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Importance Of Cyber Security For The Businesses Operating In Uk Due To Covid-19 assignment sample

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Importance Of Cyber Security For The Businesses Operating In Uk Due To Covid-19 Assignment 

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1. INTRODUCTION

Technological advancement is changing the world around us. With the increasing use of technologies in all the different sectors the business world is also transforming to a greater extent. Internet is one of the greatest development or invention that had led the world towards a digital era and is continuously bringing changes in it (Rahman, et. al. 2020).In this dissertation the research would focus on explaining the importance of cyber security for the businesses operating in UK during Covid-19. In the recent decades, the issues related to the cyber attacks had increased to a greater extent and this is increasing the risk of data security for the businesses. This dissertation focuses on using both primary and data for explaining the research topic in a detailed manner.

Background:

In the fast-growing technological world, data and information is playing a major role for the businesses and is now considered as an important resource as well. The organisations need to manage a lot of data related to their employees, customers, and other stakeholders as well. With the increasing digitalisation the majority of the firms are focusing on offering the goods and services with the help of online platforms and this had also increased the role of information for the firms. Along with the increasing use of the data and information the risk for the cybercrimes had also increased to a greater extent. The increasing issues related to the cybersecurity is enhancing the risk of information, financial and reputational loss to the country (AH, et. al. 2020).

During the situation of the Covid-19 pandemic, businesses around the world are focusing on going online for offering their products and service to the customers anddoing business in an effective manner even in this pandemic situation. The industries and businesses are turning to online engagement with the customers for maintaining proper rules and regulations made by government for reducing the risk of spread of covid-19 disease. In UK majority of the firms have started using the online mode for doing business. Due to this the cybercrime had also increased to a greater extent.The recent data had shown that in UK around 46% of the businesses have faced the cybersecurity attack in the last 12 months (Department for Digital, culture, media, and support, 2020). The organisations are having better technologies and using strategies for reducing the risk of these attacks but then also 19% of these cases had led a major impact on the businesses. The reports had shown that the firms had face financial losses due to these cyberattacks.

Research aims and objectives:

Aim

The study aims at evaluating the importance of cyber-security for the businesses in UK as the cases of cyberattacks had increased due to covid-19.

Objectives

  • Explaining the importance of cybersecurity for businesses in the UK
  • To evaluate the impact of covid-19 on cyber security in UK.
  • To discuss the importance of cyber secure strategy for within the organisations.
  • To offer knowledge related to the implications of cyber safe practices.

Rationale of the Study:

In the recent decade’scybercrime had increased and due to this the businesses are facing issues in operating in an appropriate manner. Due to the present situation of the pandemic the businesses are looking forward to going online and offer the products to the customers through online mode. This had led an increase in use of data and information by the businesses operating in different industries. The reports had shown that in UK as the businesses are focusing on online operations the issues related to the cyberattacks had increase. Due to this reason, it had become important for the businesses to have effective cyber security. Cyber-attacks are one of the main issues that is faced by the technology companies during this pandemic. This is creating issues for the businesses in taking their services online and offering better services to their customers in the pandemic situation. The statistics have revealed that due to increase in the online activities the online attacks had increases to 10%-15% in 2020 (Gov.UK, 2020).As a result of this businesses needs to have better and effective cyber security in their firms for reducing the risk of these attacks. It can be said that in this era it has become important for the businesses to understand the significance of the cyber security for the businesses in UK.

Significance of the Study:

Understanding the impact of increasing cybercrimes on the businesses is essential for the firms. When the organisations are having better knowledge related to it then it would help them in using the latest technologies for securing their data and important information. In the present technologic era, the data is playing a major role for the businesses and due to this reason, it is important to keep the data safe and secure. Use of better technologies and effective strategies can help the organisations in keeping the data safe and reducing the risk of cybercrime. UK is highly developed nation due to which the firms are having higher risk of cybercrime. In the recent decades, the cases related to cybercrime have also increased in UK. Thus, it can be said that this study would help the firms in gaining better knowledge related to it and developing effective plans and strategies that would help them in reducing this risk.It can be said that this research study will help all the businesses operating in diverse industries in understating the importance of cyber security. Thus, it can be said thatthe research study is having higher significance for all the stakeholders including the researcher, readers, businesses, and the industries at large specially the IT industry.

Structure of the Study:

This research study would follow a particular structure. The dissertation would include different chapters. The first chapter would be the introduction that had explained the background and the aims and objectives of the dissertation. Literature review would be the second chapter that had included the data and information from different literature sources related to the cybercrimes. The methodology section had provided the detailed knowledge related to the research methods that are been used by the researcher in the study. Results and finding had shown the results of the primary data collected from the research study. The data analysis sectionhad analysed the collected data for the research study. Conclusion will offer the recommendations and had concluded the research topic. References would be the last part of the research study that is including the references of all the sources used in the dissertation for collecting the information.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

With the increasing use of the technologies the organisations are looking forward to making use of data and information that can help them in managing the business operations in an effective manner. As a result of it the risk for the cybercrime had cyber-attacks had also increased for the businesses that might led to both reputational and financial loss to the company. This section of the dissertation would discuss the important topics related to the cyber security in detail with the help of different literature sources.

Cyber Attacks

Technology is evolving rapidly, and this had increased use of latest technologies by the businesses which are moving towards digitalisation. Low (2017) had mentioned in his study that the evolving technologies are leading the increase in the cyber attacks and the cyber crime as well. The study had mentioned that with the development of the new tools and techniques cyber attacks are also increasing constantly and this is one of the important risks faced by the businesses. In response to it the firms need to focus on having effective cybersecurity systems and needs to use latest technologies that can help them in keeping their networks safe from all such cyberattacks and help them in operating properly.

