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Comparison Of System Interfaces Between Uber And Ola Case Study

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Comparison Of System Interfaces Between Uber And Ola Case Study

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1.0. Introduction

1.1. Overview

Uber and Ola are two similar types of applications which provide cab services to their customers. These two applications are the most popular and biggest platform in their respective field. Uber and Ola follow different approaches to fulfill the requirements of their customers. Both the companies follow different user interfaces for their applications and the user interfaces that are followed by these companies are according to the requirements of their customers. The whole research paper is based on the comparison of the user interfaces that are followed by these two companies which satisfy their respective customers. Before comparing the user interfaces of Uber and Ola, a detailed discussion about the background of these two companies are given in this particular chapter. Also a detailed discussion is given about the “human computer interaction (HCI)” because the comparison of the user interfaces of uber and Ola is based on the aspects of “human computer interaction (HCI)”.

1.2. Background

Uber technologies, inc., commonly known as Uber. It is an American company and it provides ride-hailing, package delivery, freight transportation and courier service. Uber also provides their services on food delivery and it is known as uber eats. Uber provides scooters and bicycles on rent and for this they make a partnership with Lime. The company Uber provides their service over 900 metropolitan areas (69 countries) worldwide and their headquarters is based in San Francisco, California. The company Uber started 12 years ago in the year of 2009. The founders of the company Uber are Garrett Camp and Travis Kalanick. In the year of 2009 this company was founded by Garett Camp who is a computer programmer, Travis Kalanick and co-founder of StumbleUpon and at that time the company started with a name of Ubercab. Before starting the company, one day Camp and his friends hired a driver and the driver charged them $800. After this case Camp thought about decreasing the cost of direct transportation and from there the idea of Uber cab was generated. Ryan Graves is the first employee of the company who joined the company as a general manager and after a few times Ryan Graves was named as CEO of the company. Following a beta dispatch in May 2010, Uber's associations and versatile application were formally dispatched in San Francisco in 2011. From the start, the application just permitted clients to hail a dull extravagance vehicle and the cost was 1.5 times that of a taxi. In 2011, the affiliation changed its name from UberCab to Uber after protests from San Francisco taxi administrators.

Ola cabs is a company which provides their service for hiring vehicles and food delivery. Ola cabs is an Indian multinational company. Headquarter of this company is based in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Bhavish Aggarwal and Ankit Bhati are the founders of the company Ola cabs and founded this company in the year of 2010. Ola cabs mainly provide their service to more than 250 cities in India, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. In the year of 2018, Ola extended their service in the overseas countries and in September of the same year they extended their market in Australia and New Zealand. Ola cabs extended their market in the United Kingdom in the year of 2019. In March 2015, Ola Cabs procured Bengaluru-based taxi association TaxiForSure for around ? 1237 crore (US $ 200 million). June 2015 onwards, Ola clients got to TFS taxis through the Ola smaller application. Later in the year in November, Ola further procured Geotag, an excursion planning applications relationship, for an undisclosed total. In an advancement to loosen up past taxi total, Ola procured battling foodtech affiliation Foodpanda with an eye on utilizing the making food development section business in December 2017. In April 2018, Ola made its second acquisition with Ridlr (earlier Traffline), a public vehicle marking application. Later in August 2018, Ola financed Series A support of the bike lease startup Vogo, and again in December, offered another $100 million.

1.3. Human computer interaction

“Human computer interaction (HCI)” is a multidimensional field of study and it is focusing on the design of the technology of the computer and it also helps to make an interaction between the computers and humans who are the users. Specialists in the field of “human computer interaction (HCI)” notice the manner in which people help out the PCs and they plan such improvements that let people cooperate with PCs novelly. The “human computer interface (HCI)” can be portrayed as the spot of correspondence between the human client and the PC. The development of data between the human and PC is depicted as the loop of interaction. The loop of interaction has many aspects which include visual based, task environment, audio based, area of the interface, machine interaction, feedback, input flow, output flow and fit. Computer science, design, behavioural science, media studies are few fields of research for the “human computer interaction (HCI)”. The term is expected to say forget about it, that, instead of different contraptions with express and restricted uses, PCs have different utilizations and their utilization as regularly as conceivable joins an open-finished exchange between the client and the PC. Talk breaks down “human computer interaction (HCI)” with human-to-human interaction, a relationship that is squeezing theoretical assessments in the field.

