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1) Challenges and opportunities in supply chain quality management: 

Blockchain for supply chain quality management: challenges and opportunities in context of open manufacturing and industrial internet of things

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A. For a business to grow, the supply chain must have higher-quality management. Supply chain quality management denotes the companies that engage in assessment, monitoring, and controlling the product's quality and distribution. This supply chain management is a requirement because it benefits the companies to cut the excess costs that might arise without such management. This management also ensures the smooth flow of commodities from the production centers to the customers. However, while discussing the management process a few questions can be raised that intrigued me to know more about the challenges and problems - What are the prime challenges and opportunities in supply chain quality management? And how can the supply chain quality management be improved? I found this question to be intriguing in nature. I realised that i have an urge to know more about this issue which made me research about the topic more. Questions surged my mind, and the foremost question that surfaced were mentioned above. To explore more about the challenges and opportunities in the supply chain management I choose this question.  

B. This paper by Jinying, Maiti, Springer, and Gray (2020) focuses on the problems, rather challenges that supply chain quality management faces in the various service processes like the data is unreliable, the problems with the selection of suppliers, and among them, the foremost challenge is human error. This academic article emphasises the effective and efficient usage of blockchain and IIoT in the management process(Jinying et al., 2020). It also covers a survey that measures the success of blockchain and how it creates an opportunity for supply chain quality management to improve in the business world. Blockchain and IoT technology can improve the management process if applied to any industry (Jinying et al., 2020). Blockchains can process and distribute products without allowing the entry of third parties into the system. Blockchains are the opportunities exploited by companies to increase trust within the company, ensure security in the transaction process, and also to cut down the costs of production as been said in the studies of Jinying, Maiti, Springer, and Gray (2020). However, they are quite well adapted to address all the issues of the management process. With it, various positive results can be tracked in numerous industries, for instance in the medicine and food industries. IoT or the Internet of Things has also been seen to improve management as it secures and stores data for future use, enabling companies to store their data efficiently. To improve supply chain quality management, the opportunity has been forwarded by blockchain as it creates trust within the peers, a secured environment of transactions, cutting down on costs, and transparent information (Jinying et al., 2020). However, with comparison from other sources and reading information form other sources in this article, we can conclude that the question that was addressed have been correctly and holistically addressed and answered here. 

C. Data Source, type and analysis: the main focus of the paper is to find the suitable application of the blockchain in the supply chain to make the quality management more efficient and secure. For the study purpose the researchers have used the comprehensive survey of the blockchain to find the current use of the blockchain. The data is mostly theoretical and there are no such the primary data has been used in the study therefore the paper can be classified as the descriptive paper.

D. This article targets the audience who are related in the manufacturing business. The target audience who will benefit from this article will be the manufacturing industry especially the food and medicine industries. This article emphasises on the advantages of block chain, and the business world will benefit if they regard this article. 

E. Limitations: As the study has mostly relied on the research theory and application of the blockchain it is very likely that the research will show the underlying issues the blockchain users are currently facing. As the in the current scenario the scalability is the main issue in the implementation of the blockchain and too many users at a time might create a ruckus in the blockchain across the global supply chain and make the data transfer slower. There are certain organisations who are using the blockchain for the supply chain management. So it could have been better for the researchers to include those case study in their research and make the paper more comprehensive. 

Literature review: 

According to Puthal et al., (2018), blockchain protects the transaction from getting corrupted by third parties and it ensures the data is unaltered. According to Iansiti and Lakhani, (2017), blockchain ensures the data is viable and all these positive factors made the companies realise that blockchain is indeed an opportunity. According to Kshetri, (2017), blockchain eliminates the presence of any middleman in the supply chain system and diverts other challenges, and ensures reliable information storage.  Due to the lack of research in this field of supply chain quality management and the challenges and opportunities regarding it, collecting articles and journals addressing the mentioned questions was difficult. However, this opened a new scope for pursuing research in this matter. 


