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Module: M25290 Human Resource Management

Introduction: Module: M25290 Human Resource Management

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Human resource management, A business organization's HRM department is accountable for managing personnel hiring, retention, and termination. HRM places a strong emphasis on how staff participates in the operation of the business and consistently monitors the use of best practices (Dundon and Rafferty, 2018). The process of selecting the best candidates for available positions is known as selection. By inviting as many people as possible for the open positions, recruitment is considered to as a smooth process.

The well-known technological company Apple was formed in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. The founders desired to create a little, more accessible computer that everyone could use anywhere. In 1980, the company went public and introduced the Apple I and Apple II computers. The first computer to utilize color graphics was the Apple II, which helped Apple position itself as a leader in technological advancement. 

The total number of employees working with apple is 164000. Apple has an employee turnover rate of 19%, and the company is working to lower the employee turnover rate. In terms of size, the company has an operating income of $119.44 bn in the year 2022 and a revenue of approximately $394.33bn.

Apple Logo

Figure 2 Apple Logo

Part A

Contemporary employee selection methods

Choosing the right men for the proper jobs is the method of employee selection. It is a process for aligning organizational needs with people's abilities and qualifications. Only after there has been effective matching can selection is done (Nikolaou and Oostrom, 2015). There are various methods for employee selection in the organization, and here main three methods are discussed. These methods are selection tests, interviews, and group discussions.

Selection tests

This is the most used method of selecting employees for vacant jobs. The test is a way to check whether the candidate has specified knowledge that will require to perform the job. There are some types of tests are given below:

Personality test

A personality test evaluates an individual's traits to ascertain the personal characteristics someone possesses (Cook, 2016). Questions on the applicant's habits, hobbies, interests, and managerial style are covered in this test.

Work knowledge test

Work knowledge assessments have been used to gauge a person's chances for improvement in a particular role. This test assesses the applicant's acquaintance with the terms, procedures, and abilities associated with the position for which they are applying. This assessment is used by human resource managers to make sure that they select candidates who are informed about the position and competent to carry out their duties. When hiring for a role requires specialized talents, these assessments are frequently utilized.

Integrity test

Related to personality tests, integrity assessments concentrate on evaluating a participant's moral character instead of other facets of individual character (Koo and Li, 2016). This evaluation assists hiring managers in verifying that they are selecting candidates who will uphold the moral guidelines of the organization.

Cognitive ability test

Cognitive ability tests sometimes referred to as IQ tests, are being used to assess intellect. They can concentrate on intellectual ability or particular domains of knowledge that are relevant to work, such as numerical ability or capacity for logical deduction. If the role involves math, it is vital to recognize how well an applicant can do mathematical operations and determine solutions.

Emotional intelligence test

Tests of emotional intelligence evaluate a person's capacity for forming bonds and cooperating with one another (Chen et.al. 2020). When selecting executive positions and occupations that demand continual communication, like advertising or public relations positions, it's important to understand how the candidate communicates with others.

Physical abilities test

Physical tests evaluate a person's stamina as well as power. For positions that require a specific degree of fitness competence and strength, these evaluations are required. Tests of physical aptitude are typically required for police and army selection.

Selection interview

This type of employee selection method is used almost in every organization across the world.  A method of selecting intended to forecast future work efficiency using candidates' spoken answers to oral questions. Selection interviews are commonly held on-site at the hiring organization. A selection interview's aim is to assess if an applicant will be recruited for the job for which they are being evaluated (Burkhardt, 2015). Following are some interviews types used by the different organizations as part of the selection method:

Situational Interview During the interview session, individuals are asked what steps they would follow in various work-related scenarios. With the help of the incident investigation job analysis technique, workplace-related situations are typically detected (Bye and Sandal, 2016). The results of the interviews are then graded using just a scoring grid created by job candidates.

Behavior Description Interviews Applicants are questioned about the decisions they made in scenarios in their past employment that are identical to those they might face on the job. The outcomes of the interview sessions are then rated using a grading matrix created by recruiters.

Comprehensive Structured Interviews Applicants are constantly questioned about how they would respond in various job-related scenarios, their understanding of the position, the qualifications of workers, and their ability to carry out multiple job exercises (Patterson et.al. 2016). Interviews that focus on professional skills provide a tool to evaluate a person's present level of knowledge in relation to essential underlying job performance parameters. 