1.4. Research Aim

This research paper is based on the comparison of the system interfaces in between Uber and Ola. These two companies are basically based on the transportation system. Both the companies have many similar features and facilities. These two companies are holding huge markets all over the whole world and both of them want to hold their positions in the market. These two companies are basically rivals in their fields. They have their own approaches to fulfill the requirements of their respective customers. To fulfill the requirements of their customers and to satisfy their customers they follow different user interfaces for their applications and website. This research work is mainly focusing on the user interfaces of these two companies and the main aim of this research work is to compare the user interfaces of these two different companies.

1.5. Research Framework

2.0. Experimental Design

2.1. Different experimental design methods

Though two applications “OLA'' and “UBER” provide the same facilities that are e-transport booking services, to make the journey more comfortable and safe, there are lots of differences between those two applications which I have faced por experienced from my own view. Both transport services providers provide the services such as booking their transport system as per our needs i.e. minicab for maximum 3 people, SUV for 6-7 people. Not only these, theyalso offer their services within the city and for the outstation also, but there are some basic issues with using those applications. Sometimes the fare offered by the application and the fare offered by the drivers are not same at all, besides of sometimes the drivers are denied for the pickup while the cancellation are submitted form the users side. Fare offered by the “UBER '' application is much less than the “OLA” application, and for these reasons most of the people and the users prefer to use the UBER application and their services for booking the transportation system for their journey within a short notice period. Not only these, UBER also offers foods for their customers and the users, in order to get the fooding facility while they are travelling and also while they are at their comfort zone i.e. at their home. At present there are several categories of the Uber services which includes “UberGo”, “UberX”, “UberXL” and finally “UberHire”. It will be very much worth it that these types of services are totally based on specific regions as well as specific time in a day. In the application of the Uber it also provides rescheduling of the cabs for later. Whereas the OLA is provided several categories like share, micro as well as mini and different categories of vehicles are also included. It includes Prime Sedan, Prime Play and finally the Prime SUV. The organization also provided luxurious category vehicles to the users for specific regions.

So, through these services and the facilities “UBER” applications are given more advantages and the priority from the side of the users and the customers. On the other hand, due to communication with their users or the customers OLA invented the local languages for some specific region of the country, so as the users of that specific region got the advantages and the benefits during the bo9oking of the transport vehicle and at the time of journey. Also there are many people who are facing issues related to their payment modes for both the e-transport booking providers. Another big issue which is faced by the users of the OLA and the UBER application is the fare rate of both the service providers. For the same distance both the service providers are charged different payscale. So, after getting the issues of the e-transport booking service providers, redesign of the user interface of the service providers are needed and here in this research paper the redesign procedures of the user interface are offered after analysis of the comparison of both the e-transport booking service providers.

Figure: Chart of the booking purpose of the vehicles through the e-transport booking system

(Source: https://miro.medium.com/max/700/1*oRZUZ2TByIzpeTYXz71xRQ.png)

The above mentioned charts represent the purpose of booking the vehicles by its users and the customers, from where it will be possible to get the data or the information related to the journey type of most of the people. So, by analyzing and monitoring the journey types and the user types it is also possible to improve the system and the features which are provided by the e-transport booking system providers.

Not only these, but also there are problems in the application and the position of those features offered by the application. In the figure below those problems regarding the place of the application are well discussed and described.

There are also have the issues regarding the reachability on the screen while using the application. Most of the people are like to use their single hand to operate their android sets and at that time they are facing lots of issues such as they are not able to reach to those options which are situated at the top of the screen and in order to get the access of those features they have to be used their both hands.

At the time of choosing the destination, users and the customers have to use both hands to operate their android sets and often for this specific reason they aren't able to book their cabs at the busy time schedule. So, in order to solve these specific problems if the destination choosing section of the application is in the lower part of the system i.e. within the easy reachable of the system, then it will become more helpful for activating or using those applications more easily and smoothly. So, inder to develop the system using the e-transport booking system, implement through using at least two aspects of the “Human Computer Interface (HUI)” such as persuasive and collaborative. “Human computer interaction (HCI)” mainly indicates a multidimensional field of study and it is focusing on the design of the technology of the computer and it also helps to make an interaction between the computers and humans who are the users. So by using these methods for redesigning the system , the gaps of the pre-designed system must be possible to fulfill, which is relevant to the issues which are faced by the users and the customers of the e-transport booking system.