Li, J., Maiti, A., Springer, M. and Gray, T., 2020. Blockchain for supply chain quality management: challenges and opportunities in context of open manufacturing and industrial internet of things. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 33(12), pp.1321-1355.

Puthal, D., Malik, N., Mohanty, S.P., Kougianos, E. and Yang, C., 2018. The blockchain as a decentralized security framework [future directions]. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 7(2), pp.18-21.

Kshetri, N. 2017. “Can Blockchain Strengthen the Internet of Things?” IT Professional 19 (4): 68–72. 

Iansiti, M., and K. R. Lakhani. 2017. “The Truth about Blockchain.” Harvard Business Review 95 (1): 118–127.

2) The role of leadership in quality management: 

Sustainable Quality Management Systems in the Current Paradigm: The Role of Leadership

A. Leaders are the guides who lead the path that their employees or subordinates follow to achieve a collective goal. The leaders form the backbone of any business and organisation. Quality management can be considered to be another crucial strategy of a business. Leaders with vision and good leadership skills can enable better management of quality which in turn can lead to the path of progress by a company. As leaders are critical in the decision-making factors of the company, all decisions regarding the management of products' quality will be directed by them as well, which in turn will affect the whole quality management as a procedure. While discussing the prime role of leadership in this factor questions can be found to raise as to what extent leadership affects quality management. And what was the role of leadership in this? The question that i choose for this assignment was personally interesting to me. Leadership being an important concept and how it affects and regulates quality management was a matter where research is required. The reason i choose this question is to address the enhanced role leadership plays in the globalised world. 

B. The article by Silva, Magano, Matos, and Nogueira, (2021) focuses on the issue that leadership has a role to play in the development of paradigms and how sustainability's integration within the quality management systems can also lead to the development of various paradigms. Detailed research has been followed in this article, which ultimately concludes that led to quite an extent affects the quality management systems (Silva et al., 2021). The leadership not only contributes but also constitutes a prime element in the quality management system's performance. This study also increases the knowledge of quality management by exploring the quality management systems which put emphasis on the leadership role. A company's management models are fundamental of four types, namely, empirical, emergency, reference, and reflective models and through time quality management has evolved to influence these models (Silva et al., 2021). In this specific article, the emergency model has been taken and analysis has been forwarded which emphasises the leadership role in this matter. The important role and value of quality management have been already seen in the past, however, in the modern world, quality management is entering a new era (Silva et al., 2021). In these modern times, quality management benefits by increasing the scope by fast and better addressing issues, treating the stakeholders in a new way, and many more. This piece of work justified that, to develop quality management holistically in the modern era, leadership must form the most important factor, especially in the emergency paradigm. However, this study asks for a specific participative leadership style, nonetheless, it can be concluded that leadership surely plays an important role in the rise of paradigms of quality management (Silva et al., 2021).  After extensive readings of various articles and journals, we can conclude that this article has provided better insights about the questions posed before. The questions about leadership and its relation with quality management have been answered here quite extensively. 

C. Data source, type and analyse: The researcher has used the mixed method approach where the researchers have used the systematic literature review to explore the scopes that relies inside of the quality managements. After that the researchers have used the exploratory survey to capture the industry scenario through the lens of leaders in the industry. 

D. This article targets the audience who wants to analyse the roles of leadership in management sphere. This article focuses on how leadership is important in the quality management. With this article, later some may create any new hypothesises about how leadership be in this modern world. New leadership paradigms might emerge from the potentiality of this article if the management audience relies on the data provided here. 

E. There are certain challenges that the leadership currently faces in the industry, that has been ignored in the study. Inclusion of that might have created the case for sustainability of the models, proposed in the study. 

Literature Review:

According to Barbosa et al., (2017), in the sphere of modern management, quality management has been one of the most important areas of discussion and debate. It is necessary to explore newer knowledge about quality management to sustain and address various rising issues in this management world. According to Rahman et al., (2020), leadership is connected with the dynamic factors that enhance changes and promote the achievement of goals and aims. All these are connected with the quality management of an enterprise. 


