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The report is about to explore the theory of how heat is transferred through a parallel plate heat exchanger. One of the important pieces of equipment that are used in the modern era both in residential and industrial areas is the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is based on the principle of transfer of heat from a higher temperature (source) to a lower temperature (sink). The heat exchanger is a device that transfers heat energy from one fluid to another or between two media. The fluid could be gas or liquid or a combination of liquid and gas. These mediums can be separated by a solid wall or just by the air. The energy efficiency of a system can be improved by the heat exchanger because it transfers heat from a system where there is no need for this energy and the energy can be useful for the second system. The type and the shape of the heat exchanger vary depending on the application of the equipment. The fluid flows in a doubled line in most of the heat exchangers in which the total heat lost by the fluid with higher is gained by the cold fluid. Here the heating element is a solid, resistance coil used in the heating system of the air conditioning for industrial, medical application, and residential. The control and design of a heat exchanger are dependent on the need of the system where it will be used. Any heat exchanger has many requirements and among them, the most important requirements are the temperature at which the fluid in the control panel exists (set point) and the time required to catch this temperature (time of settling). Any output/input equipment or the control of the heat exchanger required a control algorithm that can control the output variable by taking specific decisions. The achievement of the reach point accurately at the smalltime without any overshooting is the research topic for many researchers nowadays. In this coursework, the parallel plate heat exchanger is used. This type of connection allows forming a series of channels to flow fluid between them. The place between two plates forms a channel that allows flow of the fluid. In a parallel plate heat exchanger, a series of parallel plates are connected parallels one after another. The ratio of the inertia force to friction force or viscous within a flow of fluid is called the Reynolds number. It is a dimensionless quantity as it is the ratio of the forces. The characteristics of the flow of fluid are shown by the Reynolds number whether it is laminar, turbulent, or translational. The equation of continuity stated that the mass entered in a static volume must be equal to the mass left the volume. This also provides information about the increase in the velocity of the liquid within a specific volume. Different fluid mechanics’ principles’ are the basis of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling. It utilizes algorithms and numerical processes to solve any problem which involves the flow of fluid. Different chemical reaction processes such as combustion with the flow of fluid are integrated into the model to provide a 3dimensional understanding of the performance of the boiler. The simulation of the interaction between the gases and liquid where boundary conditions are defined by the surfaces are attempted by the CFD model. The model also tracks the flow of solid particles by a system. The results of the model are analyzed by the NavierStokes equations either a transient condition or a steadystate condition.
The main aim of this coursework is to develop different key capabilities that are required in the innovation process of different mechanical products which especially includes management, creativity, method of modeling, synthesis, and analysis, and the uses of CFD application across the world with different tools such as ANSYS software for simulation and to find the results of typical problems of engineering. To meet the aim of the modeling, a case study has to be selected to perform all the practical work. All the requirements related to heat transfer and fluid mechanics have to be satisfied by the application of engineering problems.
The objectives of this laboratory are as follows:
Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat energy from one medium to another. The fluid could be gas or liquid or a combination of liquid and gas. A complete wall or simply the air can divide these mediums. The heat exchanger can increase a system's energy efficiency by transferring heat from one system to another that doesn't require it. This energy can then be used by the second system (Yoon et al. 2017). Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling is based on several fluid mechanics principles. It solves any problem involving fluid flows with the help of algorithms and numerical procedures. Different chemical reaction processes, such as combustion with fluid movement, are incorporated into the model to provide a threedimensional view of the boiler's performance (HernándezParra et al. 2018). The CFD model attempts to simulate the interaction between gases and liquids where boundary conditions are defined by surfaces. A system's flow of solid particles is also tracked by the model. In fluid dynamics, incompressible flow defines a constant density within a particular fluid packet. The fast current from the hose assembly is an example of an incompressible flow. Incompressible flow is a property of the material. All liquids are marked as compressible, but many liquids are incompressible due to liquid density fluctuations and can be ignored in applications. Incompressibility is a property of liquids under certain conditions. All heat exchangers have many requirements; most importantly the temperature at which the liquid is in the control panel (setting point) and the time it takes for the liquid to reach that temperature (setting time). Controlling the output/input device or heat exchanger required a control algorithm that could control the output variables through targeted decisions. Reaching range points on a small scale with pinpoint accuracy without overshooting is a research topic for many researchers today (La Madrid et al. 2017). This course uses a parallel plate heat exchanger. This type of connection allows the fluid to form a set of channels for it to flow between them. The points between the two plates form a channel through which the liquid can flow.
The connection in the parallel plate heat exchanger allows forming a series of channels to flow fluid between them. The place between two plates forms a channel that allows flow of the fluid. In a parallel plate heat exchanger, a series of parallel plates are connected parallels one after another. There are two outlet flows and two inlet flows in the parallel plate heat exchanger. Every configuration of outlet and inlet has a separate flow of cold and hot fluid. Figure two shows the assembling of the parallel plate heat exchanger and has the makings of placement of thermocouple. In this experiment, the flow direction of the flow was the same for the cold and hot fluid as shown in figure 2. This type of flow is called parallel flow. The various limitations and the errors of this experiment are explained in the next chapter of the experiment’s work (El et al. 2017). The flow boundary in this experiment is 3.4 mm, for that reason, the flow between the parallel plates will be turbulent and the boundary lamina formed in the walls of the steel plate will be interacting with each other. The flow disrupter will increase the turbulent flow through the bounded wall. This is observed in figure 3.
