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Consultancy Project: Hospitality Businesses In Society

1. Introduction - Consultancy Project: Hospitality Businesses In Society

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1.1 Background

Global coffee production, from fresh coffee bean pulp via shipping boxes where thefavourite barista gets the roasted beans, generates around 23 million tons of waste annually, as per sustainable research by Gunter Pauli. Because we discard them after each cup, used coffee grounds are the most evident example of this waste there at consumer end of the supply chain. UK coffee bar provider Caffè Nero Group is a major player (Sandhu et al., 2021). From five in 1997 to 30 in 2000, and 30 in May of 2007, the organization has grown to 310 coffee shops. More than 360 enterprises and almost 3,000 employees call the area home. When it comes to managing paper cup waste, we must maintain a proactive approach by working with our garbage suppliers, consumers, and others in the industry. Alternatives to the existing industry standard disposable cup, such as styrofoam, biodegradable cup and reusable mug, have been examined. Because of this, it's impossible to account for the true social costs of reducing the usage of disposable plastic bags and other things. Recycling of old coffee cups is economically and technically possible (Hakim, 2021). However, it demands a concentrated effort of the complete supply chain. Continued success in recycling coffee cups relies on a constant supply stream of used coffee cups so that a recycle pulp mill may consistently work effectively under optimal circumstances to process recovered cups. Wasted coffee cups are not accepted in many cities and municipalities. Broadly, local or regional recyclers have been hesitant to collect cups – something that at now is restricted in most nations. For this reason, the following portion of study will concentrate on the Challenges of Sustainable Coffee Farming practices, along with the Feasible (Realistic) and Costed proposals for Cafe Neuro based on the findings of the research.

1.2 overall aims and objectives

The main aim of the research is to recommend techniques of coffee cup waste management for Café Neuro. The objectives of the research are listed below:

  • To evaluate Challenges of sustainable practices of Sustainable coffee farms
  • To conduct Competitor analysis of sustainable coffee farms in terms of their sustainable Practices
  • To provide recommendations for effective sustainable practices for coffee cup wate management for Café Neuro

1.3 Research Problem

It is technically and economically feasible to recycle used coffee cups. In order to achieve this, the whole supply chain must put up a concerted effort. Recent success in recycling coffee cups depends on a continual supply stream of the used coffee cups because a recycle pulp mill may constantly perform efficiently under ideal conditions to process recovered cups. Paper, particularly coffee cups and other nondurables, is often recycled in industrial and municipal waste (US EPA 2017). Despite the greatest efforts of brand owners and consumers to promote recycling, the fact is that most wasted paper coffee cups end up in landfills or waste incineration (Garrison et al. 2016). When placed in a composting system, standard cups lined with polyethylene (PE) will not decompose. Paper is broken down by microorganisms, but polyethylene (PE) breaks down into small, light-weight particles that may spread throughout the ecosystem and present environmental and health concerns. Sustainable coffee plantations have unique obstacles, which is why this study examines them.

2. Theoretical underpinning including a literature review

2.1 Challenges of sustainable practices of Sustainable coffee farms (SCF)

According to Anhar et al.,(2021) Although the term "sustainable" has gained popularity in recent years, the long-term viability of the coffee industry in terms of economic growth, environmental protection and social well-being cannot be underestimated. It's a multifaceted problem here, involving the hardship of farmers and a decline in biodiversity. Social infrastructure is severely lacking in many of the countries that produce the vast majority of the world's coffee. Coffee producers including their families are particularly vulnerable in the volatile market (Vogt, 2019). The well-being of local communities across the world has a direct impact on the financial health of businesses. The availability of education, food, housing, and healthcare is directly impacted by fluctuations in the price of coffee. This might make it prohibitively costly for a large number of coffee farmers because of their distant location. A decrease in the price of coffee may make it more difficult for people to get these things. The most pressing issue of our day is environmental sustainability. The production of coffee necessitates a large number of natural resources, which accounts for 80 percent of tropical deforestation (Barroso and del Carmen, 2019). The processing and export of coffee also has an ecological impact. There are, however, certain methods of coffee production that have a higher effect on biodiversity than the others. Coffee plantations featuring abundance of shade trees are certainly the ideal locations to locate a broad diversity of animals. However, the great majority of coffee is produced on monoculture farms, diminishing the amount of biodiversity in the process. Coffee drinkers themselves play a role. Coffee pods and single-use cups contribute to a growing mountain of waste in our landfills every time you drink a cup (Gashema, 2021). There are two little steps toward more sustainable solutions: a latte tax and widely biodegradable cornstarch pods as many as 2.5 billion disposable coffee cups are thrown away each year, as per the estimates. 5,000 are created in a mind-blowing amount of time every minute. One cup of coffee a day causes 23 pounds of waste in a year.