Rahman, M.R.A., Nor, M.Y.M., Wahab, J.A. and Mansor, A.N., 2020. The influence of total quality management and transformational leadership on teacher quality in Malaysian secondary school. Int. J. Innov. Creat. Change, 11, pp.143-158.

Silva, C.S., Magano, J., Matos, A. and Nogueira, T., 2021. Sustainable Quality Management Systems in the Current Paradigm: The Role of Leadership. Sustainability, 13(4), p.2056.

Barbosa, F.M.; Gambi, L.d.N.; Gerolamo, M.C. Leadership and quality management-a correlational study between leadership models and quality management principles Liderança e gestão da qualidade-um estudo correlacional entre estilos de liderança e princípios da gestão da qualidade. Gest. Prod. 2017, 438–449. [CrossRef] 

3) Inter relation of TQM and HRM:

TQM and HRM: An Integrated Approach to Organizational Success

A. TQM is also known as total quality management, denoting the process of management that enables them to achieve long-term benefits or success through solid customer loyalty via their services. Total quality management has certain factors that are generally focused on, for instance, the holistic dedication of the employees, the focus of the organisation on the customer solely, with a proper strategy or approach to achieve aims, and many more. However, Human resources were never really considered to be a part of the management as both quality management and human resource management belongs to the different hierarchical zones of an organisation. However, this raises a question as to how TQM and HRM can be integrated to achieve organisational success? I posed this question here because I realised that humans must have been the greatest resource of all time with qualitative factors. They must have some sort of management as well. I pose this question to know more about the total quality management and human resource manage and in what ways they are inter connected.

B. Previously, the management always opined that total quality management and human resource are different and contradictory factors to each with no relation. However in the study of Sharma and Rahim, (2017) not only are these two factors interrelated, but total quality management constitutes a part of human resource management. To sustain themselves in this competitive world, business needs to be holistic in their approach and must possess visions, aims, and missions as also leadership which is interrelated with quality management and human resource (Sharma and Rahim, 2017). Keeping total quality management in mind, companies and their managers have begun to influence their approach towards the company's human resources, that is, employees. With TQM, companies have adopted newer methods of managing their employees (Sharma and Rahim, 2017). They are integrating these two different concepts to achieve better attainment of goals and objectives of the company, to establish a dedicated workforce and with the integration of quality management principles, emphasis on quality at every level of the company has been the recent trend now. The integrated process will make an employee a contributing part of the organisation but not just any other part of the process (Sharma and Rahim, 2017). Quality management is involved with the human resource agenda then it will increase the total quality of communication, job design, and handling changes that undergo rapid growth. This study answers the question that it is almost essential to integrate total quality management and human resource management to enhance a company's success and also to increase the satisfaction of the customers (Sharma and Rahim, 2017). With detailed stufy on this matter, not much reasech paper, articles came out in the surface. However, this article with its detailed analysis gave a greater insight about how HRM and TQM are inter related and connected. I can conclude that this article has provided as much information about this matter.

C. Data process and analysis: The paper mainly emphasises on the old school uses of the HRM and TQM principles. With the evolving nature of current work places the past ideas regarding two aforementioned theories are meant to be obsolete. Therefore the researchers have primarily focused on the theoretical aspects of the study and mostly the secondary data based discussion in the paper. Relying on the secondary data the researches have used the various case studies to find the loopholes in the existing model. To resolve the issue the researchers also have proposed an integrated model that might be beneficiary for the business organisations out there.

D. The audience that will be benefitted by this article are the companies and organisations as this knowledge presented here will help them to manage the resources properly with more efficiency and effectiveness. 

E. As there has been no primary data involved there has been no unique perspective has been included in the study and so the paper lacks in that aspect. The paper also have ignored the implementation of the current model as there was scope to cross verify the proposed model on any small organisation and note weaknesses of the model.. 

Literature Review: 

Very less research on this topic has discouraged a detailed study however, there is quite a possibility and scope for more research. According to Donate et al., (2020), the new approaches have seen that total quality management is an integral part of the philosophy of human resource management. According to Jayashree and Faisal, (2017), TQM and HRM are entangled if the empowerment of the employees which leads to customer satisfaction is the concern. 