Russell (2017) had defined cyber-attacks as an attempt made to destroy the computer or to steak the data that is available in the computer for using the information in an illegal manner. The study had mentioned that there are different methods that can be used by the hackers for stealing the data. In support to this Umanailoet. al. (2019) had mentioned in their study regarding cybercrime and had states that cybercrimes are increasing to a greater extent. The researcher had defined cybercrime, or the cyber-attacks is an offence against the aid of communication devices and the information system.

Manesh and Kaabouch (2019) had mentioned that cyber arrack is an offensive action that canfocuses on stealing the computer information system and the all the data stored in the computer. The study had mentioned that cyber attack can be done by attacking on the computer networks, personal computer devices and information systems as well. In support to this Ismail et. al. (2018) had mentioned that the cyberattacks are the malicious attempts made to steal, damage, or destroy the data or the information that is been stored in the computer and the information system. The study had concluded that it is important for the businesses to focus on developing an effective system for cyber security that can help them in avoiding the risk of cyber-attacks.

Li et. al. (2019) had stated the detailed information related to the different types of cyber-attacks. The study had mentioned that the denial of service, man in the middle, drive by attack, password attack, SQL injection attack, malware attack, cross site scripting attack and phishing and spear phishing attacks are the most common types of the cyber-attacks.

Bordoffet. al. (2017) had mentioned that the cyberattacks focuses on taking the advantage of vulnerabilities and these can be anything suchweakness in the computer devices, software, or the human being those are using an administering the devices. The researcher had mentioned that the websites are becoming more complex day by day and with the increasing complexities the potential for the cyber attacks is also increasing. Along with this the study had also mentioned that with the technological developmentis helping the hackers in making the cyber-attackseasier. The report had stated that the due to better technologies the hackers are building new tools and malwares for stealing the data and destroying the important information and data.

Kotenkoet. al.(2019) had mentioned in their study on the impact of cyber-attacks on the businesses. The study had stated that the government authorities, hospitals, financial institutes,education institutes and the businesses are having a lot of confidential information. The information is being stored in the electronic systems and computers. The organisations need to focus on keeping the data secure from the cyber-attacks. In the recent decades the reliance on the data and information had increased to a greater extent and due to this reason, the firms need to focus on data security. The increasing acceptance and use of internet are increasing the challenges for the users. The attacks related to the cyber security had increased to a greater extent and due to this reason, it had become important for the firms develop effective strategies for keeping the data safe and secure.

Ervural and Ervural (2018) had mentioned in their study that there are some of the factors that are leading cause of increasing cybercrimes and cyber-attacks. The study had mentioned that lack of awareness is one of the major causes behind the increasing phishing and other types of cyber-attacks. When the individuals are using the different services than it is important for them to be aware of all the different ways in which the cyber-attack can take place. Along with this the lack of knowledge towards the policy related to the online transactions is also a major issue that is affecting the businesses to a greater extent.

Types of Cyber Attacks

Weiet. al.(2017) had mentioned that malware is one of the most common cyber attack that is faced by majority of the organisations. In study had mentioned that malware is a harmful programme that affects the computer system and delete the data and the files that are been stored in the computer system.This is a malicious software designed for the purpose of destroying the computer systems and the programs and as a result of it many computer systems around the world are destroyed with the help of this. In other words, the malware is being described as the applications or the codes that can destroy the data by interrupting the use of devices and the use of system resources. The study of Pekta? and Acarman (2017) had mentioned that the malware is of different types such as worms, virus, software, adware, trojans, backdoors, ransomware and spam. These are some of the most common types of malwares that are affecting the information systems to a greater extent and leading to cyber-attacks.

Chiewet. al.(2018) had mentioned that phishing is nowadays becoming a great source of income for the phishers as they are earning huge amount of money by stealing the information form the victims and doing scam with them. Phishing also a common type of cyberattack that is widely affecting the computer systems. In general terms phishing is a practice of sending fraudulent communication that seems to come from the reputable source. It can be said that it is a type of scam that affects the businesses to a greater extent and when the firms come across to this, they face both financial and reputational loss. In support to this Aleroud and Zhou (2017) had mentioned that phishing is an act of sending the emails or connecting with individuals through phone calls and pretending to eb an legitimate organisation. The individuals involved in the phishing usually ask for the confidential details such asbank details, passwords, PINs and other details. Generally, people get involved in this scam and then share their details and this might let then to severe problems related to the frauds.

Bhavsar et. al.(2018) had mentioned regarding the type of phishing. The researcher had explained that due to emerging technologies the attackers are developing new ideas and innovating new techniques for attacking the victims and doing cybercrime. Different types of phishing are deceptive phishing, malware-based phishing, session hijacking, host file poisoning, system reconfiguration attacks, data theft and DNS-Based phishing. In deceptive phishing the attacker focuses on proceeding by sending the email to the victim related to their financial accounts. On the other hand, in the malware-based phishing the software is affected and in the major purpose of this phishing is to harm another person. The study of Arshadet.

  1. (2021) had mentioned that one of the major causes of the phishing is the increasing use of the online platforms. With the increasing use of online investment, online payments, online billing system and online banking the phishing had increased to a greater extent.

