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Strategies for Addressing Care Needs of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

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Introduction: Strategies for Addressing Care Needs of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that can lead to physical and psychological disability. Jonathan, a 27-year-old man, is wheelchair-bound due to Jonathan's condition and experiences anxiety and stress as a result. Jonathan lives in shared accommodation and is visited by a physiotherapist once a week, but Jonathan's father has been providing most of Jonathan's care needs. Moreover, this study has also portrayed a clear relation with the Care Act 2014 with this case study that has highlighted the basic understanding on dignity, independence, partnership, privacy. This report analyses and evaluate the principles of support, policy and practice that could be utilised to provide support for Jonathan.

1. Jonathan’s wants and needs may be assessed

Jonathan's wants and needs may be assessed through a comprehensive assessment process by the local council. This process may involve identifying Jonathan’s physical, emotional, and social needs to determine the level of support Jonathan requires. The assessment may consider Jonathan's medical condition, daily living activities, personal care needs, and any additional support necessary to meet Jonathan's needs. The council may also consider Jonathan's aspirations and goals, including Jonathan's interest in guitar lessons, to identify any support or adaptations that may be required to enable him to pursue Jonathan's interests (Teasdale,et. al. 2019). They may assess Jonathan's mobility needs, communication needs, and psychological needs to develop a holistic care plan tailored to Jonathan's needs.

The assessment may involve consultation with Jonathan, Jonathan's family, and any healthcare professionals involved in Jonathan's care, to ensure a person-centred approach that meets Jonathan's unique needs. The council may work with Jonathan to identify Jonathan's preferences and empower him to make decisions about Jonathan’s care and support (Henssler,et. al. 2021). Overall, the assessment may aim to identify Jonathan's wants and needs, to ensure that Jonathan receives the appropriate level of support to maintain Jonathan's independence, social inclusion, and quality of life.

2. Impact on the well-being of both Jonathan, Jonathan’s father and Jonathan’s friends who live with him in assisted accommodation

The situation described in the case study can have a significant impact on the well-being of Jonathan, Jonathan’s father, and Jonathan’s friends who live with him in assisted accommodation. Jonathan, Jonathan’s physical disability and psychological issues related to anxiety and stress can significantly impact Jonathan's emotional well-being. Jonathan may experience feelings of isolation and may be hesitant to pursue Jonathan's interests, such as guitar lessons, due to concerns about how people perceive him (Dyrbye, Lipscomb and Thibault, 2020). This can impact Jonathan's self-esteem, motivation, and sense of purpose. The recent stroke experienced by Jonathan's father can also impact Jonathan's emotional well-being, as Jonathan may be concerned about Jonathan's ability to continue providing care and support for Jonathan. This can cause him significant stress and worry, which can impact Jonathan's health and well-being.

For Jonathan's friends who live with him in assisted accommodation, the situation can also impact their emotional well-being. They may be concerned about Jonathan's care needs and may feel responsible for providing support and assistance. This can cause stress and anxiety, particularly if they are not equipped to provide the level of support required (Kolokotsa,et. al. 2020). Overall, the situation can have a significant impact on the emotional well-being of Jonathan7, Jonathan's father, and Jonathan's friends who live with him in assisted accommodation. It is important for appropriate support and care to be provided to all those involved to ensure their well-being is prioritized.

3. The application of the 4 psychology theories and 3 sociology theories studied in the course about Jonathan's difficult situation

Psychology theories

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s theory

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross's theory of the five stages of grief could apply to Jonathan's situation. Jonathan may be experiencing denial and isolation due to his illness and anxiety, and may also be feeling anger and bargaining in response to his father's stroke and the potential loss of his care (Corr, 2021). Jonathan may also be experiencing depression and a sense of hopelessness, as well as acceptance of his condition and the need for support and assistance from the local council. Encouraging him to pursue his passion for music may help him move towards acceptance and finding meaning in his life.

