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Organizational Behavior, Culture Leadership Analysis

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Introduction: Analyzing Organizational Behavior Factors through an Academic Literature Review

In the modern world, much focus and research is focussed on organizational behavior and the factors, process and tools that are used in this phenomenon. The scope of organizational change encompasses the structure, business policies, operational procedures, positioning and its competitive strategy.  Although usually always there are some changes and adjustments going on all the time owing to various internal and external factors. But by organizational change we mean a well thought-out plan to obtain certain S.M.A.R.T. objectives.

Apple Inc. has been chosen in this assignment to analyze its organization set, hierarchy and its leadership style.

Three people founded this company in 1976. These founders are Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. The very next year the company was converted into Apple Inc. (Connerley and Pedersen, 2005)

Apple's CEO Steve Jobs earned global fame for his astonishing vision and leadership style that has the capability to motivate and influence his organization and workers in a great manner.  Most of the analysts credit  him for the unprecedented rise and success of this company. (Belk and Tumbat, 2005)

The organization is a leading manufacturer of a range of electronic products and gadgets including laptops, PCs, iPhones and other media transmission gadgets. It has been a pioneer in the change of innovation to suit different and dynamic monetary projections. The business endured the 2008 monetary downturn that prompted the conclusion of numerous endeavors.

The Apple Company appreciates a respectable and unparalleled brand picture the world over. It was estimated at $182.795 billion as of every 2014, making it the most elevated esteemed brand on the planet. It has in excess of 98,000 representatives around the world located in its many retail locations in 15 distinct nations. (Badenhausen, 2020)

The organization over and again includes on the Fortune Magazine and merits the examination. It additionally incorporates a corporate culture of energy and advancement that has prompted the plan, improvement, and appropriation of well renowed items. Apple enjoys a large segment of loyal, brand conscious and satisfied customers. (Le?niak-Moczuk, 2016)

Social Perspective of the Apple Incorporation

Authoritative culture is an indispensable determinant of the general achievement of any business. It shapes the conduct and convictions of the partners of the association including the administration and employees.

The authoritative administration culture is adopted and implemented across all levels of organizational hierarchy trickling down from top to bottom.

Authoritative viability is dependent upon the capacity of the relationship to prompt the privileged social qualities in the conduct of its workers.

There are various types of authoritative culture, including imaginative, innovative, advertised, and progressive points of view. There has been help for the presence of a relationship among the way of life, jobs, conduct, and attitude of the workers.

Authoritative culture can be characterized as the example of fundamental premises that a specific firm creates trying to adapt to difficulties of the large scale condition by adjustment and coordination of different achievement factors in the smaller scale condition.

The authoritative management culture is considered to have played a vital role in Apple's success and achievements. Apple has a corporate culture that empowers HR to plan and execute various business targets and policies.. For example, the organization's social attributes promote its drive for progress, playing a pivotal role in its strides in data innovation, online administrations, and buyer hardware enterprises.

Apple Inc. efficiently utilises its hierarchical organizational culture to accomplish its corporate strategic vision objectives. Apple shapes its corporate culture and uses it as an instrument for achieving administrative and  marketing goals. (Rhodes and McGuire, 2013)

Apple has developed a corporate over the years that helps it to maintain its competitive advantage over its rivals in a number of areas. Due to its broad products base, Apple has to compete with global giants like Google, Samsung, Sony, PayPal, Amazon.com, Dell, hp, IBM, Intel. Lenovo and so many others in the field of product development and offering, data acquisition,  research and development, innovation and ultimately market share. Fergosein in his Porter's Five Forces examination of Apple Inc. outlined key organizational measures that the company adopted in the face of this competition. (Ferguson, 2020)

Apple's Organizational Culture

Apple Inc. implemented a hierarchical culture for innovative development. The organization allocates large resources for its R&D  and focuses on high tech advancement. (Dudovskiy, 2020)

Number of Apple's corporate culture  attributes are briefly described below:

  • First class greatness    
  • Imagination                
  • Advancement            
  • Mystery                      
  • Moderate aggressiveness       

3.1 Excellence. Apple hires top-notch personnels available. Steve Jobs' successor Tim Cook follows his practice of firing underperforming employees. This looks inhuman, but on the other hand it keeps the employees on one toe all the time. On the other side, the company acknowledges and generously rewards the outperforming staff members. (Meyer, 2020)

3.2 Inventiveness. By Apple, the first thing that comes to everyone's imagination is something awful, modern and innovative. This is due to the fact that the company always adheres to its policy of encouraging innovation and forward thinking. The corporate culture promoting innovation helps to keep it on top in terms of technology, branding and design. Such imagination is the hallmark of iPhones, Macs, iPads, and it's other product range. Till date, authoritative culture keeps up the organization's ability to fulfill clients' expectations and demands. (earley, 2004)

3.3 Development. Authoritative culture that prevails in Apple underpins quick progress. The corporation is ranked as one of the most progressive organizations globally. In light of this legacy, the firm empowers its employees to undertake decisions to achieve their assigned targets. It's corporate culture facilitates rapid development, which characterises Apple Inc's. Business strategy. This enables it to keep well ahead of its competitors in product development and its offering in the market. (Muhlbauer, 2017)

3.4 Secrecy. Steve Jobs had decided the company to have a hierarchical culture of secrecy. This decision characterizes its human resources policy. Keeping matters confided to relevant employees only, is a policy aiming to prevent intellectual theft and technology piracy. (Lashinsky, 2011)

3.5 Combativeness. The company's authoritative organizational style has moderate confrontational tendencies. This feature stems back to Steve Jobs and his contentious administration approach. He used to haphazardly provoke employees to prove that they have the desired qualities and expertise to remain a part of this iconic organization. Though Tim Cook is gradually changing this practice to get rid of employees' concerns. However, confrontational tendencies cast a significant impact in the organization. Apple's corporate culture is an example of administrative aggression to get most out of irs employees.  (Chomsky, 2017)

Apple's Corporate Culture - Bright and dark side

4.1 Focal points and Benefits. The mix of founder's visionary foresight, inventiveness and progress in Apple's hierarchical culture hallmarks its business model. Its business practices and organizational set up are usuallyregarded as innovative as its products. (Perrow, 2000)

4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages. Apple has to face criticism over its policy of mystery as well as its extremely stressful HR policies. This mystery approach has affected the cordial working atmosphere and employees hesitate working in teams and leads to development of distrust among staff. This results in an increased employees turnover. Apple should devise some remedial ways to decrease the confrontational environment created by this mystery policy. This proposal suggests lessening the aggressiveness, without disposing of the benefits of contentious policies. (Kapp, 2000)

The impacts of such advancements affect the conduct of the workers. Notwithstanding the size of the association, there are two hypothetical issues that must be settled.

Advancement is profoundly esteemed in the Apple Company as it is the foundation for its prosperity.

The corporation has a pool of exceptionally gifted individuals who are entrusted with R& D responsible  for its cutting edge  innovative electronic gadgets.

It likewise assumes an essential job in programming advancement. Apple Inc. utilizes the motto 'Flawed Makes Improvement' as an idea that shapes the development culture in its association. (Proctor, n.d.)

Its hierarchical culture empowers the staff on various levels to act quite independently  nd not need micro-management from superiors.

The organization's novel culture facilitates it to act and react at a faster speed than its rivals. The organization likewise holds that it is simpler to dispatch another task when there are just a couple of individuals who can endorse it. In accordance with its creative culture, the Apple Company expands on the drive to beat and prevail as its core values.

There are two sorts of standards that characterize the helpful culture of the Apple Company in particular, serious and self-actualisation standards. The serious standards include settings whereby the representatives make a solid effort to beat one another and awards for their presentation are perceived through examination strategies. (Gibson, 2012)

Worker advancement and self-actualisation are crucial highlights of the Apple Company's way of life. The workforce is urged and bolstered to create individualized job directions.