Mallik (2019) had discussed regarding man in the middle attack which is also a type of cyber-attack that easily can allow the attackers to attack easily. In this type of attack the attackers insert themselves into the two-party transaction and then they affect both the parties. The attackers interrupt the traffic and the major purpose of doing is to steal the information and data. These types of attacks are generally occurred due to the unsecure public Wi-Fi as the attackers easily get them involved in the visitor’s device and the network and then steal the information. In general, it can be said that the attackers get involved in the communication and then steal their data and this affect the victims. There are different types of man in the middle attacks such as IP spoofing, DNS spoofing, HTTPS spoofing, SSL hijacking, Wi-Fi eavesdropping and Email hijacking.

Cyber Security

In the technological era where the businesses are making use of data to a greater extent it had become important for them to focus on cyber security that would help them in limiting the risk of cyberattacks.Sunset. al. (2018) had defined that cyber security is defined as the processes and the technologies that can been designed and used by the organisations for protecting the systems and networks. The study had mentioned that the cyber security can help the businesses in maintaining the confidentiality of all the data and information that is stored in the computer systems and networks.

Callen-Naviglia and James (2018) had mentioned that cyber security is referred as the application of the technologies that are been used by for reducing the risk of cyberattacks and preventing the outsiders from accessing the data and information. Along with this if the businesses are having better cyber security in their organisation than it would help them from protecting their systems and networks from the unauthorised exploitation. In the study the researcher had concluded that it is important for the system users to focus on cyber security as this would help them from all the threats related to the cyber-attacks.

Eaton et. al. (2019) had mentioned that in the present era businesses needs to have better cyber security in the organisation because the cyberattacks are increasing and affecting the businesses in number of ways. Along with this the cyberattacks are increasing the risk of reputational loss to the businesses if the hackers get access to the information related to the customers and the employees of the firm. And because of it risk of financial loss is also increasing because if the firms found guilty in any of the case related to the loss of personal data of their customers due to cyber-attack, then the company needs to pay the penalties and fines. The study had concluded that it is crucial for the businesses to keep their network safe from the cyberattacks by using the cyber security.

The world around us had been changes due to the covid-19 pandemic as the world is going online due to the restrictions made by the government for reducing the spread of covid-19 disease. Lallieet. al. (2021) Had mentioned that due to the situation of lockdowns the businesses are moving towards online platforms for offering different products and service to their customer. As a result of the cases of cyber attacks had increased to a greater extent. In this study the researcher had explained that with the increasing usage of the internet and online platforms the risk of the cyber attacks had also increased to a greater extent and it had become essential for the firms to use the cyber security tools that can help them in reducing the risk and managing the cyber crime issues in an effective manner. The study had concluded that businesses need to focus on using advances cyber security tools for working properly with the reduced risk of cyberattack in covid times.

Radoini (2020) had described that in the presentcovid-19 situation the majority of businesses had started working with work from home concept and this had increased the risk of cyberattacks for the businesses.The organisations are using different software for keeping the employees synchronised for better teamwork this is increasing the risk of cyberattacks. Earlier majority of the businesses are not having using the different applications and the virtual private networks and due to this reason, such firms are facing more issues in managing the data safely. It can be said that such organisations need to pay attention on using the cyber security tools that can help them in keeping their data and networks safe and secure from cyberattacks.

Fontanilla (2020) had mentioned in his research about cybersecurity in the covid-19 pandemic situation. The researcher had mentioned that coronavirus disease had made a significant impact on the business environment globally. The new behaviours of social distancing and other precautions measures made by the government is transforming theindustries and the companies are looking forward to making use of technology. With the increasing use of digital platforms and increases engagement the fraudsters are focusing more on stealing the data or any other company information. The criminals can steal the data related to employees and in the pandemic situation the cybercriminals are more active, and they are using latest technologies for attacking the companies and stealing their data. The study had mentioned that in response to it the cybersecurity professionals need to be more active and should focus on using effective cyber security tools and software in the firms that can help them in reducing this risk.

Nurhayatiet. al. (2021) had mentioned in their study that in the present covid-19 era it is important for the businesses to focus on cybersecurity in an effective manner. The study had described that when the companies are working as a remote organisation then it is essential for them to provide detailed knowledge related to the cyberattacks to entire remote workforce and make them aware of the scams and frauds.The study had mentioned that businesses need to focus on making security efforts and should use effective technologies and solutions for protecting the firm from the cyberattacks. The businesses can use the cloud-based securitysolutions that can help them in keeping their data and networks safe. Along with this they businesses needs to focus on offering effective training to their workforce that can help them in reducing the risk of cyberattacks. Also, the IT security professionals needs to focus on using the advanced tool as the cybercriminals are also using latest and advance technologies for doing frauds.

According to Wiggen (2020) after the pandemic the business world would be changed to a greater extent and the IT industry is also changes. The study had mentioned that there are different types of new cyber risks found to be faced by the businesses and individuals in the pandemic situations. After the new risk the organisations those who are using the networks and managing large amount of data needs to deploy advanced technologies for reducing the risk of such cyberattacks. Along with this the businesses needs to have advanced workforce are capable enough for using the next generation technologies for managing the cyberattacks and protecting the firm from such risks.

Ullahet. al. (2019) had mentioned that businesses need to use the security software that can help them in keeping the information systems safe and secure. The study had mentioned that malware is the most common cyber-attacks and there is different software that can be used by the firms for keeping the system safe. The researcher had mentioned that Microsoft safety scanner, diagnostics and recovery toolset and Microsoft malicious software are some of the free malware removal tools that can be used by the businesses and all other users for removing the malware from the computer systems. Along with this the study had also mentioned that antivirus and internet security software is an effective program that is also used by the businesses for keeping the information systems safe (Ronenet. al.2018). This program is used for scanning the start up files and scanning all the real time activities that help them identifying and removing the malware in an appropriate manner. The study had concluded that it is important for the businesses and all the users to make use of all such software that can help them in cyber security from the cyber-attacks.