Paper, especially coffee cups and other nondurables, is often recycled in municipal and commercial waste (US EPA 2017). The fact is that most used paper coffee cups wind up in landfills or incinerators despite attempts of brand providers and customers to promote recycling (Tully et al., 2020). In a composting system, standard cups with PE liners will not decompose since the liners are resistant to biological activity. Paper is broken down by microorganisms, but polyethylene (PE) breaks down into tiny, light-weight particles which may spread throughout the ecosystem and represent environmental and health concerns. PE-coated paper often generates operational problems and raises expenses for paper manufacturers in typical paper recycling plants. Sometimes, when plastic is re-pulped, the microscopic screens that are meant to distinguish recyclable fibers from contaminants become clogged up ((Triantafillopoulos and Koukoulas, 2020). Material that evades the screens typically melts out on heated rollers during in the process of producing paper. As a result, downtime and production losses might result from the usage of these adhesives on the paper machine.

2.2 Competitor analysis of sustainable coffee farms in terms of their sustainable practices

The three biggest competitors of Cafe Nero are "Costa Coffee", "Caribou Coffee" and "Blue Bottle Coffee". All of these three competitors seem to practice sustainability activities and conduct programs for the reduction of the environmental degradation of the region where their production sites are situated and globally. Moreover, they are also taking necessary steps to reduce the waste of raw materials, left-over wasted foods and coffee beans, and other ingredients that are required to make coffee. Costa has committed to reducing its wastage proportion to half in addition to direct broader alternatives to lessen the United Kingdom's yearly wastage of foods that consists of nearly 10.2 million tonnes (Bradley and Botchway, 2018). The strategy, evolved in collaboration with IGD and WRAP, generates a platform for which corporations could lessen the wastage of raw materials and coffee substances with a 'farm-to-fork' technique. On a worldwide basis, one-third of every meal that is created is misplaced or wasted from the fork from the farm in keeping with 12 months, inflicting $940 billion in financial losses, additionally generating huge meals scarcity and lack of proper nutrition for people of the United Kingdom and other nations (Bager and Lambin, 2020).

Costa coffee’s Head of Sustainability, Victoria Moorhouse has stated her concern about the commercial enterprise's dedication to decreasing food wastage in addition to their realistic answers at Costa espresso they too seem to be dedicated to utilizing its own component in decreasing wastage of food anywhere viable. They had in their hands some projects to make certain there may be minimum meal waste, which incorporates, first and importantly, a green ordering gadget articulated to lessen waste earlier than it may be created. Additionally, they permit meals bought over the past duration of buying and selling that are in date however could not be offered tomorrow to be discounted by means of 50% and develop their shops to create meal donations to neighborhood charities with the help of their meals additional coverage (Filimonau et al., 2019). In the end, for the ones' shops whose streams of wastage they control, any meal waste which could not be redistributed they ship to Anaerobic Digestion, in which it is changed into biogas and biofertilizer. They may be operating together with authorities to generate modifications and enhance sharing of pleasant exercise, stepping as much as the plate and handing over collective movement. The authorities' initial “Food Surplus and Waste Champion” “Ben Elliot” has stated each commercial enterprise has the obligation to do so to lessen wastage of foods.

On the other hand, another competitor of Cafe Nero, “Caribou Coffee”, had been able to achieve huge progress in the sustainable activities for generating less wastage of foods and other materials. This is evident from the fact that the majority of its espresso and coffees are presently acquired from “Rainforest Alliance Certified farms”. This made this company to be the first coffeehouse in America for reaching this sustainable obtainment. On the other hand, the "Blue Bottle Coffee" too had been successful in achieving sustainability through funding to manufacturers, providing awards to leaders and developing and following best practices (Maye et al., 2019). Moreover, they are additionally leading the beverage and food industry with the help of action toward zero wastage, reusing, and emissions of greenhouse gas. On the other hand, they are further looking to collaborate with other renowned coffee shops to expand their sustainability programs in other nations of the world.