Organizational Structure

The Apple Company receives the third structure whereby specialization and joining characterize the connection between the representatives and the board. The organization is a profoundly community association that qualities the commitment and serious edge of every worker.

The Apple Company has its principal central station in Cupertino, California. It additionally has branches that are entrenched in numerous areas around the globe.

The business is organized into three primary zones including equipment, programming, and business bolster administrations.

Dynamic procedures in the Apple Company depend on the top-down methodology. As of now, Apple Inc. is under the authority of the CEO Tim Cook who supplanted the late Steve Jobs in August 2011.

A central directorate under the supervision of Apple's CEO is responsible to overlook the top management and different sectors. The administration of the Apple Inc. is organized to encourage principled activities, successful dynamic procedures, and checking consistency and execution reasonableness. 

Possibility Perspective

One of the center determinants of accomplishment in associations is the capacity to control innovation in its activities with a perspective on building up a serious edge over other businesses.

It includes the improved change of contributions to yields for association tasks. It includes both the used hardware and scholarly expertise used in the change of contributions to yields.

Innovation can be either center or fringe. Center innovation halfway characterizes the tasks of the organisation9. For example, the Apple Company utilizes both information and apparatus to deliver iPhones. (Pulakos, 2009)

Then again, fringe innovation acts one next to the other with the center innovation to supplement the general accomplishment of the firm. For instance, in the Apple Company, innovation is used to get ready yearly reports in the structure that exceed expectations and word archives.

As per Joan Woodward, innovation can be grouped into three structures dependent on production10.

Right off the bat, little clump and unit creation innovation produces units in single bits one after another. This type of development is regular in labor forms where laborers assume their jobs from the beginning as far as possible of the item.

Besides, huge clump and large scale manufacturing innovation centers around the yield of numerous comparable items that are all the while intended for undifferentiated markets.

Thirdly, it tends to be viewed as a constant procedure of creation whereby innovation is used in the transformation of crude materials to deliver various types of items for a separated market.

The most significant pertinent advancement set forward by Joan Woodward is the huge and large scale manufacturing innovations that are related with both brought together and bureaucratic authoritative structures.

Constant procedures are connected with decentralized administration structures. The kind of innovation applied in an association decides the level of self-governance and scope practiced by the individual representatives in the association.

Representatives have a self-rule over the organization's mechanical applications to guarantee the planning, creation, and presentation of high caliber and one of a kind items to the market. For the profoundly serious industry, innovation requires a high level of representative self-governance as they control their scholarly information.

Right now, Apple company deals with the intensity of the representatives in its specialties to guarantee that their apparent choices are assessed and actualized. This circumstance thus elevates the responsibility and creative culture in the firm.

The Apple Company's items join a blend of innovative abilities to give their clients the best understanding of numerous administrations in a single bundle. For example, the iPhone 5 cell phone consolidates a web association, a versatile music player, and contact screen interface among others.

Because of its novel highlights, the gadget together with different items and administrations saw the Apple Company create roughly $80,477 million net deals in 2012. This sum mirrored a 71% addition when contrasted with the earlier year, 2011.

The Apple Company adjusts quickly to ecological elements, particularly the serious field offered by other driving sellers in similar items, for example, the Samsung and Android Operating frameworks that order the best portion of the cell phone advertise the world over.

The rise of the Android Operating System was the greatest test for iOS as well as the BlackBerry and Symbian programming. Shockingly, the organization has stayed stable in spite of the development of the serious brands.


(Apple Inc.'s Generic Strategy & Intensive Growth Strategies - Panmore Institute, 2020)


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Belk, R. and Tumbat, G., 2005. The Cult of Macintosh.Consumption Markets & Culture, 8(3), pp.205-217.


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Pulakos, E., 2009. Performance Management. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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Rhodes, G. and McGuire, J., 2013. Transforming Your Leadership Culture. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass.



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