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Internet is nothing but an electronic communications network that connects the computer networks throughout the whole world. It revolutionizes modern communications in such a way that no one in this era can live without it. Internet along with mobile communication technology made our world as global village. According to the United Nations report half of the world’s population does not have access to the internet. Google’s subsidiary Loon LLC has come with an innovative solution to this problem. Project loon is an initiative by Google to facilitate internet access to 4.5 billion offline users. Google uses high-altitude balloons in the stratosphere to create a wireless connectivity up to 4G-LTE( Long Term Evolution)speeds. Key people involved in this innovative project include Rich Devalue, Mike Cassidy and Cyrus Behroozi. Rich Devalue is the chief architect of this project. Balloons containing communication equipment are flown through the air and maneuvered through the earth’s atmosphere by adjusting wind speed and direction. Signals travel through the balloons and are connected to the external network through the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Users receive the desired signal by using their antenna situated on their roof top.
Google officially announced Project loon on 14 June 2013 and carried out several experiments to examine the ground reality as well as feasibility of this innovative project. Google started a pilot project in New Zealand with the coordination of the local authority o June 16, 2013. 50 users are tested with a special type of receiving equipment. After this experiment Google conducted another experiment where 300 balloons were sending around the world at the 40 the parallel south to provide coverage over New Zealand, Australia, Argentina and China. Charles Nimmo, who was an entrepreneur of lesson was world’s first person to get access of Google’s this flagship technology (Coyet al., 2017). In 2014 Astro teller suggested Google to install temporary base station instead of using the free section of the licensed spectrum. In 2014 Google introduced LTE (Long Time Evolution) technologyin project loon in Brazil. Google also conducted several experiments from which the power and limitations can be understood. It is found that Internet can be stream through the farthest corner of the earth by using this technology. The balloon is made of polyethylene plastic material as it can last at least100 days. Balloons are maneuvered through the earth’s stratosphere and are connected to each other to form a network. They further connected to the external network through Internet Service Provider (ISP). Users access this network using specific antenna. To increase the network connectivity signals hopped from one balloon to another. Patch antenna, Reflector antennas are used to transmit signals. Micro strip patch antenna is a special device in which two conductors are separated through a dielectric material called substrate. The below conductor the substrate is called ground line and the upper conductor is called as patch. Patch and ground line are connected through a transmission line. Reflector antenna is used to converge the electromagnetic (EM) energy in a specified direction to increase directivity. Balloons are placed 20 km above the earth’s stratosphere and the direction of their movement is maneuvered using software algorithm. A large network can be formed by flowing huge number of balloons in the stratosphere. As the balloons forming the network are situated 10km to 60km altitude of the stratosphere it is very difficult to maintain resist the earth’s atmospheric disturbances (Nagpaland Samdani, 2017). This is taken care of by Google’s sophisticated software algorithms. A solar panel is introduced to give power to communication equipment of the balloon. By using the unlicensed 2.4 to 5.8 GHZ ISMband it communicates with the users.
Project loon forms a wireless communication network which provides internet connectivity to the 4.5 billion people who are offline. Google constructed this network by combining huge number of balloons those are equipped with communication instruments. Balloons are maneuvered through the earth’s stratosphere and are connected to each other to form a network. They further connected to the external network through Internet Service Provider (ISP). Users access this network using specific antenna. To increase the network connectivity signals hopped from one balloon to another.Signals travels through the balloons and are connected to the external network through the Internet Service Provider (ISP) (Budiyantoet al.,2019). Users receive the desired signal by using their antenna situated on their roof top. To increase the network connectivity signals hopped from one balloon to another.
Fig: Connectivity of Project Loon
Google has launched an initiation of a project of distributing internet over the rural areas. While the distribution is conducted for distant communication, it can be stated that, retro motors are used for rolling of the balloon s over rural areas. Weather is the foremost problem for this project and hence, the initiative was misled during the optimistic machine learning programs but while the weather can make certain changes within the system, deriving solutions from machine learning algorithms, hover balloons are centered over rural areas where internet is not reachable. The initiative of Google was launched based on radio frequency transmission and distribution of machine learning algorithms. One portion of the transmitters is included in the middle aligned Yagi-Uda antenna and the second transmitter is included in the section of blow-horn antenna. The distribution is gathered within for a minute network distribution through routing technology. Majorly, Google is using 5G technology to produce high frequency radio waves and distribute it through monitory mediums.
Fig: Project Loon
Comparing both of the studies organized by different authors in this field of study, it can be stated that both of the authors have discussed about Google’s contribution towards the subject of choice. Modern technology has converted the distribution system using difficult transmitting technology like Micro strip antennas.