Abraham Maslow’s theory

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs can be applied to Jonathan's difficult situation by fulfilling Jonathan's Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love and belonging needs, Esteem needs, and Self-actualization needs. To address Jonathan's difficult situation, it is important to address Jonathan's needs across all levels of Maslow's Hierarchy (Hopper, 2020). By providing him with appropriate care and support, a sense of security and stability, social connections, respect and value for who Jonathan is, and the ability to pursue Jonathan's creative goals and potential, Jonathan can achieve a sense of well-being and fulfilment.

Sigmund Freud’s theory

Sigmund Freud's theory of personality describes three components: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the primitive and instinctual part of the personality, which operates on the pleasure principle and seeks to fulfil basic needs and desires. In Jonathan's case, his illness and anxiety can be seen as the result of the conflict between the id and the external reality, which is limiting his ability to satisfy his desires. The ego is the rational part of the personality, which operates on the reality principle and mediates between the id and the external world. Jonathan's ability to manage his personal care can be seen as an expression of his ego functioning (Zhang, 2020). The superego is the moral and ethical part of the personality, which incorporates the values and ideals of society and seeks to control the impulses of the id. Jonathan's discomfort in pursuing the path of creative stimulation may be related to the influence of his superego, which is concerned with how Jonathan is perceived by others and the social norms that may limit his self-expression.

Carl Jung’s theory

Carl Jung's theory involves the process of self-discovery and the integration of the unconscious and conscious aspects of an individual's psyche to achieve wholeness. In Jonathan's case, Jonathan is experiencing physical and psychological challenges that affect his self-image and ability to interact with others. The fear of how people may perceive his presence may indicate a conflict between his conscious and unconscious desires (Hietalahti, 2019). In order to achieve individuation, Jonathan may need to explore his unconscious aspects, including his fears and anxieties. This process may involve seeking professional help, such as therapy, and finding activities that align with his creative interests, like guitar lessons. By integrating these aspects of his psyche, Jonathan may be able to achieve a sense of wholeness and develop a more positive self-image.

Sociology theories

Karl max’s theory

Karl Marx's theory emphasizes the role of economic and social structures in shaping human behaviour and society. In Jonathan's case, his father's concern for his future and the need for assessment by the local council highlight the impact of societal institutions on individuals. Marx's theory also highlights the exploitation of the working class by the bourgeoisie, which may be relevant to Jonathan's situation if his disability limits his ability to work and earn a living (Fuchs, 2019). Furthermore, Jonathan’s dependence on his father and fear of leaving his accommodation without him may reflect power imbalances and class struggles in society.

Emil Durkheim’s theory

Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist who believed that society is a collective and distinct entity that is greater than the sum of its individual members. In this case study, Durkheim might view Jonathan's anxiety and stress as stemming from his lack of integration into society, and his isolation from others. Durkheim believed that social integration was important for individual well-being and that social norms and values are necessary for society to function properly (Kudratulloevich, Abduvalievich and Karamatilloevich, 2020). Durkheim might also argue that the local community should provide support and resources to help Jonathan feel more connected and integrated, which could in turn improve his mental health and overall quality of life.

Max Weber’s theory

Max Weber was a sociologist who believed that bureaucracies, characterized by hierarchical structures, standardized procedures, and rules, were the most efficient and rational form of organization. In Jonathan's case, the local council's assessment process, with its standardized procedures and rules, may be an example of Weber's ideal bureaucratic system. However, Weber also recognized that bureaucracies could be impersonal and alienating, which could exacerbate Jonathan's anxiety and sense of isolation (Weber, 2019). Weber believed that individuals in bureaucracies could retain their individuality and autonomy by using their power to influence and challenge bureaucratic procedures, which may be a strategy that Jonathan or his father could employ to ensure that Jonathan's care is tailored to his individual needs.

