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The study is going to discuss the role of the nursing assignment profession in the promotion of health as well as the prevention of ill health. The study will focus on the development of the idea of the possible nursing intervention for the betterment of serious health conditions. This essay is based on the selection of a case of a patient who is diagnosed with Covid-19, the health issue that the patient already has is smoking. The study will shed light on the psychological and psychosocial condition that is associated with the development of smoking. The survey by the government of the UK suggests that the percentage of adult smokers is 13.5% of the whole population in the initial quarter of 2020 (Nhs. UK, 2020). The report of the NHS suggests that smoking is the major cause of annual morbidity in the country. Therefore, approx. 78,000 people are dying due to smoking and health-related issues (Nhs. UK, 2020). Therefore, in the Covid19 context smoking is responsible for increasing the fatality rate. Smoking is a major risk factor for developing COPD and worsening lung health. On the other hand, the Covid19 virus mainly affects the respiratory tract therefore the infected and the poor lung health due to smoking will increase the chance of mortality in the affected persons in the Covid-19 context. Smoke-free legislation had been created by the "Health Act 2006” by the Government of England to prohibit smoking.
Several psychological factors may have an impact on the behaviour of smoking. Anxiety and depression are the most important of any other factors.
Impact of anxiety on smoking: during smoking, chemical called nicotine reaches the brain of the person. It takes less than 10 seconds to research the brain. When nicotine reaches the brain, it helps to improve concentration and mood. It also helps to reduce stress and anger. This is eople who are suffering from anxiety may smoke in a frequent manner. It provides quick relief from mental stress.
However, if nicotine reaches the brain it starts doing some changes to it. If someone stops smoking suddenly, a reduction of nicotine can be seen in the brain. Because of this, withdrawal symptoms of nicotine can be seen (Chen, 2020). In this condition, the brain needs nicotine. Smoking can decrease the withdrawal symptoms of nicotine temporarily. If the person does not take nicotine, they face anxiety. Hence, the person becomes dependent on nicotine and smoking becomes his or her habit. Therefore, it can be said that although anxiety and depression both are conditions of the mental health state, they affect the development of the health in the case of both the child very helpful to reduce anxiety as well. Hence, according to Grogan, et al. (2022) pand the adult health development (Grogan, et al. 2022). In this case, anxiety takes control over the other cognitive characteristics. This condition makes a situation difficult for the one to learn or follow a particular lesson, during the socializing with others and while articulating the response and answer to questions.
Impact of depression on smoking: according to some studies, adults who are suffering from depression have a tendency to smoke twice as much as those who do not have depression. Smoking helps to release a chemical in the brain called dopamine. This chemical is very important to trigger positive feelings. However, according to Pitharouli, et al. (2021) when a person is depressed, smoking may be helpful to provide quick relief from the depression by releasing the happy chemical in the brain called dopamine.
However, most people start to smoke without the sign of depression, hence, it is not clear if depression has a major impact on the smoking behaviour of the people (Wootton, et al. 2020). It can be said that the relationship between smoking and depression is quite complex.
This section of the study will focus on the identification of the socioeconomic factors and they influence smoking, which is considered a major health issue in the UK in the Covid19 context.
The socioeconomic factors are health literacy and income that mainly affect the health issue that is smoking. Therefore, Income is considered the major socioeconomic factor in the essential prevalence of developing active smokers in the country. The patient in the case study is working as an underground cleaner in London. Therefore, the patient belongs to the low-income group (Gravely, et al. 2019). The study based on the evidence suggests that low income is associated with depression due to work culture, anxiety due to poor economic conditions, and less education. Therefore, the patient in the case study belongs from the city in the north secretion of London. In the Thai section of the country, most of the people are from low-income groups. Therefore, they have a tendency to become addicted to smoking. The other socio-economic factor of smoking is health literacy. According to the article, less health literacy results in more active smokers state (Spring et al. 2020). The patient in the case study belongs to a city where the literacy rate is too poor and the health education, the environment is poor, and these result in the lack of awareness regarding the adverse effect of smoking. Therefore, the patient lives in a place where the environment has a negative impact on his smoking habit. These actually have made significant changes in the idea of how well we live and how long we can live (Gravely, et al. 2019). These factors influence the way, one patient mainly who has a case history of smoking and suffering from the Covid -19, can make his own choice in accessing health support or healing care support, and how well and easily he can afford medical care.