Initially, the first study of elaborates the ideology of Google company but several initiations suggest that introductory transmission process. Google formally reported Project crackpot in 14 June 2013 and completed a few trials to analyze the ground reality just as practicality of this creative task. Google began a pilot venture in New Zealand with the co appointment of the neighborhood authority o June 16, 2013 (Kaur and Randhawa, 2018). 50 clients are tried with an exceptional kind of accepting gear. After this test Google led another examination where 300 antennas were sending the world over at the 40 the equal south to give inclusion over New Zealand, Australia, Argentina and China. Charles Nimmo, who was a business visionary of exercise was world's first individual to get access of Google's this lead innovation. In 2014 Astro teller proposed Google to introduce impermanent base station as opposed to utilizing the free area of the authorized range. In 2014 Google presented LTE (Long Time Evolution) innovation in venture nut case in Brazil. Google additionally led a few examinations from which the force and restrictions can be comprehended. It is find that Internet can be stream through the most distant corner of the earth by utilizing this innovation. The antenna is made of polyethylene plastic material as it can last in any event 100 days. Antennas are moved through the world's stratosphere and are associated with one another to shape a system. They further associated with the outside system through Internet Service Provider (ISP) (Revaret al., 2019). Clients get to this system utilizing explicit radio wire. To build the system availability signals bounced starting with one antenna then onto the next. Fix reception apparatus, Reflector receiving wires are utilized to transmit signals. Miniaturized scale strip fix radio wire is a unique gadget wherein two conduits are isolated through a dielectric material called substrate. The underneath conductor the substrate is called ground line and the upper conductor is called as fix. Fix and ground line are associated through a transmission line. Reflector receiving wire is utilized to combine the electromagnetic (EM) vitality in a predefined course to expand directivity. Antennas are put 20 km over the world's stratosphere and the heading of their development is moved utilizing programming calculation. A huge system can be framed by streaming immense number of antennas in the stratosphere. As the antenna’s shaping the system are arranged 10 km to 60 km height of the stratosphere it is hard to keep up oppose the world's environmental aggravations. This is dealt with by Google's complex programming calculations. A sun powered board is acquainted with offer capacity to correspondence supplies of the antenna. By utilizing the unlicensed 2.4 to 5.8 GHZ ISM band it speaks with the clients (Darokarand Astonkar, 2017).
The second paper suggests Venture nut case frames a remote correspondence arranges which gives web network to the 4.5 billion individuals who are disconnected. Google developed this system by joining immense number of antennas those are furnished with correspondence instruments. Antennas are moved through the world's stratosphere and are associated with one another to shape a system. They further associated with the outside system through Internet Service Provider (ISP). Clients get to this system utilizing explicit radio wire. To build the system availability signals jumped starting with one antenna then onto the next. Signs go through the antennas and are associated with the outside system through the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Clients get the ideal sign by utilizing their radio wire arranged on their rooftop top. To build the system availability signals bounced starting with one antenna then onto the next. Google has propelled an inception of a task of circulating web over the country territories. While the conveyance is directed for removed correspondence, it tends to be expressed that, retro engines are utilized for moving of the antenna s over provincial zones (Wanget al., 2017). Climate is the principal issue for this venture and henceforth, the activity was deceive during the hopeful AI programs however while the climate can roll out specific improvements inside the framework, getting arrangements from AI calculations, float antennas are focused over country regions where web isn't reachable (Kuvalekar, 2016). The activity of Google was propelled dependent on radio recurrence transmission and dissemination of AI calculations. One part of the transmitters is remembered for the center adjusted Yagi-Uda radio wire and the subsequent transmitter is remembered for the segment of blow-horn reception apparatus. The dispersion is assembled inside for brief system dissemination through directing innovation. Significantly, Google is utilizing 5G innovation to deliver high recurrence radio waves and appropriate it through monitory mediums.
It can be concluded that many of the authors have created diversified vision on Project Loon, so while evaluating the researches of previous authors, the learner made some critical findings regarding Google and its activities. The launching of balloon programs as well as network distribution technologies are prescribed as biggest achievements of Google since last era. It can be recommended that Micro strip antennas are effective for distant network distribution using routing technology but effective gathering of radio activities as well as wave frequencies, the antennas are major platforms to make this project successful with inclusive intelligence. The discussions also suggest how communicative distribution and changing. The critical findings expose differential testament from laser technology to micro-strip transmission effect using radio frequent transmitters. Extreme climate changes and weather conditions affect the processing of project loon and hence, the production becomes inactive during the project is going on but since, Google has launched their new satellite in the stratosphere, the climate changes have been no issue for this project. It can be highly concluded and recommended that project loon is an initiation of betterment and changes in the future and since, Google has taken the first step towards this opportunity, it is hoped that the world will be connected together in the near future.
Coy, L., Schoeberl, M.R., Pawson, S., Candido, S. and Carver, R.W., 2017. Global assimilation of X Project Loon stratospheric balloon observations.
Budiyanto, S., Jamil, M. and Rahayu, F., 2019. Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Project Loon as an Equitable Effort for Communication Infrastructure Development in Indonesia. InComTech, 9(2), pp.61-76.
Revar, D., Mishra, S., Shinde, S., Adkar, V. and Somnathe, A.T., 2019. Case Study on Project ‘LOON’.
Darokar, M.P. and Astonkar, D.V., 2017. Provide high altitude network by using Project Loon. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 4(1), pp.659-662.
Wang, C., Shi, C. and Zhang, H., 2017. Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling over Southern Hemisphere. Scientific reports, 7, p.45976.
Kuvalekar, M.S., 2016. Comparative study of Project Loon & Wi-Fi. Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol, 3(6), pp.1908-1910.
Nagpal, L. and Samdani, K., 2017, May. Project Loon: Innovating the connectivity worldwide. In 2017 2nd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT) (pp. 1778-1784). IEEE.
Kaur, S. and Randhawa, S., 2018, October. Google loon: balloon-powered internet for everyone. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2034, No. 1, p. 020006). AIP Publishing LLC.
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