2.2. Methodology1000

Methodology is the part from which the steps which are taken for the overall research paper are able to know and also it becomes possible to identify the faults or the gaps within the procedure of the developing the system by the researcher and the developers. In this research paper after analyzing the user interface comparison between two most popular e-transport booking systems, that is OLA and UBER, case study base implementation and the systematic literature review based implementation are followed, through which it is also possible to focus all of the data collected from the database. In this part through the research approach and the research philosophy the analysis of the data is possible to perform from where the information or the data related to the user interface of the e-transport booking system such as the system used by the OLA and the UBER application are developed. Not only these, but also the types of data which are collected for better analysis of the data so as it becomes easier to conclude the result, are also maintained in this part of the research paper.

2.2.1. Research Approach and Philosophy

It mainly indicates the way of doing or performing the overall research. There are few ways of doing or performing the overall research paper and the main way or the branches or the procedure of the research approach, which are followed in this research paper are “Positivist Research Philosophy”.

Figure: Research Methods

(Source: )

For this present research paper the researcher are mainly followed the HCI model i.e. “Human Computer Interface” model to perform the overall research peacefully and perfectly with the help of “Positivist Research Philosophy”. Through the positivist research philosophy it is possible to derive the practical implementation of the overall research paper in a smooth way and derive the result of the overall research paper. After the hypothesis testing of the research paper and after following the “Positivist Research Philosophy” it also became easier to conduct the overall research paper more practically, because the “Positivist Research Philosophy” follows the practical implementation and the develop of the research after analysis of the overall topic.

As because this research paper are followed the positivism philosophy and the qualitative data for analysis the overall data collected from the various resources, this research philosophy became more useful gathering the data and the information after faces the issues while using the e-transport booking system for booked the vehicle such as OLA and UBER. Also it became possible to analyze the practical data through the comparison between the user interface and the services provided by the OLA and the UBER. Also through the positivist philosophy it became possible to derive the proper knowledge which are gathered from the “participant's data”, without any kind of consideration of human in the study.

2.2.2 Data Collection

Data collection related to the research is one of the most important parts of the research paper which have to be followed and kept in focus by the researcher and the developers of the research paper. In order to collect the information and the data related to the topic and the user interface, perform the comparison between two e-transport booking system i.e. OLA and UBER, and after collecting the data or the difference between them the overall research proceeds . For the analysis mainly the secondary data are collected from the journals, online sites and the online articles and after analyzing those data and performing the hypothesis analysis of the data set the researcher is able to get the exact solution of the system and following those results the overall research proceeds.

2.2.3. Data Analysis

In order to analyze the data which are collected from the various resources, secondary qualitative data analysis methods are mainly followed in these research papers. After collecting the issues, benefits related to the e-transport booking service provider, the overall analysis of the research paper is performed. Not only these, through analysis of the collective data helps to conduct the overall implementation of the research paper. “Qualitative analysis” of the collected data is one of the biggest advantages of the developers and the researcher to get the exact information and the data related to the user interface of the e-transport booking service providers.

3.0. Results

3.1. Introduction

Comparison of the user interfaces between Uber and Ola is the main focus of this research work. In this research work few research designs are made and few methodologies are followed to complete the research. For this particular research work mainly three different research approaches are considered and results of all these three different research approaches are obtained through the whole research work. Those three research approaches are the experimental approaches, approaches based on the literature review and approaches based on the case study. Results of these different approaches are also obtained according to the approaches. The research approach is incorporated with the aspects of the “human computer interaction (HCI)” and those aspects of the “human computer interaction (HCI)” are pervasive, persuasive and collaborative. On the basis of these three aspects of the “human computer interaction (HCI)” comparison of the user interfaces between Uber and Ola are done. The approach which is based on the case study is done by comparing the user interfaces of these two companies depending on different cases and conditions. Help of different case studies on the similar topics are also taken for completing the approach which is based on case study. Also results are obtained from the different literature reviews or existing literature. Many researchers already done a research on the comparison of the user interfaces between Uber and Ola and for completing this particular research paper help 0of those existing literature are taken and make a review of there research paper and the result of those existing research paper are also review to understand the difference between the user interfaces of Uber and Ola. Results of the different experimental approaches of this research paper are discussed in this chapter. All the results of the different approaches such as experimental approach, approach based on the case study and approach based on literature review are discussed in detail in this chapter.