Structured Behavioral Interview This method entails addressing all applicants with the very same questions regarding how they managed situations that have been analogous to those they might encounter on the job in the past (Adhabi and Anozie, 2017). Discretionary questioning questions on the settings, the interviewee's actions in them, and the results may also be asked by the employer. Then, using a behaviorally attached scoring system, the interviewee's answers are graded.

Group discussion 

The selection process used by companies and educational institutions usually involves a group discussion. The applicants discuss the assigned subject to present information, opinions, and findings (O. Nyumba et.al. 2018). Employers employ this method to examine applicants' communication skills and screen applicants.

Factual group discussions: Factual group discussions: These discussions emphasize the real world and evaluate a person's capacity for processing information and macroeconomic analysis.

Opinion-based group discussions: These panel discussion talks evaluate how well contenders articulate their ideas. These group discussions tend to focus more on views than facts.

Case study-based group discussions: These group discussions replicate real-life circumstances. The human resource managers give the group information about an imaginary situation and afterward the group has to determine the position together (Adib-Hajbaghery and Rafiee, 2016).

Abstract group discussions: These are about insubstantial topics under the discussion of the group. In these, the interviewers examine if an applicant can hold the specified topic with the side opinion and imagination.

Critically evaluation of the best practice among three employee selection methods 

The best practice among the three selection processes is group discussion. Businesses can adopt group discussions (GDs) to choose applicants from a wide application pool by adding random each person a topic to discuss, and then measuring each person's participation, the reliability of their responses, as well as overall enthusiasm (McMillan et.al. 2016). The GD is the most appropriate selection method because it helps in assessing every aspect of the candidate. These aspects include following skills evaluation and all these skills are very important to perform any job.

Communication Skills

A general discussion (GD) enables one to evaluate and assess one's language skills in regard to verbal clarity, grammar, voice tone, etc. One can recognize a competent speaker in contrast to someone who wasn't an effective talker.

Analytical & Logical Skills-

GDs are a rapid approach to determining a person's capacity to analyze a particular subject by using rational assertions instead of gibberish. The reviewers are always impressed by clear thinking and concise sentences (Dumont et.al. 2017).

Team Skills-

Expressing one opinion is essentially a function of GD: Leaders must also enable everyone else to contribute without being overly confrontational. A team player is someone who respects the opinions of everyone else, builds on those ideas, and engages in the discussion with another candidate.

Awareness and Aptitude-

Recent affairs, business trends, important news, and other GD topics give panels a chance to gauge the candidates' level of general knowledge. Individuals who provide facts, important arguments, and data on a subject are more likely to receive approval than those who try talking as is required and without adding anything of worth.

Leadership and boldness-

In GD, one's boldness and capacity to grab control of the situation by assuming the position of the leader are just as important as their skill set. a self-assured speaker who dominates the conversation by implementing innovative, pertinent ideas while giving others plenty of time to respond somewhere between (Ones et.al. 2017).

All the above skills can be evaluated better by group discussion as compared to the other method of selection. As leadership skills can only be judged by way of group discussion methods. Team skills are very important to perform as a part of a team and this can perfectly judge by the group discussion method of selection. 

Employee selection at apple inc.

Apple inc developed a selection process by using various selection methods. The selection process includes a total of 5 steps. Which includes major selection methods to recruit the best candidate among the available people.

Step1: online application 

The candidate's application form for a position is the primary step in the hiring process. The online application will request information the about applicant's education, educational achievement, and, if appropriate, any previous employment. This application can be accessed on the official Apple website, and it contains several motivational inquiries that applicants must answer, such as why they want to work for Apple. Or why they choose specific position?

Step 2: Apple inc. telephone interview

The second selection method used by apple Inc. is telephonic interview

This is a chance for the applicant to show the ability, consciousness, and obsession that align with the work role vacant. The second selection method used by the company is a phone interview and in this competence is assessed on the phone. 