Several socio-economic factors are considered to have an adverse effect on health and are connected to the effect of demographic changes. In this case, the pandemic situation influenced the condition more. In this case, the effect of the pandemic causes harm to both society and the economy both facts which include mostly family income, education, the safety of the community, employment, and health access (Witteveen, 2020). The demographic changes and the demographic characteristics have a significant effect on the case of a patient who is suffering from the covid-19. Demographic changes mainly in the case of health care affect the growth rate of the economy. The investment in accessing health care, and affect the age composition in a population or in a community, which leads to, affects the needs, demand, and requirement for social and health care. It affects the adult population, which includes less interest in education, lack of jobs, and the development of many unhealthy habits such as a bit of smoking and drinking in the adult population. The habit of smoking is mainly seen in the male population of the community (Rogers et al. 2020). The working professionals and the cultural practices have significantly influenced his have it of smoking. Along with this, the environment of the community is not that well and the lack of literacy, therefore, causes an aloof mentality about the covid-19 condition and its restriction. Lower-income and the cultural and social environment were very unhealthy for maintaining proper hygiene and reducing the habit of smoking. The lower literacy rate and lack of knowledge mainly cause more problems in understanding the connection between the covid diseases and smoking conditions (Atkins et al. 2020). The demographic changes therefore significantly can affect the health issues and other health conditions of a patient or anyone in such a condition. The members of the community were not even a little concerned about the pandemic and theory had minimum access to the health care services. The habit of smoking worsens his situation. The overall scenario has a negative impact on the patient, which causes the condition more difficult.
A person who smokes regularly might have serious lung and heart problems due to smoking. On the other hand, according to Reddy et al. (2021) in most cases of COVID 19, the virus influences the respiratory system of the patient. In my case, the patient is 45 years old. He is a regular smoker. Several factors such as depression and anxiety may have influenced the smoking behaviour of my patient. The patient was a regular smoker; hence, the lungs of the patient were already affected. If the lungs are affected, there is a higher chance of the severe condition of COVID 19. Besides, he lives in the poorest area in London, he is an underground cleaner, and he is having financial problems as well. Due to these reasons, he is suffering from anxiety and depression. This was the trigger for his smoking behaviour. On the other hand, due to low health literacy, he does not know about the negative impact of smoking.
However, there is no direct relation between smoking and COVID 19 but it can be said that as my patient was a regular smoker, the chances of the severe impact of this disease were higher for my patient.
The above scenario has stated that over the 45 years old patient has faced a health issue that is smoking and survived with the Covid-19 disease. In that case, the role of nurses is one of the important factors for improving his health status. The first step for this patient is from recovering this health issue and Covid-19 disease is leading a healthy lifestyle (McGee et al. 2020). In that case, nurses have recreated a great role in advising this patient for leading a healthy lifestyle. The main role of nurses is to advise the patient about reducing the consumption of tobacco after recovering from Covid-19 disease, which can easily help in reducing the risk factors of Covid-19. The nurses also give some education to the patient based on the risk factors of smoking and mainly the benefits of quitting smoking during this pandemic situation (Kosendiak et al. 2021). This is highly reloaded to NMC because it helps in maintaining the code of ethics in medicine for improving the quality of the healthcare during the Covid-19 pandemic. Apart from this, the RCN in the UK significantly indicates that nurses have a role that helps in improving a healthier lifestyle by giving such kind of motivation to this patient. All of those motivations help in adopting a healthier behaviour for this patient after being recovered from the Covid-19 (Chertok, 2020). All of those aspects can give a great impact on the development of healthier activities for health promotion.
After all, of those, some of the health-promoting activities need to be adopted by the patient. As per the recommendation of WHO, mainly the patient needs to be advised that he needs to quit smoking or using tobacco. For that reason, mainly some approved medications and “nicotine replacement therapies” need to be given to the patient. This kind of intervention helps in reducing the consumption of tobacco, which helps in reducing the risk factors of harm of smoking after getting free from Covid-19 disease for this patient (who.int, 2020).
Apart from this, the patient needs to be advised by the nurses to join the “Local stop smoking services” which are free and recommended by the NHS that help in surviving some of the proven methods that help in quitting smoking. By getting these classes, like “Vercenicline” and this patient can help in improving their health behaviour that help in improve their health activities (NHS.uk, 2021).
From the above evaluation, it can be concluded that the patient has a health issue that as smoking. He is 45 years old and the Covid-19 disease affected him. From this evaluation, it can be stated that the patient has faced some psychosocial and psychological influences that help in developing his health issue. As this patient is working as an underground cleaner in London and lives in an undersized affluent area in North London that reason, the environment and his income greatly influence his health issues. In that case, the main role of nurses is to improve their lifestyle through which the patient can improve their lifestyle that helps in promoting his health improvement.
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