 3.2. Analysis

User Interface Comparison

Uber

After opening the Uber application it will land a page that is capable of denoting the location on the map for the city and it will require permission regarding the map if it is turned off. An update has been rolled out in the United States in the last year which is capable of making the booking process very easy and the consumers aren't required to type in the pickup address anymore (Basava, 2020). The GPS will automatically track the pinpoint for customers' present location and there is just required to fill the preferred destination within the big white box which will go from the top of the page. There will be several presentations of different options which the consumers are looking for and they have to just tap on that and the application will show the nearest cabs with appropriate fares regarding preferred destination. At the most affordable end related to the spectrum, the consumer will get the "UberPool" service which requires sharing the cabs with strangers with the exchange of pocket-friendly fare. There are different exorbitantly priced services for UberBlack which come with various bells as well as whistles which will not necessarily be required on a daily basis. At present, there are several categories of Uber services which include “UberGo”, “UberX”, “UberXL” and finally “UberHire". It will be very much worth it that these types of services are based on specific regions as well as specific times in a day. The application of Uber also provides rescheduling of the cabs for later.

Considering the user interface of Uber the consumers will get a hamburger menu at the top left corner of the page where the consumers will tap and it shows the self-rating, contact support, refunds that have been claimed, the registration process of a complaint and finally accessing the settings of the application (Wang and Yang, 2019). As it is said about the overall interface of Uber services it is a pretty intuitive UI in terms of design as well as performance based on the satisfaction of the customers. The white-on-grey design, as well as the classy look, has attracted consumer preferences. The organization has also rolled out the location-sharing features which are considered as a novel feature with a proper up-gradation in the application for a few months.

Uber User Interface

For booking rides for the users or the consumers, the application will ask for three inputs from the customers. The users will drop the destination as input 1, ride for input 2 and the final input shows the "Now" option which can be selected for booking rides on the spot instead of scheduling later. Uber uses a minor clock symbol for indicating the option regarding scheduling. The users can also select the types of vehicles where the vehicles can be arranged in order of prices and the lowest prices can be recommended at the top. The users or riders prefer to choose the vehicles based on the lowest prices and it is capable of saving cognitive efforts (Gregory et al., 2020). Finally, it shows the payment methods which have been set by default. The users can directly press the Confirm option for taking the ride. The application shows the time for reaching the destination instead of pickup time and it can be considered as the significant objectives for the users. And on the second screen, there is no need for decision making and Uber provides the free service for the first time.

OLA

The organization also provides a similar thing as Uber where the users can choose their location which is pinpointed on the map. Different available categories have been displayed at the bottom side of the landing page and there is also a requirement of the pick one for getting the appropriate estimate (Tarek and Amit, 2019). The application has offered the mind vlogging array regarding the options which is frankly and it is more confusing for new users. For these experienced users, there is a massive requirement of the navigation of the application carefully in terms of picking the wrong points. There are several available categories like share, micro as well as mini and different categories of vehicles are also included. It includes Prime Sedan, Prime Play, and finally the Prime SUV. The organization also provided luxurious category vehicles to the users for specific regions. As considered about the User Interface it also comes with a hamburger menu at the top left corner of the home screen of the application. The users can tap on the button for getting the history for riding as well as other information including promotions, notifications and finally the payments. According to the users, the application is designed properly, is properly lightweight, and is less expensive than Uber. Ola also comes with an offline booking mode and it can be done without access to the internet for booking the cab. In this regard, the consumers have required the smartphones and it will show the option “book a cab” without any types of internet access (ecsjournal.org, 2018).

OLA User Interface

For booking rides, the users have to open the application and there are requirements of proper input which are 5 in numbers. In this regard, input 1 is not compulsory and it has been set as daily with the default menu. For pickup points it can be used as input 2, drop point can be considered as input 3, vehicle type will be considered as input 4 and finally the option "ride now" will be considered as input 5. It is also found that input 4 is not compulsory and it can be set as a minimum by default. It is capable of consuming cognitive efforts (Jones et al., 2017). The users or the consumers will get tempted to select the minimum time as it shows the tentative time regarding the arrival of the vehicles. In addition, if there is a preference regarding the vehicles for the consumers it will be considered as unnecessary information that will be consumed subconsciously. On the other hand, the application shows the prices related to the two most commonly open types of vehicles. It is also capable of consuming cognitive efforts when the users initiate the options related to comparison.

Two major two issues can be formed where the first one shows that the users can see the prices for two vehicles before providing input 4 and it can explore more options. The users will be capable of optimizing regarding the costs and can be known for the prices for other options. In this regard, the users can go back as well as select a new cab such as input 4 and get the prices of those cabs as input 6. There is resistance to two different constraints which will be time vs. price. Finally, input 7 will work as the payment methods will be set by defaults and dependent on the preference as well as final confirmation (bvdw.org, 2018).