Step 3: Apple Assessment Test

The third selection method is a test taken by the company; the candidate is invited to apple's evaluation center, and the following test is completed at the evaluation center:

Group exercise at apple

In this part of the evaluation, the recruiter checks the applicant’s ability and competence as a component of a team (Khan et.al. 2015). Apple employees closely direct and observe the participant's work performance together with the candidate's capability to resolve the difficulty in the group.

Written exercise at apple

In this selection, the system candidate will be provided a concealed case study assignment, and the applicant's requirements to answer the difficulty provided in the case study. An applicant brief is given to every human being who comes out for this test in the selection, this brief consists of all the facts and information an applicant will require to respond to the difficulty.

Roles play the test at apple

This test is conducted for twenty minutes; applicants will perform together in a role-play exercise. The apple human resource manager scrutinizes an applicant’s skill and talent to examine a set of information supplied. The Role-play evaluation method comprises an assignment in which the candidate characterized the employees of the business and the recruiter act as a customer of the business.

Step 4: Final interview

This is the decisive stage in apple’s selection method. It would be a private meeting in the form of an interview with just a single individual – an executive or senior manager that the mechanism in the trade section decides to connect. It is an interview based on competency, and it is a person's performance to know how experienced, passionate, and the eager applicant is to be qualified to be an employee at Apple. The meeting does not regularly conclude for up to one hour rarely, it might just last for half hour.

Critically analysis of how the HR professionals in apple inc. assist the organization in selecting employees

HR professional in the organization has the accountability to influence the selection process so that its consequences benefit the production, dissimilar sections of the association may have diverse interests, and the business has to ensure that company interests prevail. To address workforce needs and labor force changes, at apple inc human resource professionals design strategic solutions. The selection and hiring methods are overseen by an employing manager, but an HR manager is primarily responsible for making choices on corporate identity in relation to attracting and keeping brilliant people (Bai et.al. 2018). It is of utmost importance that HR professionals at apple understand the work and marketplace circumstances, and the equilibrium of authority will keep on uneven, it might be that HR professionals are in more influential positions while human resources might too be in a condition where they can pressure their stress on the company. To address workforce needs and labor force developments, human resource professionals design sustainable strategies. In order to attract highly qualified candidates, human resource managers who are in charge of this typically examine the selection and hiring process as well as benefits and compensation. The manager actually controls recruiting and selecting.

At apple Inc HR professional plays important role in the selection of employees. The success of the company depends on its workforce. The HR department is one that brings the best suitable candidates to the organization. To perform the selection process various plan are made human resource department. The HR professional continues work to assess the skills and quality of candidates at various stages of the selection process and the outcome is getting the best employees for the provided job role. Getting selected by apple Inc is one of the difficult things because the HR professional of the company is so dedicated to bringing the best talent into the company. Human resource professionals at apple constantly observe and examine candidates while they are going through the selection process. This kind of examination helps the organization to improve performance if the whole selection and recruitment process. Human resource management is the spirit of the organization's performance and success.

Conclusion 

The report concluded that the selection method is a very important part of human resource management in an organization. The main type of selection methods includes an interview, assessment test, and group discussion. The report concluded that apple Inc used a combination of all three selection methods in their selection process. Group discussions are the most crucial method of selecting to help to evaluate the candidate on every aspect such as critical thinking, leadership, disciple, and knowledge which is required to perform the job. Management of human resources, The HRM division of a company is in charge of handling employee hiring, retention, and firing. HRM prioritizes employee involvement in business operations and continuously assesses the application of best practices.

Part B reflective report 

What did you learn by participating in the HRM module? 

Participating in this HRM module made me learn many interesting things about selection methods as well as why selection methods are important for any company. Selection is an important function of human resource management, it refers to the choosing best candidate for a particular job role. It made me understand the selection process at big companies like apple inc. I learned about various methods which are used to examine a person's ability and capacity to perform work. The recent selection method will help me to develop my skillet which is required in the present era. 

How will you apply this learning in the future to aid your development as a learner and/or as a practitioner? 