Sharmaet. al. (2017) had mentioned that with the increasing cases of phishing it is important for the users to follow the prevention measures that can help them in reducing the risk of cyber attacks and helps in cyber security. The users should focus on keeping their details confidential and should not share the details with the random calls as they are not authentic. It is important for the users to be aware of all such frauds and attacks so that they cannot trust such emails, phone calls or the messages. The calls or the messages that share the information that require the huge amount and all are the part of phishing only and later on they demand money from the victims or ask for sharing the bank details.

Lyashenkoet. al.(2018) had described that it is important for the businesses to focus on using thedifferent tools and software that can help them in limiting and reducing the risk of cyber-attacks. The study had mentioned that the firms and all the users’need to focus on using the anti-phishing tools such as cloud mark anti-fraud toolbar, earthlink toolbar, eBay toolbar and geo trust watch toolbar for preventing the phishing.

Roldán-Molinaet. al.(2017) had mentioned in their study that the business organisations need to focus on making the entire system aware of the cyber security. In the present digital era, it is important for the businesses to make use of effective cyber security tools that can help them in the fight against cyber-attacks. Firms needs to understand that they have to develop better strategies and make use of better tools and technologies for protecting their IT environment. In the current scenario there are wide range of cyber attacks that are affecting all the firms of different types and leading to both financial and reputational loss for the company. The report had concluded that the businesses should have firewalls, antivirus software, Penetration testing, staff training, MDR services and PKI services.

Nagpure and Kurkure (2017) had stated that firewall is one of the most essential security tools that needs to be used by the businesses for cyber security. This can help the firm and the users from preventing the unauthorised access to their personal network and this help them in keeping their information systems and networks safe from the attackers. The study had concluded that the firewalls can be limit the risk of malicious attacks to a greater extent and should be used by all the firms for keeping their networks safe.

Sangster (2020) had mentioned that with better technological advancement the cybercriminals are also becoming more advance, and they are also using unique techniques and effective tools for attacking and stealing the information from the information systems. For responding to these attacks and reducing them the businesses also needs to focus on using highly advanced tools that can help them in cyber security. Managed detection and response service (MDR) is an effective and more advanced security tool or a service that can help the businesses in keeping their data safe and secure. The MDR is most effective as it offers different services to the organisation such as threat intelligence, security monitoring, incident analysis and response related to the information system and networks. This security system is highly depended on the advanced analytics and helps in remote response that makes it more advanced. Along with this it also involves human being for monitoring the network that makes them in keeping the entire system safe and secure from the threat of attacks and cyber criminals as well.

Visoottivisethet. al.(2017) penetration testing is also an effective tool that is used by the businesses for keeping the systems secure. This is a testing system that helps the businesses in evaluating the security system and helps them in preventing from cyberattacks. In this testing the cybersecurity professionals focus on testing the effectiveness of the security by using the different tools and techniques that can be used by the attackers for stealing the information and data. Both manual and automatic techniques can be used for testing this system and firms should focus on conducting this testing within fixed intervals. The large IT firms and the other large organisation that is highly reliable on data and stores a lot of data focuses on using this cyber security tool.

Furnellet. al.(2017) has stated that the users and the staff members are also having a major role to play in cyber security. According to the study if the organisations are having highly trained employees with advanced knowledge related to the different tools and the methods related to cyber-attacks, they can help the firm in reducing them. The businesses need to focus on investing better capital in offering advanced training related to cybersecurity practices. This would help them in educating their employees related to the cyber security and would also help them in keeping their system secure with the help of human resource.

From above literature review, it is now understandable that cyber security has become more prominent, especially after pandemic time. The rate of criminal activities has also observed on a rise and individuals were spending more time, thus leading to more discussions over the security concerns. The next chapter is going to now be an extension of the secondary data analysis. This chapter is methodology that would consists of few steps to complete the research work.

1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The methodology selected by the researcher for collecting the data and analysing it in a systematic manner is known as research methodology (Ørngreen & Levinsen, 2017). In other words, it can be said that research methodology are the different techniques, strategies and the process that are employed by the researcher for collecting the data related to the research topic for understanding the topic in detail(Hennink, et. al. 2020). While conducting the research it is important for the researcher to select the different tools and techniques that help them in collecting the data and conducting the research. The researcher needs to select best methods according to the research aims and objectives so that they can conduct authentic research study and can collect high quality data.The different sub sections of the methodology are well explained below such as:

Research Philosophy

Research Philosophy is referred as the way in which the researcher thinks regarding the research topic. Or in other words it can be said that philosophy is the belief of the research towards and the topic and based on it the researcher source and develop knowledge related to the research study(Privitera and Ahlgrim-Delzell 2018). There are different type of research philosophies and the research selects the philosophy based on their personal views and interest towards the research topic. Research philosophy is broadly classified as positivism, interpretivism, realism and pragmatism. In positivism research philosophy the researcher focuses on factual data that is being collected through the observations. On another hand in interpretivism the researcher focuses on conducting the study as per their own personal interest(ukauskaset. al. 2018). In the current study the researcher would be using interpretivism as this philosophy is more subjective and help the researcher in finding the multiple realities and concepts related to the research topic. The researcher had selected this research philosophy as it would help the researcher in conducting detailed research study

because interpretivism philosophy is associated with high level of validity and it helps the researcher in conducted the study honestly.