3.3. Discussion

The discussion will be based on the sharing experiences of the consumers or users in both applications. In this regard, different aspects can be considered for an effective comparison. Different aspects are provided in the below section:

a.Consumer Service

Both of the apps are capable of providing similar types of consumer services related to the automated action as well as more and lend at par with each other. If there is an occurrence of a wrong cancellation charge on both of the applications, the riders get a refund back immediately and there are no questions asked.

  1. Availability of Cab

There are a lot of areas in the different countries that are almost equivalent. Although the average waiting time for the OLA cabs is 25 to 35% higher than the Uber cabs at a peak time (Parsheeraet al., 2017). And there is a wrong location issue that has been faced through several riders and the average is much higher than Uber cabs.

  1. Quality of Cab

The cabs for both applications are less comparable and these are similar. The prime cabs of Ola are classier and loaded than the Uber cabs. In this regard, the contrary is considered as the general complaint.

  1. Drivers

As it is considered in real life the drivers of both applications are similar and the drivers of Uber are much better. Like the standard behaviors the Ola drivers are always wearing headphones and the riders are not sure about if they are on call or not.

  1. Experiences of Products

There are a few hanging issues in the user interface of the application. Once the booking is done the application takes back the user to the cab booking page. In this regard, the tracking of the booked cabs is considered as a most important function where the applications need to be performed (networkcultures.org, 2017).

  1. Location Tracking

According to the user experiences, the driver is not capable of finding appropriate locations while inputting the pick point. It occurred more for the Ola cabs than the Uber cabs. This is a serious issue for the riders.

As it is considered about the overall aspects related to the comparison the issues are more localized with Uber where the drivers behave in an unprofessional manner. As the services or product of the business as well as organization, Uber is considered as a leader having effective services and products with zero technology surprises.

3.4. Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above discussion of this chapter that there are many differences between the user interfaces of Uber and Ola. Both the companies follow their particular user interfaces and the design of their user interfaces based on the requirements of their customers. All the designs that are done for the user interfaces for both of these companies are to satisfy their customers. A detailed analysis is done for the both of these companies on the user interfaces that are designed by the companies. After analysing all the user interfaces of Uber and Ola, a detailed discussion is done on the results of the comparison of the different user interfaces of Uber and Ola. Results are discussed based on the three different approaches such as experimental approaches which belong to the primary research and other two approaches are based on the literature review and case study which belong to the secondary research.

4.0. Conclusion and Recommendation

4.1. Overview

This chapter gives an idea about the overall research work that is done throughout this project. Every research work has some gaps and a single research work on any topic can not cover all things about that topic, so few things remain on which further research work is possible. During completing any research many problems are found and for which many difficulties and challenges arrive during completing the project, so few recommendations are always present after completing any research work. In this chapter few recommendations are present which can help to get more accurate of the research work and also some future scope are also discussed in this chapter on which further research work is possible.

4.2. Recommendation

Many customers faced many problems due to the design of the user interfaces and they faced many problems during the use of these applications. Few recommendations are given in this section which is based on the problems that are faced by the customers of the applications Uber and Ola.

  • Uber and Ola both are similar type companies and the number of their customers are increasing day by day. As both of these companies provide their service through mobile applications or websites. Most of the customers of these two companies use it through mobile applications. Mobile is a very common thing to everyone and nearly everyone uses a mobile these days. Most of the customers of Uber and Ola use their particular mobile applications. This recommendation is basically for both the companies, as the size of the mobile phones are increasing day by day and anyone can not access the whole mobile phones with single hand. Tok access the whole mobile everyone has to use both of their hands. People use Uber and Ola for direct transport and most of the time people stay outside of their home, so sometimes it seems problematic to use the application in single hand by those customers who stayed outside. So, both the companies can design their application in such a way that all the important things are kept on one corner of the mobile. This helps the customers a lot who are using the application in single hand.
  • Uber and Ola are such types of companies who are leading the market in their own fields. These two companies are multinational companies and they operate their business in many different countries. Different countries mean different people, different cultures and different languages. To operate the business, both the companies use different languages in their applications. The languages that are used by the companies in their applications are based on the national languages or the official languages. But, countries like India have more than one national language and different regional languages are used in different regions. Many people of older generations do not clearly understand other languages than their regional language, so for them it is very difficult to use the application which does not contain any regional languages. If companies like Uber and Ola stored regional languages in their applications then it is much easier for those customers who do not understand any other languages other than their regional languages. By including regional languages in the applications, companies like Uber and Ola can increase their number of customers and make more profit.