2.3 Sustainable practices for coffee firms

The sustainable practices that are required to be done by coffee firms are changing the coffee-acquiring credentials, considering other packaging choices, trimming the utilization of energy, rethinking the "to-go containers", and imposition of receipts of paperless features, reducing food wastage, and regular engagement with their own customers. Supply espresso beans from farms with natural practices. Licensed natural farms create perfect selections. But, many espresso farms that still comply with natural activities conflict to benefit from this certification because of a low level of finances (Lambin and Thorlakson, 2018). Espresso packaging is extraordinarily essential to the supply and sale of coffee as it enhances a barrier among the espresso and oxygen crucial to preserving product pleasantness and durability. The drawback, but, is the foil or plastic lining utilized for making this hindrance. At the same time as long-lasting and less expensive, those substances additionally generated a huge quantity of waste. Making sales of reusable cups in their espresso store could no longer best assist them in lessening waste and increasing income; however, additionally function as an excellent vending concept after they display their commercial enterprise brand.

Each food provider company deals with a few stages of meal wastage. Whether or not because of fitness branch necessities or honestly the freshness of an object, espresso stores toss out unconsumed meals on each day's foundation. With the aid of funding in a clever POS machine, the espresso companies could manufacture electronic receipts for their customers (Van Der Ven, 2018). Those e-receipts can visit a patron's cell phone as a textual content message or electronic mail deal. Furthermore, this may assist them to construct a database of clients for destiny marketing and client participation is fundamental to any success alternate to their commercial enterprise version. With the aid of engaging their consumer base with the proper incentives, they are able to enhance their transition to a greater sustainable function and a fine revel in with the intention to hold them coming again. Studying the recyclability of the packaging you presently use in addition to the recycling offerings in their region. If feasible, transfer to a recyclable package deal. Selecting coffee luggage in the absence of a lamination or lamination product of plastics that are recycled (Chkanikova and Sroufe, 2021). At the same time as lamination enables maintenance of espresso segregated from oxygen, those alternatives can permit them to lessen or get rid of the dangerous plastics in their packaging. Shifting to compostable or biodegradable packaging because of espresso packaging global actions in the direction of compostable enclosures, linings, and valves.

3. Critical Findings

3.1 Sustainable practices of coffee firms in different countries


Throughout the ambit of innovation in coffee chains of India, enduring sustainability has been at the leading edge and achieving traction as coffee chains are the most important lever to alternate in the direction of a sustainable destiny. Moreover, incurring sustainability in coffee chains of India calls for greater than impartial remote attempts of person for innovation and desires an amalgamated combined overall performance of price chain components in a constructive way in the direction of a commonplace sustainable approach (Ramos-Mejía and Balanzo, 2018). Due to numerous liberalization, financial reforms, and value pressures within others which have affected the espresso area, some non-public and numerous-investors projects have been released to sell greater socially accountable and atmospherically pleasant practices in espresso manufacturing. Those projects could set off an action in the direction of a style of governance which is toward the manufacturer-pushed chain shape as it is able to enhance the growers’ role in conjunction with roasters and investors. The sustainable coffee schedule of India had led to systemic and framing modifications in aspects of grower company, dealer grower connections, improved goods' feasibility, and growing the existence of establishment buying and selling organizations (Bhatia and Tuli, 2018).

But, the corporate meaning of sustainable manufacturing has threatened nearby and a country-wide degree of organizational systems and features regularly no longer provided developmental support that challenges the impacts of these types of programs as they had been at the beginning advanced to supply improvement advantages to relieve groups in growing nations. Espresso manufacturing companies of India may be created extra sustainable with the aid of including activities which include higher crop-control and practices of the utilization of water, the usage of pheromone packing containers to move away bugs in form of insecticides, the composition of espresso bean waste to apply as fertilizer, the usage of espresso hulls as gasoline as opposed to reducing down “eucalyptus” timber, color-developing, and reforestation (Ramos-Mejía and Balanzo, 2018). The third-party certification ranges have occurred for a previous couple of a long time, selling diverse modifications associated with surroundings and social justice, together with farming methods, protecting nearby groups, conservation, and shielding the legal rights of farmers.