Research Design

Research Design is referred as the framework of the research methods and techniques that are required to be selected by the researcher for conducting the research study(Dannels, 2018). Or in general terms it can be said thatstrategy chosen by the researcher for integrating all the different sections of the research study to conduct a systematic research.It is essential for the researcher to select an appropriate research design that can help them in effectively conducting the study and addressing the research problem.There are different types of research design such as descriptive, correlational, experimental, diagnostic, explanatory research design and exploratory design. In descriptive research design the researcher focuses on the problem statement while conducting the study.In contrast to this in the correlational research design the research focuses on correlating the two related topics in their study. In diagnostic research design the researcher focuses on examining a particular situation(Schoonenboom and Johnson 2017). And in the explanatory research design the researcher needs to focus on explaining the research topic in detail as limited information is available related to that topic. In the present study the researcher would focus on using the exploratory research design because the research topic is new so it is important to explain this topic in detail. The major reason behind selecting this research design is that it will help the researcher in analysing the topic in detail and explaining all the concepts related to it in detail.

Research Approach

Research approach is referred as the plan, or the path followed by the researcher for following the different steps and conducting the study in a systematic manner. It is essential for the researcher to select the research approach as per the research topic so that it can help them in collecting and analysing the data in an appropriate manner(Alase, 2017).The research approaches are classified as inductive and deductive research approach. In the inductive research approach the researcher focuses on developing research questions and the research is conducted on the basis of those answers. The researcher focuses on answering all the research questions through the results of study.On the other hand, in the deductive research approach the researcher focuses on developing the hypothesis and then these hypothesesare beingtested in the study(Woiceshyn and Daellenbach 2018). For the present study the researcher is using the inductive research approach. The major reason behind selecting this research approach is that aligns well with the interpretivism research philosophy. While conducting the study the research needs to align the research methods with another so that a detailed study can be conducted in a systematic manner. This research approach would help the researcher in explaining all the different concept of research study in detail.

Research Method

Research method is referred as the method or the techniques that are been used in the study for collecting and analysing the data in the research study.During the research study it is required by the research to select the appropriate research method as per the research objectives. The research methods are broadly classified as qualitative and quantitative research method. In qualitative research method, qualitative data has been collected with the help of different methods(Stokes, 2017). On another hand in quantitative data is collected or the numeric data is collected.In general terms it can be said that in the qualitative research the researcher collects non-numeric data for understanding the concepts related to the research study. And in the quantitative data only numeric information has been used in the study. In this study the researcher is using qualitative research method and will collect qualitative data. Selecting this research method will help the researcher in collecting high quality conceptual data related to the research study that will help shim in conducting the study in detail.

Data Collection Method

The method used in the study for collecting the data is known as data collection method. Collecting the data or the information for research study is one of the most important tasks as the overall quality and authenticity of the study is highly depended on the quality of the data collected(Bretschneideret. al. 2017). The data collection methods are broadly classified as primary and secondary data collection method. Researcher needs to focus on the nature of the data that is required to be collected and then should select the best method. In primary data collection method, the researcher themselves collects the information from the research participants for collecting a detailed and more authentic research. In contrast to this in secondary data collection method the researcher does not collects the data by their own and instead of it they focus on gathering the information from the different literature sources that are already been published and available(Mkandawire, 2019). In the current study the researcher would be collecting both primary and secondary data and conducted a detailed research study. For collecting the primary data, the researcher would conducta questionnaire survey with the research participants. On the other hand, for collecting the secondary data the researcher would focus on using different literature sources such as books, journals, articles and other sources. The researcher is using this approach as it would help him in using the existing knowledge and collecting data by their own itself. This would help them in conducting more authentic study with the help of high-quality data which would be more reliable.

Sampling method

In the primary research it is important for the researcher to focus on selecting the correct population for the research study. Sampling is a method used by the researchers for selecting the research participants for the study. In general terms it can be said that sampling is a method used for selecting the individuals or the group of individuals for the research purpose (Etikan and Bala, 2017).

The researcher needs to select the appropriate population for the research study according to the research design and the characteristics of the population required in the study. The sampling methods are broadly classified as probability sampling and non-probability sampling methods. In probability sampling method the researcher focuses on selecting the research participants from the large population by using the theory of probability. On the other hand,the non-probability method the selection is based on the collection of feedback based on the research and it does not depend on the fixed selection process (Valliant, et. al. 2018).

There are different types of probability and non-probability sampling methods available that can be used in this study. In the present study the researcher would be using convenience sampling method which is a type of non-probability sampling method. The selected sampling method is one of the cost effective and easy method to use for selecting the participants. This method is used by the researcher as it would help them in easily conducting the research with the working professional who have worked or are currently working in the cybersecurity field. The selection would be based on the availability of the individuals for the questionnaire survey.

Sample size

Selecting the sample size for the research study is also an important task for the researcher. While conducting the study it is essential for the researcher to focus on all the different factors related to the research study and select an appropriate sample size (Sim, et.

  1. 2018). In the current study due to the nature of subject and the competitiveness in the field of cyber security the researcher is focusing on selecting a smaller number of research participants. It can be said that the sample size of the current study would be less. For this study the researcher would be conducting the questionnaire survey with 5-10 participants.