4. Care planning and the relevant tools and approaches

The care planning process for Jonathan should involve a range of tools and approaches to ensure that Jonathan's needs are fully understood and that Jonathan's care is coordinated and effective. A comprehensive assessment should be undertaken to identify Jonathan's care needs, including physical, emotional, social, and practical needs (McMahan, Tellez and Sudore, 2021). This should involve Jonathan, Jonathan's family, and any healthcare professionals involved in Jonathan's care. Other than that, care planning meetings should be held to discuss Jonathan's needs and preferences, and to develop a care plan that is tailored to Jonathan's individual needs. Additionally, a personalised care plan should be developed that reflects Jonathan's individual needs, preferences, and aspirations. This should be regularly reviewed and updated as Jonathan's needs and circumstances change (Albutt,et. al. 2021). Moreover, Jonathan should be provided with access to a range of support and services that can help him to achieve Jonathan's goals and live a fulfilling life. This may include access to social activities, community groups, and specialist healthcare services.

5. Jonathan’s rights and the ways these be addressed

Jonathan has the right to receive appropriate and adequate care, support, and treatment for Jonathan's multiple sclerosis, which is a long-term medical condition. Jonathan also has the right to live independently and to be treated with dignity and respect, without discrimination (Dew,et. al. 2019). In the case study, Jonathan's father referred him to the local council for an assessment. The council may assess Jonathan's needs and provide him with appropriate support and services, such as home adaptations, care services, and assistive technology to help him live independently. This assessment should also consider Jonathan's psychological needs, such as Jonathan's anxiety and stress, and how these can be addressed. Jonathan's father is concerned about Jonathan's future care needs, as Jonathan has experienced a stroke. The council should consider Jonathan's future care needs and provide him with a long-term care plan that can adapt to Jonathan's changing needs over time. This may involve providing additional support and services, such as home care or assisted living facilities, to help Jonathan maintain Jonathan's independence. The council should also consider Jonathan's desire for creative stimulation and encourage him to pursue Jonathan's interests, such as guitar lessons. They should work with Jonathan to address Jonathan's anxiety and discomfort in pursuing this path and explore ways to support him in pursuing Jonathan's creative interests in a way that feels comfortable and safe for him. Finally, the council should work with Jonathan to address Jonathan's feelings of isolation and social isolation. This may involve providing support for Jonathan to engage in social activities, such as peer support groups or community programs, to help him build social connections and combat loneliness (Dwyer,et. Al. 2020). Overall, Jonathan's rights, in this case, the study can be addressed by providing him with a comprehensive assessment of Jonathan's needs, appropriate care and support services, and encouraging him to pursue Jonathan's interests safely and comfortably, while also working to address Jonathan's social isolation and loneliness.

6. The Care Act (2014)

The Care Act (2014) is a law that governs how social care and support are provided to adults with care and support needs in England. It aims to promote people's well-being, prevent and delay the need for care, and support people to live independently for as long as possible. The Act sets out people's rights to assessment and support and places duties on local authorities to provide care and support that is person-centred and tailored to individual needs (Peckham,et. al. 2020). It also emphasizes the importance of involving people in the design and delivery of their care and support and promoting choice and control. Additionally, the Act includes measures to improve the safety and quality of care and to ensure that carers are supported and their rights are respected. Overall, the Care Act (2014) is a significant piece of legislation that seeks to improve the lives of people who require care and support, and their families and carers, by providing a clear framework for social care provision in England.


In conclusion of this report, it can be stated that the case study is properly evaluated and the required questions given for the report have been given towards solutions or probable solutions. Starting with the wants and needs of Jonathan, the impact of Jonathan's father on Jonathan’s life and well-being has been evaluated from the case study. A few psychological and sociological theories are discussed in Jonathan's difficult situation. Lastly, rights of Jonathan are discussed and the care act of 2014 is discussed in short. All over the report contains various aspects of the difficulties and their problem solution in Jonathan's difficult life.


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