Sustainability is no longer always the most effective and critical factor for the destiny of coffee farming in Brazil and different espresso-generating nations. It is remodeling agriculture in the course of the arena. The idea of sustainability in espresso arose from the want to guard each of the surroundings and the nicely-being of the human beings concerned in espresso manufacturing. This means practicing financially green steps; respecting atmospheric restrictions and, particularly, delivering a tool of social justice that generates social inducement (Vogt, 2019). Moreover, purchasers are extra involved than ever with the foundation in their meals, in addition to protection at some stage in the manufacturing method. There may be a developing call, mainly in evolved nations, for healthful merchandise which might be socially accurate, bearing in mind the inclusion of latest pleasant attributes.

In current periods, Brazil has sawed the occurrence of the latest developments in espresso intake, which includes a boom in the intake of espresso out of doors of the house and inside the place of business; the achievement of individual-cup espresso creatures; and growing quantity of third-wave espresso stores and strong point espresso shops. The developing sort of differentiated coffees on Brazil grocery store cabinets, together with gourmet, clean, natural, licensed, artisan, and distinctiveness, additionally bears witness to converting shopping for styles (Kittichotsatsawat et al., 2021). The clients are an increasing number looking for distinguished coffees, each in an inner and outside place of markets. Brazilian espresso exporters had usually been responsive to marketplace actions in phrases of espresso and sustainability, simply as the arena’s massive espresso roasters are already doing. The innovative efforts of an espresso exporter ought to focus on encouraging and selling sustainability within the manufacturing and commercialization of espresso in Brazil.

It needs to be focused on that the demanding situations of achieving sustainability standards for legalization are far greater exhausting for Brazilian manufacturers due to the fact that Brazilian employees and atmospheric legal guidelines are taken into consideration many of the maximum superior and strict in the globe. For this reason, Brazil's excessive growth ranges are carried out under an inflexible situation of social and environmental safety, creating Brazilian espresso even greater aggressive. Similar to the stern atmospherics and social necessities of Brazilian law, clients and marketplace sellers additionally exert giant strain for sustainable espresso (Vogt, 2019). For enhancing and meeting the worldwide call for diverse styles of espresso beans, Brazilian espresso exporters are presently in search of to boom their services of distinguished coffees the ones of advanced exceptional or that have a certificate of sustainable steps. With those innovative desires in thoughts, certifications had been made to guarantee the client of admiration for the manufacturing nation’s workers and atmospheric legal guidelines and adherence to worldwide standards for appropriate environmental, social, and financial activities.


In Vietnam, about 95% of espresso growers are smallholder farmers, and coffee brings fairly worthwhile earnings for them. Furthermore, Vietnamese espresso has the very best outcomes and the bottom farming price within the globe which means Vietnamese espresso could be very probably aggressive within the global marketplace. However, the excessive “yields” additionally generates from extensive farming practices deployed with the reality of “over-fertilization" for espresso trees which might result in a very unfavorable decline within the destiny manufacturing (Janissen and Huynh, 2018). Despite the fact that they may be nicely skilled in planting coffee, Vietnamese farmers’ lives have no longer been stepped forward because of the excessive danger of the manufacturing surroundings and marketplace situations. The delivered price they benefit stays at the bottom within the complete chain of espresso manufacturing and most effective 9% of general exported Vietnamese espresso is sustainable. They manufacture espresso with professional farming strategies. Sustainability packages have focused especially on this excessive-yield farmer differentiation. But, the personal farms responsible for 85% of the overall region functioned with the aid of family farmers (Nguyen and Vo, 2021). Despite the fact that they acquire little help from the general government, their farming techniques are nevertheless underneath certification requirements for coffee. The farmers additionally have skilled socio-financial in excellent. The espresso corporations of Vietnam appear to generate sustainable espresso farming, advertising, and marketing, supply chain control, opposite logistics, CSR, and others. The sustainable farming of coffee pertains to the substitution of chemical insecticides and bio-fertilizers with fertilizers for pest and weed management.

The yearly manufacturing degree and farmers’ earnings are additionally verified to recognize the variations among licensed and non-licensed espresso farms. Furthermore, diversification of crops is likewise referred to because of its gain of decreasing dangers and vulnerability springing up from single-cropping, and organic and climatic modifications (Byrareddy et al., 2019). They would pay interest on the creation of logistics and delivery medium control to lessen power intake and manage the pollutants ranging from the transportation and manufacturing manner. The help of data structures additionally proves to be essential with reference to this factor. They generate super interest in biodiversity; removal of erosion of soil; organic assets; weather alternate; water and air standards; and emission discounts in manufacturing and logistics tasks. The control of waste-disposal approaches, managing the supply and quantity of water intake for irrigation, and the utilization of power-protecting structures may also generate plenty of interest.