Data Analysis

Analysing the collecting data is very significant for the researcher and it is essential for them to select an appropriate method for analysing the data properly. In general terms data analysis is referred as the process used by the researcher for analysing thedata. There are different types of data analysis method, but the researcher needs to select the best data analysis method based on the nature of the data collecting (Bergin, 2018). Broadly the data analysis methods are classified as text, prescriptive, diagnostic, statistical and predictive analysis. In the current study the researcher would be collecting the qualitative data from the research study.Thematic analysis is one of the effective methods that is widely used for analysing the qualitative data. The researcher would be using the thematic analysis for 999formed for analysing the data. The different themes help the researcher in clearly representing the collected information and the results of the research study (Terry, et. al. 2017). Along with this one of the reasons for selecting this method is that this analysis method is easy to use for the researcher.

Ethical considerations

Ethical considerations play a major role in the research study and it is essential for the researcher to focus on all the different factors that can because issues related to ethical concern.In the current study the researcher is collecting both primary and secondary data and for this they have to focus on taking care of all the stakeholders of the study (Artal and Rubenfeld, 2017). For this study the different ethical considerations on which the researcher is focusing are mentioned below such as:

  • Plagiarism: it is an important ethical consideration in both primary and secondary research. In this study the researcher would not copy the work of other authors and if they are using it data or any of the information then the researcher would do proper citation and referencing for giving the credit to the author. It can be said that the researcher would be using the information from other authors study in an authentic manner (Navalta al. 2019).
  • The researcher would be taking written consent from the participants while involving them in the study.
  • The safety and security of the research participants would be the priority of the research.
  • The data would be kept safe and secure for ensuring the privacy and keeping the sensitive data of all the stakeholders safe.
  • The confidentiality of the personal details of the research participants would be taken in concern during the research study.
  • The data would be protection as per the data protection act of 1998.
  • The researcher would be focusing on the privacy, respect and dignity of all the research participants (Arifin, 2018).
  • The collected sensitive information would be stored in the researcher’s UWS personal drive and no other individual would be having access to it.

It can be said that the researcher is focusing on the different factors associated with the ethical consideration related to the research study. This would help them in conducing more authentic study and would help them in ensuring that respect and security of any of the stakeholder is not compromised.

Limitations

In the current study one of the major limitations for the researcher would be selecting an appropriate candidate for the research study. In UK majority of the businessesmade it compulsory for their employees to sign NDAs and after that they are not capable of being a part of the researcher. Due to this reason the researcher will face issues in selecting the participants for the questionnaire survey. Along with this another limitation is that the study if only using the qualitative data and not focusing on using the quantitative data. If quantitative data is also involved in the study, then it makes the study more authentic and appropriate with the help of numeric information.

 

Impact of covid-19 on businesses and cyber-attacks in UK

Covid 19 is one the major event that had affected the world economy to a greater extends. The world is changing to a greater extend due to the spread of the novel coronavirus. The firms operating in diverse industries are highly affected due to the impact of covid-19 on the businesses. The spread of novel corona virus had lead the world towards economic slowdown that had affected the business growth to a greater extent. Along with this the precaution measures taken by national and local government for reducing the spread of the novel coronavirus had affected the business operations by affecting the supply chain and other factors. Due to the situation of global lockdown the firms are facing great issues in surviving in an efficient manner. For overcoming from this situation the firms are looking forward to alternatives that can help them in offering products and services to the customers by going only.

The study of Radoini (2020) had also supported that the due to the impact of covid-19 on the businesses they are changing. The report had mentioned that firms are focusing now on online platforms that can allow those to do business effectively even in the pandemic situation. The results of the secondary and primary data had also mentioned that majority of the respondents said that covid-19 had affected the businesses to a greater extent.

The study of Lallie, et. al. (2021) had also added that due to the pandemic the firms are focusing on going online for doing business. The research or Fontanilla (2020) described that cyber security had become more important in this pandemic situation because the cyber-attacks are increasing. The cases related to frauds and cyber-attacks had increased in UK due to increasing use of better technologies in business world. Also the study of Nurhayati, et. al. (2021) had mentioned regarding the impact of covid-19 on cyber-attack. The results of the secondary research also shown that phishing is increased to a greater extent in this pandemic. The respondents had also said that the increasing use of online platforms in the pandemic by the businesses is an significant reason for the increasing cyber-attacks in the UK based firms. It can be said that covid-19 had created a lot of challenges for the businesses and due to now they are taking their businesses to the online platforms so that they can offer the products and services to their customers even in the pandemic situation.

Reason for increasing cyber-attacks in Covid-19 in UK

Due to covid-19 the businesses are facing a lot of issues in managing their business operations and operating in an effective manner. Along with this the economic slowdown had already affected the sales and profitability of the firms. Due to this reason majority of business operating in UK are focusing on going online for managing their business practices and offering the product and services to the customers.The results of primary data reveals that due to increasing use of online platforms the risk for the cyber-attacks for the UK based firms had increased to a greater extend. The respondents had also said that the increasing use of online applications and information systems had increased the risk of cyber-attacks for the firm. This had also increased the challenges for them related to cyber security for keeping the data safe and secure.Several researcher studies mentioned in the literature review also supports that the cyber-attacks had increased in UK due to increasing use of online platforms in the businesses. Due to increased traffic and more use of technologies it had become easier for the hackers or the cyber attackers to use the software for stealing the sensitive information of the individuals and organisations.