Figure 2: The parallel flow of heat exchanger
(Source: Given)
Figure 3: Overhead image of steel plate with flow
(Source: Given)
ANSYS Fluent 2018 software will be used to simulate the model that does not limit the size of the mesh whether students constraints the limit or not the model to elements of 512000. This software is used to carry out the numerical simulation with a steadystate solver of 3D double accuracy. A symmetry plane is used to cut the reactor to save the time of calculation in the longitudinal direction and the conduits’ length feeds the Ymixer was reduced to 0. For this purpose, the velocity of the inlet did not provide a constant value. The nonslip condition is also known as the novelty offset condition. The velocity of a liquid or gas layer associated with a fluid boundary is believed to be similar to the velocity of the boundary. This means that there is no relative velocity between the liquid layer and the boundary that caused the slip in these areas. Velocity offset or slips conditions where velocity continuity is assumed to be lacking in this region. This means that there is a relative velocity between the liquid layer and the boundary, and slippage has occurred in that area (De et al. 2017). The virtual boundary length between the fluid and the boundary where the fluid reaches the effective velocity condition is expressed as the slip length.
The key challenges that will be faced by the students are the creation of the geometry that has to mesh and the convergence of the mesh to get the representative values. The simplified models such as 3D and 2D and another complex model of 3D. The important equation that helps in the calculation of the findings of the value is stated in table 1 below;
Definition 
Equation 
Units 
Temperature for cold and hot flow 
K, or ^{0}C 

The difference of temperature between outlet and inlet for cold and hot fluids 
Equation 1 >Equation 2 > 
K, or ^{0}C 
The mean temperature for cold and hot flows 
Equation 3 /2 
K, or ^{0}C 
Coefficient of theoretical energy balance 
Equation 4 > 

Thermal efficiency for cold and hot flow (for hot and cold respectively) 
Equation 5 * 100Equation 6 ( ) * 100 

The efficiency of mean temperature (η mean) 
Equation 7 

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) 
Equation 8   )]/ 
K, or ^{0}C 
Coefficient of heat transfer (U) 
Equation 9 (A * LMTD) 
W/m^{2}K 
Table 1: Sample equation
(Source: Selfcreated)
All of the abovementioned equations will help to compare the qualitative values of the different heat exchangers. For example, the Coefficient of heat transfer can compare the efficiency of the heat exchangers through numerical ways. All heat exchangers have many requirements; most importantly the temperature at which the liquid is in the control panel (setting point) and the time it takes for the liquid to reach that temperature (setting time). Controlling the output/input device or heat exchanger required a control algorithm that could control the output variables through targeted decisions. Reaching range points on a small scale with pinpoint accuracy without overshooting is a research topic for many researchers today. This course uses a parallel plate heat exchanger (Abbasi et al. 2020). This type of connection allows the fluid to form a set of channels for it to flow between them. The points between the two plates form a channel through which the liquid can flow.
In the experiment model, due to the precision of the answer, the equation of motion can be found by using the kepsilon simulation solver (Khalil et al. 2019). The laws for this type of flow are dictated by the NavierStokes equations being it is the flow of viscous fluid, incompressible, a solver is used as all of these equations are very difficult to equate by hand.
Equation 10,
X [ δu/δt + u δu/δx + v δu/δy + w δu/δz]
The above equation 10, shows the fluid flow in the xdirection where the majority of the fluid flows. The z and y components can also be calculated for every element. This is a reason for which the hand calculation is not efficient due to the time required for labor.
The ratio of the inertia force to friction force or viscous within a flow of fluid is called the Reynolds number. It is a dimensionless quantity as it is the ratio of the forces. The characteristics of the flow of fluid are shown by the Reynolds number whether it is laminar, turbulent, or translational (Malekan et al. 2019). The symbol of the Reynolds number is Re. It is defined as
Equation 11,
/μ of the liquid (Kg/m^{3})U (or velocity of the liquid or gas in the specific channel (m/s)
diameter (m) of the liquid or gas (Kg/ms)Equation 12,
>Figure 4: Position where Reynolds number calculated theoretically
(Source: Given)
If the value of Reynolds number is less than 2300, then the flow of liquid is laminar, i.e. Re < 2300. When the value of Reynolds number is between 2300 and 4000, the flow will be transient, i.e. 2300 < Re < 4000. When the value of Reynolds number is greater than 4000 then the flow will be Turbulent, i.e. Re > 4000. But in actual cases, laminar flow can be seen only in viscous fluids such as fuel oil, crude oil, and other different oils (Biçer et al. 2020). The determination of the characteristics of the fluid is used in the different models, wherein the 3D complex model is determined as turbulent or laminar. All the nonmeasured values can be determined from relevant properties of linear interpolation provided on the tables or can be calculated from the stated equations.