Sharma, B. and Rahim, M.A., 2021. TQM and HRM: an integrated approach to organizational success. Journal of Comparative International Management, 24(1), pp.27-41.

Jayashree, M., & Faisal, A. M. (2017). Development of a conceptual model for implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Human Resource Management (HRM): A Literature Survey. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 15(21), 205–213.

Donate, M.J., Ruiz-Monterrubio, E., de Pablo, J.D.S. and Peña, I., 2020. Total quality management and high-performance work systems for social capital development: Effects on company innovation capabilities. Journal of Intellectual Capital.

4) Role of Quality management in the Corporate world: 

Impact of total quality management on corporate green performance through the mediating role of corporate social responsibility

A. The corporate world is the system in which businesses and companies and industries run, on the support of the workforce. The corporate world in this globalised era is dynamic and ever-shifting. The corporate world manufactures products for usage, however, as a by-product they also generate waste. The corporate world holds quite a responsibility for this factor of generating waste that pollutes our environment, and gradually the world enters a phase of environmental deterioration. Emphasis must be made on this pollution that the corporate world emanates from, especially from the manufacturing industries. The question thus can be put forward: how to solve the matter? Whether total quality management can be used to solve the issue? Or does it have any connection with corporate green performance and corporate social responsibilities? I choose this question as the world is getting polluted day by day and to hinder such deterioration i felt quality management is required. To know more about the interrelation between these two issue i choose this question. 

B. The study of Abbas, (2019), is aligned with the addressed question. Total quality management has a greater role to play when it controls corporate behaviours which in turn manages their corporate social responsibility, resulting in the betterment of the environment (Abbas, 2019). This study analyses the role of total quality management and its implementation especially in the manufacturing industries has been significant to achieve corporate green This article has also analysed the role of corporate social responsibility and the collective decision to follow it helps green performance as well (Abbas, 2019). Here the focus has been made on every manufacturing industry, irrespective of its size and location, and has also highlighted this matter that, total quality management will enhance the corporate green performance, and will also benefit to achieve its objectives of it (Abbas, 2019). With efficient usage of resources by quality management, the environment can be saved from harm (Abbas, 2019). I can conclude that after reading various articles about this matter, this article addresses my question properly with a holistic approach. The article not only covers the matter with valuable insights but it also provides solution about the usage of TQM to enhance corporate green performance. 

C. Data: The paper has used the primary data anaylsis model for their research. For the research purpose the researchers selected the small and medium industry of Pakistan. The ISO certified businesses across five cities of Pakistan has been interviewed for the study, where the target population was the lower and middle management of the companies. For the data analysis the researchers have used the SEM techniques using SPSS software, as it has been useful for the reducing biasness from the data. Apart from that the researchers have also conducted the “Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test” to test the adequacy of the sample.

D. The audience that will be addressed here in this article will the manufacturers who will try to enhance the corporate green performance. To increase the corporate social responsibility can also be another context in which this article has been analysed. 

E. Even though the study has contributed in a extensive manner from a theoretical point of view, but there are certain limitations that affects the study. As the study was relied on the inputs from managers of the various businesses and the questions were mainly related to the business performance there are extensive chances of having biases in the study, Even though various measures have been taken to make the study reliable and valid but the chances of the biases remains high. The inclusion of the operational staffs in the study also could have been useful in the study. 

Literature review: 

According to Habib et al., (2019), business around the world focuses mainly on three questions related to input, output, and waste. Now the usage of bad quality resources will result in the generation of human labour waste and environmental waste. So with total quality management, businesses can hinder that from taking place. 


Abbas, J., 2020. Impact of total quality management on corporate green performance through the mediating role of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, p.118458.

Habib, M., Abbas, J. and Noman, R., 2019. Are human capital, intellectual property rights, and research and development expenditures really important for total factor productivity? An empirical analysis. International Journal of Social Economics.

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