Cyber security

With the increasing technological advancement the businesses are using effective technologies that can help them in managing their business operations in an efficiently. The increasing use of digital tools had increased the risk of cyber-attacks for the businesses. According to the literature review it can be said that cyber security is referred as the different practices that are been implemented by the company for keeping their networks and data safe and security. Sun, et. al. (2018) and Callen-Navigilia and James (2018) had mentioned the definition of cyber security. Also the study of Eaton, et. al. (2019) had mentioned that in the present technological era cyber security had gained a lot of importance for the firms. The study had mentioned that due to increased risk of cyber-attacks and its consequences it is significant for the firms to have effective cyber security system that can keep their data safe.

The businesses across the globe are investing better capital in their cybersecurity for keeping the data safe. Different software are been used by the firms for protecting their confidential data and information related to the stakeholders of the firm.It can be said that in the competitive and technological advanced business world it is essential for the firms to focus on having an effective cybersecurity system.

Importance of cyber security for businesses

In the technological advanced business world the employers focus on using diverse advance technologies that helps them in addressing the different issues by better management.As mentioned in the literature reviews the study of Eaton, et. al.(2019) had mentioned that there are different factors that make it essential for the firms to have effective cyber security system in the firm. Reputational loss is one of the significant factors that makecybersecuritycrucial for the businesses. In case if the firm face any of the issues related to the lack of better cyber security then it would led the firm towards reputational loss. Along with this the financial loss due to cyber-attacks is also an important factor that makes it essential for the firm to have bettercyber security practices. The study of Wiggen (2020) had also mentioned that it is crucial for the firms to use effective cyber security tools in the pandemic. Due to the increasing usage of online platforms the businesses are facing issues in keeping their data safe and secure and also the cases of cyber-attacks are increasing.According to Ullah, et. al. (2019) businesses should use effective software for being more responding to the cyber-attacks and reducing the risk of cyber-attacks.

The results of the primary study also showed that it is very important for the firms to have effective cyber security system in the firm that can help them in keeping their information and safe. It can be said that businesses needs to understand the importance of using the cyber security system. In the pandemic situation using the cyber security is very significant as the attackers are focusing more on stealing the data that might led to financial and reputation loss to the company. Also the issues related to cyber-attacks can led the firm towards legal issues that can affect the firm for long term. Thus, it can be said that cyber security is very significant for the firms.

Cyber security practices that can be used by the businesses

The businesses need to have an effective cyber security system that can help them in avoiding the risk of cyber-attacks.There are different methods that can be used by the firms for reducing the issues related to cyber security. According to the literature review that there are different securities tools that are required to be used by the firms for reducing the risk of cyber-attacks. In this pandemic, it had become important for the firm to use these software when they are making use of different online platforms for managing their business operation effectively in the pandemic situation.The researchers had mentioned that using firewall can help the firms in preventing their information systems from the cyber-attacks.The research studies mentioned in the literature review also suggests that the MDR and penetration test are also an effective methods that can be used by the firms for reducing the risk of cyber-attacks and managing them in an effective manner. Moreover offering effective training to the employees is also an important strategy that can help the firms in reducing the risk and chances of cyber-attacks in an efficient manner.

1. RESULTS AND FINDING

In the technologically advanced world, all businesses are focusing on using different technologies that can help them in making their business operations more effective. In the present business world, organisations are focusing on going digital for managing business operations that can help them havea more effective and convenient management system. When the firms are making better use of the technologies the Information technology had gained alot of importance in recent decades. The firms have introduced their own information systems for better management and maintaining better interconnectivity among all the different departments for increasing productivity.

In this study, the researcher had focused on analysing the increasing use of software and digital platforms by firms across the world and especially in the UK. The results of the research study revealed that business across the UK is focusing on making better use of the technologies that can help them in being effective and gaining a competitive advantage over others. The results of the study reveal that with the increasing use of digital platforms and software the businesses are facing issues related to cyberattacks. For the businesses of the 21st century, the risk related to cybersecurity issues had become an important factor that needs to be addressed as it is affecting the overall operational management and productivity. The results of the primary and secondary study represent that when the firms are using better software then it had become essential for them to be effective in reducing the risk of cyberattacks.

Evaluating the impact of cyberattacks on businesses is very important as it helps the firms in accessing that how the firms can reduce and manage this issue related to cyberattacks. The study had focused on analysing that why in this pandemic situation it had become more important for the businesses of the UK to invest in their cybersecurity. The data collected from the secondary resources had shown that the number of cases related to cyberattacks in the UK had been increased since the beginning of the covid-19 pandemic. Also in the questionnaire survey, the participants had mentioned that the covid-19 pandemic had led a negative impact on the cyberattacks. With the increasing issue of cybersecurity in the UK due to the pandemic, it had become important to identify that what the factors are leading to it.

In this study, the researcher had focused on identifying that what are the diverse factors that are playing a major role in the increasing cyber-attacks in the pandemic situation. The results of the study had mentioned that the major reason behind the increasing cyberattacks is the increasing use of digital platforms. Similar results were being obtained in the study of Pranggono and Arabo(2021). They have also mentioned that the increasing use of the social media platforms by the firm and the concept of going digital for operating in Covid-19 had led to the sudden increase in cyberattacks. It can be said that businesses are having a great opportunity to use online platforms for doing business. Similarly,cybercriminals are also having a great opportunity to attack information systems and networks for stealing the information.