4.3. Future Scope

This research work is done to compare the user interfaces of Uber and Ola. Both the companies have their own interfaces and those interfaces are made to fulfill the requirements of their respective customers and also to satisfy their customers. After comparing both the user interfaces of Uber and Ola it is found that few features of Uber are better than Ola and similarly few features of Ola are better than Uber. So, the companies Uber and Ola both benefited after completing this research work by applying those features which are better in other applications. Few future scopes are also present on which researchers can do future research work.

The companies get an idea about the developments that are required and that can be given more facilities to their customers through this research work. Those facilities and features of Ola are better than Uber that should be adopted by the company Uber and similarly those features of Uber are better than Ola that should be adopted by Ola.

Researchers get many chances for their research work in the future on this particular topic because both Uber and Ola are increasing day by day and to improve their service they continuously change their design of the applications. So, researchers get a chance to compare the user interfaces of these two companies.

4.4. Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above chapter that Uber and Ola are two comparative kinds of utilizations which give taxi administrations to their clients. These two applications are the most famous and greatest stage in their separate field. Uber and Ola follow various ways to deal with satisfying the necessities of their clients. Both the organizations follow distinctive UIs for their applications and the UIs that are trailed by these organizations are as indicated by the prerequisites of their clients. The entire examination paper depends on the correlation of the UIs that are trailed by these two organizations which fulfill their separate clients. Prior to looking at the UIs of Uber and Ola, a point by point conversation about the foundation of these two organizations are given in this specific section. Additionally an itemized conversation is given about the "human PC cooperation (HCI)" in light of the fact that the correlation of the UIs of uber and Ola depends on the parts of "human PC collaboration (HCI)".

References

Journals

Basava, D.P.K., 2020. TRACKING AND POSITION OF VEHICLE BY COMPUTING CELL TOWER INFORMATION ON RASPBERRY Pi. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(5), pp.2143-2149.

Wang, H. and Yang, H., 2019. Ridesourcing systems: A framework and review. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 129, pp.122-155.

Gregory, R.W., Henfridsson, O., Kaganer, E. and Kyriakou, H., 2020. The role of artificial intelligence and data network effects for creating user value. Academy of Management Review, (ja).

Tarek, M.O.R. and Amit, S.A.J.I.D., 2019. A closer look at the sharing economy, global ridesharing and ridesharing in Bangladesh. ULAB thought leadership article, Centre for Enterprise and Society.

Jones, M., Robinson, S., Pearson, J., Joshi, M., Raju, D., Mbogo, C.C., Wangari, S., Joshi, A., Cutrell, E. and Harper, R., 2017. Beyond “yesterday’s tomorrow”: future-focused mobile interaction design by and for emergent users. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 21(1), pp.157-171.

Parsheera, S., Shah, A. and Bose, A., 2017. Competition Issues in India's Online Economy.

Chandu, K.R., Rallabandi, S.K., Sitaram, S. and Black, A.W., 2017. Speech Synthesis for Mixed-Language Navigation Instructions. In INTERSPEECH (pp. 57-61).

Li, Y., Jia, B., Guo, Y. and Chen, X., 2017. Mining user reviews for mobile app comparisons. Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies1(3), pp.1-15.

Gupta, S., Buriro, A. and Crispo, B., 2019. DriverAuth: A risk-based multi-modal biometric-based driver authentication scheme for ride-sharing platforms. Computers & Security83, pp.122-139.

Singh, R., 2020. Business Model Challenges for Cab Aggregators: A Case Study of Ola.

Goel, R., Jain, P., Singhal, R., Jhunjhunwala, R. and Doshi, R., 2018. Operation analytics: Uber and ola logistics optimization. International Journal for Advance Research and Development3(10), pp.33-38.

Rani, N., A DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF CAB AGGREGATION INDUSTRY AND ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION IN CONCERN OF OLA, MERU AND UBER.

Online Article

networkcultures.org, 2017, HOW TO COOP THE DIGITAL ECONOMY, Available at: https://networkcultures.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/18-treborscholz.pdf [Accessed on 27.05.2021]

ecsjournal.org, 2018, Location Based Approach for Messaging Services, Available at: http://ecsjournal.org/Archive/Volume42/Issue2/3.pdf [Accessed on 27.05.2021]

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