There are a set of assumptions that need to be set for this experiments to apply the theory throughout the report, these assumptions are 
The statement of the conservation of mass is the Equation of continuity for the liquid flow within the pipeline. It is simply a balance of mass that flows through a static volume element. It stated that the mass entered in a static volume must be equal to the mass leaving the volume (Sallam et al. 2019). This also provides information about the increase in the velocity of the liquid within a specific volume.
Figure 5: Continuity Equation
(Source: dusling.github.io)
The continuity equation helps to understand the decrease and increase in the velocity of the fluid of a point in a specific cross sectional area through equation 13.
Since no mass deletion or creation can occur in the pipe then the variation of the mass can be written as
>Where is the mass of fluid in section 1 of the pipe and the mass of fluid in section 2.
Equation 13,
>Where the density of the fluid, v the velocity of the fluid, and A is the crosssectional area of the fluid.
5.2.2 Incompressible Flow
In fluid mechanics, incompressible flow defines the density which is constant in a specific parcel of fluid. The flow of stream at the high speed from the hose pipe is an example of incompressible flow. Incompressible flow is the characteristics of the material. All the fluids are characterized to be compressible but many fluids are incompressible due to the variation of the density of the fluid and it is negligible for the applications (Zhu, X., & Haglind, F. 2020). Incompressibility is the features of the liquid exhibited to certain conditions.
Equation 14,
>The noslip condition is also known as the novelocity offset condition. It is assumed that the velocity of the liquid or gas layer connected to the boundary of the fluid is similar to the speed of the boundary. This means there is no relative velocity between the fluid layer and the boundary which resulted in noslip in those regions. Velocity offset condition or the slip condition assumes that there is a lack of continuity in the velocity in that region. This means there is the relative velocity between the fluid layer and the boundary which resulted in slip in that region (Zhang et al. 2017). The hypothetical boundary length between the fluid and the boundary where the fluid reaches the effective velocity condition is denoted by the slip length. The differences between the velocity of the boundary and the last layer of the fluid can be determined by the below equation.
>The slip length only depends on the solid and the pair of fluids thus it can be determined experimentally (Ishaque et al. 2020). The boundary condition has an important role in different applications of physics. There are different historical perspectives of boundary conditions such as noslip conditions. The continuity equation along with the NavierStokes equation gives the governing and fundamental equation of motion for the viscous fluids. The NavierStokes equation for the constant velocity in the incompressible fluid is stated as follows:
ρ [ δu/δt + u δu/δx + v δu/δy + w δu/δz]
And the equation of continuity is
>But this equation cannot be used immediately for a specific calculation. This needs the specific situation to use this equation. This condition must be created or structured to use this equation. The boundary conditions are set forth for other things. In fluid dynamics, a common type of idealized boundary is found (Özdemir, K., & Serincan, M. F. 2018). To justify the noslip condition there must be one type of consideration that has to be taken care of. This is the experiment has to be involved in the direct variation with the physical surface,
In this experiment, the noslip conditions are assumed and it is assumed that the velocity of the liquid or gas layer connected to the boundary of the fluid is similar to the speed of the boundary. This means there is no relative velocity between the fluid layer and the boundary which resulted in no slip in that region, which is shown in figure 6.
Figure 6: Profile of velocity in noslip condition
(Source: Given)
The 4 steel plates of the parallel plate heat exchanger cause a profile of velocity analogous to shown in figure 7, the boundary layer is formed due to the noslip condition between the fluid and boundary wall (Sutanto, B., & Indartono, Y. S. 2019). The center velocity flow of the fluid has a chance to increase due to the area of the inlet in comparison to the length of the plate to develop a fully create flow.
Figure 7: Profile of velocity of turbulent flow between two boundaries
(Source: Given)
The connection of parallel plate heat exchangers allows the formation of a series of channels for fluid to flow between them. The points between the two plates form a channel through which the liquid can flow. In the parallel plate heat exchanger, multiple parallel plates are connected in parallel one after another (Islam et al. 2020). The parallel plate heat exchanger has two outlet flows and two inlet flows. Each outlet and inlet configuration has separate flows of cold and hot fluids. Figure 2 shows the assembly of a parallel plate heat exchanger and shows the requirements for placing a thermocouple. In this experiment, the flow direction was the same for cold and hot fluids. This type of flow is known as parallel flow. There are a hard and fast of assumptions that want to be set for this experiment to use the concept for the duration of the report, those assumptions are the fluid need to fulfill the continuity equation  the mass entered in a static extent ought to be the same to the mass leaving the extent (Mitra et al. 2018). The go with the drift of fluid needs to be incompressible  incompressible go with the drift defines the density that is steady in a particular parcel of fluid. There need to be a noslip circumstance
The various limitations and errors of this experiment are discussed in the next chapter of the experimental work. The flow limit in this experiment is 3.4 mm. As a result, the flow between parallel plates is turbulent and the boundary layers formed on the walls of the steel sheet interact with each other. Flow interrupters increase turbulence through confined walls.
References
Journals
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