The study had mentioned that phishing is one of the important cyberattacks that are faced by the majority of individuals in the pandemic situation. Based on the results it is clear that the firms are facing greater issues related to cyberattacks in the UK. Due to this, businesses need to pay attention to using different tools and techniques that can help them in reducing the risk of cyber attacks in this pandemic situation. The results of the study had shown that lack of proper knowledge related to the cyber attacks the businesses and individuals are facing issues related to it. The study had also found that along with phishing there are different cyberattacks such as malware attacks and middle attacks are also the common types of cyberattacks faced by the firms. The survey had revealed that there is a great need for awareness among the individuals against these cyberattacks. The study of Bhardwaj, et. al. (2020) had shown that the phishing attacks in Brazil had increased by 232% in 10 months in 2019. From the comparison of the results of this study and the present study, it can be said that the firms operating across the different nations and the individuals both are facing major issues related to the increasing issue of phishing. It can be said that this is a major type of cyber attack that had affected the nations and led to a greater loss for the individuals.

The present study had focused on evaluating the importance of cybersecurity for the business. The results had suggested that businesses need to have an effective cybersecurity system that can help them in reducing the issues related to cyberattacks. Along with this, the study found that cyberattacks are expected to lead the firm toward both financial and reputational loss. Due to this reason, it is significant for the firm to solve the issues related to cyberattacks by creating a better cybersecurity system.The results had clearly shown that in the pandemic situation it had become more important for the firms to have an effective cybersecurity system in the firm. Similar results have been obtained from the study of Ferreira and Cruz-Correia(2021). The researchers have mentioned that the covid-19 pandemic had created major challenges for businesses related to cybersecurity.

The study had mentioned that in the present pandemic era it had become important for individuals to have great knowledge related to cybersecurity that can help them being secure from cyberattacks. Based on the results of the study it can be said that in the present era cybersecurity had become more important for businesses. Lallieet. al. (2021) had also conducted the study to understand the covid-19 from the cybercrime perspective. The results of the analysis support the result of the present study. The researchers had found that individuals and businesses are facing a wide range of cyber-attacks globally. The research suggests that an effective cybersecurity system needs to be used that can help the firms in reducing the increasing cyberattacks and managing their adverse effect as well.

The present study had explored the different steps that can be taken by the firms for reducing the issues related to cyberattacks. In this study, it had been found that businesses need to focus on having an effective management team that can focus on managing the issues related to cyberattacks. In this study, the researcher had found that penetration test is an effective method that can help firms in reducing the risk of cyberattacks. Along with this, the study had also found that there are different security tools such as antivirus software and firewalls that can help firms in keeping their data safe and secure from cyberattacks. Along with this, the study found that MDR services are also effective services that can help organizations in keeping their information systems safe and help them in the risk of cyberattacks. Also, the study had found that management is having a major role to play in cybersecurity. The primary and secondary information collected in the present research had stated that it is important for businesses to offer better and effective training to their employees related to cybersecurity. This can help the firm in managing the issue of cyberattacks and keeping their data secure.

2. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The above mentioned study had focuses on assessing the importance of cybersecurity for the businesses in UK. In this research study the researchers had focused on collecting the information from different literature sources. Along with this had also conducted a questionnaire survey for getting more accurate result. The research had emphasized more on the issue of covid-19 pandemic's impact on the cybersecurity in UK. The researcher had focused on evaluating that how the scenario of pandemic had led to the changes in the cyberattacks in UK and how the firms are dealing with the issues related to it. A detailed research has been conducted with the help of high quality primary and secondary data.Based on the results of the study it can be said that due to the pandemic situation the businesses operating in UK and across the globe are facing higher risk of cyber-attacks. The data collected from the different sources clearly shown the increasing cyber-attacks in 2019 to 2021.

The report concluded that with the increasing cases of cyber-attacks it had become important for the firms to focus on developing effective cybersecurity system that can help them in reducing the risk of cyber-attacks issues. In the technological advanced world there are several methods and techniques that can be used by the firm for keeping their systems and information safe.In this study the researcher had stated the different tools and techniques that were been used by the diverse firms for keeping their data safe from the cybercriminals.It can be said that it had become essential for the businesses to invest better capital for their cybersecurity. Also they can make use of effective security systems that can help them in reducing the cyber-attacks issues. Firm needs to understand that these attacks can lead them to great reputational loss and financial loss as well. For reducing all such issues the businesses need to make effective strategies and plans for managing the cyber-attacks and their implications on the firm and its operations as well.

On the present scenario of covid-19 and the results of the research study it can be recommended that the businesses needs to focus on offering better training to their employees related to the cybersecurity. When the business are using the digital platforms and software for managing their business operations in covid time or even in the post pandemic era. It had become important for them to provide better knowledge to all the employees related to the use of these applications and how they can keep their data keep and secure from cyber criminals. Offering online training would be one of the best options for the firms operating in UK. This would help them in maintaining the safety measures and offering better training that can help them reducing the risk of cyber-attacks.It can be recommended that the businesses specially operating in the IT sector or using the digital platform should focus on investing better capital in training their employees to use the different security tools effectively. Using the security tools for keeping the systems safe from the threat of cyber-attacks is an better option that can help the businesses in operating safely.

Along with this the government should also focus on investing better capital in the research and development sector for developing better security tools that can help them firms in addressing the issues related to cybersecurity. Better cybersecurity assistance is very important for all the businesses operating in diverse industries of UK. Due to greater technological advancements the cyber hackers of UK are using attractive methods for stealing the information. For solving this issue the cybersecurity also needs to be more effective so that they can keep their data secure in a smart manner.It can be said that the businesses can address the issues related to cyber-attacks by using more advance cybersecurity tools and training their employee to be more aware of all these cyber-attacks.Thus, it can be concluded that combine efforts of the entire management system can help the businesses in addressing the issue of cyber-attacks in an efficient manner and can help the firms in operating in an effective manner.

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