 This module will assist in my skill development and getting a job in a big company. I will try to acquire knowledge and skills related to the job I will apply for. In addition to the hard skills related to a particular job, I will focus on soft skills because this will make me stand out in the process of selection (Beauchamp, 2015). These soft skills include communication skills, leadership skills, critical thinking, analytical skills, etc.  The module made me learn the importance of human resource management in an organization especially in selecting the right candidate for the job role. Developed my creative thinking skills so that I can be more confident to innovate and transform business practices. Taking part in various group programs; understand how to coordinate is very important to make ourselves job-ready. These skills construct it easier to figure out dealings with coworkers, and generate faith and reliability, in addition to direct teams. They are the top skills the company seeks in the candidate they employ, for the reason that these skills are significant for every kind of job.

How the knowledge acquired through attending the HRM module would assist you in improving an organization’s effectiveness and efficiency.

Since human resource management is the backbone of a business's expansion and success, selecting the best applicant is essential for raising organizational effectiveness and efficiency. To assist the company accomplishes its targets and objectives, HRM works to hire and keep competent workers. All of this begins with selecting the most qualified people from the pool of applications. Finding the best potential candidates and selection is assisted by an HRM. An as HRM professional I will increase the company's effectiveness and efficiency by Appling effective selection and recruitment procedures. When the best people are hired and kept on board, the quality of both goods and services improves. I will try to find suitable candidates because when the best individuals are found, employed, educated, and retained economic success increases. And this module will assist me in getting the best talent on board and provide me with information about how I can evaluate the skills and knowledge of the employees.

Reference 

Adhabi, E. and Anozie, C.B., 2017. Literature review for the type of interview in qualitative research. International Journal of Education9(3), pp.86-97.

Adib-Hajbaghery, M. and Rafiee, S., 2016. Comparing the Effectiveness of Group Discussion and Lecture Methods on the learning of medical sciences students: A Review Study. Iranian Journal of Medical Education16, pp.53-62.

Bai, Y., Hibbing, P., Mantis, C. and Welk, G.J., 2018. Comparative evaluation of heart rate-based monitors: Apple Watch vs Fitbit Charge HR. Journal of sports sciences36(15), pp.1734-1741.

Beauchamp, C., 2015. Reflection in teacher education: Issues emerging from a review of current literature. Reflective practice16(1), pp.123-141.

Burkhardt, J.C., 2015. What can we learn from resident selection interviews?. Journal of graduate medical education7(4), pp.673-675.

Bye, H.H. and Sandal, G.M., 2016. Applicant personality and procedural justice perceptions of group selection interviews. Journal of Business and Psychology31(4), pp.569-582.

Chen, T.Y., Cheung, S.C. and Yiu, S.M., 2020. Metamorphic testing: a new approach for generating next test cases. arXiv preprint arXiv:2002.12543.

Cook, M., 2016. Personnel selection: Adding value through people-A changing picture. John Wiley & Sons.

Dumont, J., Shen, J. and Deng, X., 2017. Effects of green HRM practices on employee workplace green behavior: The role of psychological green climate and employee green values. Human resource management56(4), pp.613-627.

Dundon, T. and Rafferty, A., 2018. The (potential) demise of HRM?. Human Resource Management Journal28(3), pp.377-391.

Gatewood, R., Feild, H.S. and Barrick, M., 2015. Human resource selection. Cengage Learning.

Khan, U.A., Alam, M.N. and Alam, S., 2015. A critical analysis of internal and external environment of Apple Inc. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management3(6), pp.955-961.

Koo, T.K. and Li, M.Y., 2016. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of chiropractic medicine15(2), pp.155-163.

McMillan, S.S., King, M. and Tully, M.P., 2016. How to use the nominal group and Delphi techniques. International journal of clinical pharmacy38(3), pp.655-662.

Nikolaou, I. and Oostrom, J.K., 2015. Employee recruitment, selection, and assessment. Contemporary Issues for Theory and Practice. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.

Nyumba, T., Wilson, K., Derrick, C.J. and Mukherjee, N., 2018. The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Methods in Ecology and evolution9(1), pp.20-32.

Ones, D.S., Dilchert, S., Viswesvaran, C. and Salgado, J.F., 2017. Cognitive ability: Measurement and validity for employee selection. In Handbook of employee selection (pp. 251-276). Routledge.

Patterson, F., Knight, A., Dowell, J., Nicholson, S., Cousans, F. and Cleland, J., 2016. How effective are selection methods in medical education? A systematic review. Medical education50(1), pp.36-60.

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