3.2 Waste management and disposal practices of different coffee companies

The waste disposal and management practices of "Costa Coffee" are being done through generating a reduction in the usage of a large number of cans and bottles on which the coffee is being served and ingredients of coffee-making are being stored. Instead, they make utilization of the refillable bottles, thereby shunning the purchase of individual use “beverage containers”. On the other hand, they make copies of files and documents on each side of the paper in place of only one side. They further promote in their stores the usage of cloth bags in place of plastic and papers (Janissen and Huynh, 2018). This company further does the management of waste by generating awareness among their workers about the necessity of maintaining the cleanliness of the stores and tables where the customers will come, sit and drink coffee (Byrareddy et al., 2019). The manager of this company too had instructed their workers to keep a dustbin in the vicinity of every table so that all the customers can throw their wastes and coffee cups in that dustbin, thereby managing and disposing of the waste rather than spreading it.

The management of waste is done by the “Caribou Coffee '' through generating reuse of the leftover materials and ingredients that are being used for making and serving the coffee. Moreover, they also look after increasing the longevity of the machines and materials that are being used for making coffee through regularly repairing them whenever any damage takes place (Nguyen and Vo, 2021). The chef of this coffee store looks after putting the exact amount of coffee that is needed for making it in the cups, thereby reducing the unnecessary wastage of coffee. Despite the fact that they recycle every sleeve and paper cup they supply, it is nevertheless a significant quantity of pointless waste. Hence, in the event that they desire to get rid of waste in the absence of spending any cash, begin the usage of actual mugs for everyone who is consuming it (Nguyen and Vo, 2021). A few clients are probably averse to shifting from paper cups, however, they are able to inspire them to carry a journey mug. At the same time, as it is no longer likely that they are able to get rid of every paper cup from the carrier, they could do plenty to reduce their utilization. They also further make a saving of the milk to reduce its unnecessary wastage along with making the use of accurate milk and sugar too for making the coffee with good quality tastes and flavors.

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4. Feasible recommendations for action for Café Nero

It can be recommended that Cafe Nero must adopt the best sustainability practices along with complying with the legal guidelines of each country where they are generating their business operations. On the other hand, they are also needed to make the least use of plastics and papers along with ensuring the regular cleaning of the floor and table of the store (Bhatia and Tuli, 2018). This will further help them in creating a good impression among the visitors, thereby increasing the number of customers and revenue too. For maintaining sustainability practices, they are required to increase the quality, tastes, and flavors of the coffee that is being sold by them at reasonable prices.

5. Action Plan

Sustainable practices



Reuse of waste materials

This means again using the leftover coffee beans and other ingredients for the next day's coffee sales.

12 months

Repairing of machines

This refers to making repairs to any coffee-making devices and machines that might have been damaged.


Regular cleaning

This refers to the daily cleaning of floors and tables of the coffee stores to make it hygienic for customers to visit and drink coffee.

12 months


From the above study, it has been analyzed that Costa has committed to reducing their wastage proportion to half along with in addition to direct broader alternate to lessen the United Kingdom's yearly wastage of foods that consists of nearly 10.2 million tones. The strategy, evolved in collaboration with IGD and WRAP, generates a platform for which corporations could lessen the wastage of raw materials and coffee substances with a 'farm-to-fork' technique. On the other hand, it has been known that the "Blue Bottle Coffee" too had been successful in achieving sustainability through funding to manufacturers, providing awards to leaders and developing and following best practices. Moreover, they are additionally leading the beverage and food industry with the help of action toward zero wastage, reusing, and emissions of greenhouse gas. The above study had assisted in understanding the Supply of espresso beans from farms with natural practices. Licensed natural farms create perfect selections. But, many espresso farms that still comply with natural activities conflict to benefit from this certification because of a low level of finances. Espresso packaging is extraordinarily essential to the supply and sale of coffee as it enhances a barrier among the espresso and oxygen crucial to preserving product pleasantness and durability.


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