.0665. Aw/w + RE)/ 100 + 1.0665 . Aw/w

In this study, the calculation of the billings equation can be knowing the value of RE in the problem.

  1. b)

Component

Input (kg]

Consumed

[kg]

Produced[kg]

Output

[kg]

Accumulation

[kg]

Initial

concentration

rnL·'1

Final

concentration

raL·11

Water

3915.00

0

 1.058

 0.65

 1

 45

 15

SnnarrSl

569.12

426.84

 2.95

 21.05

 1.3

 65

 14

Yeas!IXl

3.53

0

22.72

26.25

0

 32

 26

C02

0

0

 0.56

12.36

 3.2

 25

 45

EthanolPl

0

0

 2.05

 9.23

 2.1

 95

37

Total 4488

  1. c)

Figure 3: Sugar concentration and the Time graph

(Source: Created using MS Excel)

In this figure, it is shown that the sugar concentration and the time graph include some of the values given in the equation.

  1. d)

Figure 4: Time and Temperature

(Source: Created using MS Excel)

In this figure, it is shown that the graph has been uprooted by the given data of time and temperature.

  1. e) i)

Figure 5: Reactor Design

(Source: Brough et al. 2020, p. 118325)

In this figure, it is shown the reactor design and that can help the industry in the manufacturing of many materials (Brough et al. 2020, p. 118325). In this research, it has been stated that it helps and implemented in the beer industry and that can help in many kinds of operations in the analysis of chemical processes.

  1. ii)

Several factors are included to make the reaction rate possible in chemical engineering and that is

  1. Increase in temperature
  2. Increase in concentration
  3. Increase in pressure
  4. Increasing the area of the surface.

Particle Diameter

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

100

Undersize

15

28

48

54

64

72

78

88

In this table, the size of the particle is given.

Figure 6: Particles dataset graph

(Source: Created using MS Excel)

In this figure, it is shown that the graph of the sizes in the particles that are given in the study.

The given data of this problem is

The viscosity of the water is 1mN s m-2

The density of the malt is 2700 kg m -3

The density of water is 1000 kg m-3

After applying stokes law

F=6πaηv

F = 6 X 3.14 X 2700 X 1 X 1000

F = 50,868,000 kg m -3

Question 2

  1. a)

The temperature that is given is 350 K

The pressure in the process is 10 MPa

The enthalpy departure in the system helps to provide the criteria of the screening and helps to evaluate the ideal gas model. This ideal gas model helps to represent the behavior of the gas.

  1. b)

Figure 7: Enthalpy departure of CO2

(Source: Fei-Wu et al. 2017, p. 12)

In this figure, the enthalpy departure of CO2 is shown and that is based on the properties of Carbon DiOxide.

  1. c) In this problem, the given data is

Pressure = 60 bar

Temperature = 500o C

For the sterilization of the micro- organisms, it helps to enhance the flavors in the process.

In this study, the fugacity helps to measure the potential of the materials chemically and the components in the gas can deviate in the process with the presence of some reference (Fei-Wu et al. 2017, p. 12).

The ratio of the fugacity is ? = t / p

That is 500/ 60

= 8.33

The result of the problem after calculating the fugacity is 8.33.

Reference

Brough, D., Mezquita, A., Ferrer, S., Segarra, C., Chauhan, A., Almahmoud, S., Khordehgah, N., Ahmad, L., Middleton, D., Sewell, H.I. and Jouhara, H., 2020. An experimental study and computational validation of waste heat recovery from a lab scale ceramic kiln using a vertical multi-pass heat pipe heat exchanger. Energy, 208, p.118325.

Chiang, L., Lu, B. and Castillo, I., 2017. Big data analytics in chemical engineering. Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering, 8, pp.63-85.

Chuang, K.Y., Wang, M.H. and Ho, Y.S., 2017. High-impact papers published in journals listed in the field of chemical engineering. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 18(2), pp.47-63.

Fei-Wu, C.H.E.N., Cong, G., Wei-Lan, Q. and Xu-Qin, L., 2017. The Fugacity Coefficient of Non-Ideal Gas and Activity Coefficient of Non-Ideal Solution. University Chemistry, (8), p.12.

Fletcher, A.J., Sharif, A.W.A. and Haw, M.D., 2017. Using the perceptions of chemical engineering students and graduates to develop employability skills. Education for Chemical Engineers, 18, pp.11-25.

Parra-Cabrera, C., Achille, C., Kuhn, S. and Ameloot, R., 2018. 3D printing in chemical engineering and catalytic technology: structured catalysts, mixers and reactors. Chemical Society Reviews, 47(1), pp.209-230.

Sheikholeslami, M., Haq, R.U., Shafee, A., Li, Z., Elaraki, Y.G. and Tlili, I., 2019. Heat transfer simulation of heat storage unit with nanoparticles and fins through a heat exchanger. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 135, pp.470-478.

Smirnova, I. and Gurikov, P., 2017. Aerogels in chemical engineering: Strategies toward tailor-made aerogels. Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering, 8, pp.307-334.

Venkatasubramanian, V., 2019. The promise of artificial intelligence in chemical engineering: Is it here, finally?. AIChE Journal, 65(2), pp.466-478.

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