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An Analysis Of The Perception Of Diversity And Inclusion

1.0 Introduction - An Analysis Of The Perception Of Diversity And Inclusion

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The evolution of the place of jobs in PNG has been dominated by colonial influences since the late nineteenth century. The Germans in the northern part of the country and the British to the south. After the second global struggle, Australian colonialism managed the united southern and northerly elements of the U.S.A. In 1975, Papua New Guinea won independence. Despite the effect of colonialism at the administrative center, its impact on the major socio-economic framework has been noticeably unaffected. The colonial rule created modern political and administrative limitations primarily based on arbitrary limitations surrounding existing communities. Narokobi (1983, p.7) observed that “Melanesian harmony springs not from the kingdom nation, common currency, commonplace banks, the police, and the military, however with the aid of a shared cultural and spiritual vision”.


PNG carries the overall spectrum of D&I attributes as in some others U. S. A., but there are regions in which there are clean and obvious biases affecting the representation of member businesses in businesses: Gender and Ethnicity.

PNG is ranked a hundred and fifty-five out of 189 countries internationally for the equality of gender, (Development Programme of the United Nations, and Report of Human Development, UNDP, 2020), and is reflective of the decreased social popularity of ladies over guys. As a result of this, ladies face barriers in social, cultural, political, and economic environments. PNG is a patriarchal society, characterized by “Big Man” authority (Jimenez, et al. 2019). This is a characteristic of the “wantok” lifestyle and is evidenced inside the work area, and the social surroundings, most glaringly in government, wherein girl leaders are rare, with the best seven ladies ever elected to the PNG Parliament and the best three girls individuals in the contemporary parliament. This represents 0.1% (UNDP, 2020) of parliamentary seats. Furthermore, UNDP information shows that at the same time, ladies constitute forty-six.Three% of the nonagricultural personnel, only constitute 19.Three of senior and center control (UNDP, 2020)

Research rationale:

The PNG has cognizance of its D&I. The recognition of this thesis is particular to Papua New Guinea (PNG). After good-sized studies of the extant literature related to D&I, there are not any articles or journals associated with PNG. There is a restrained collection of places of business D&I literature related to Fiji, New Caledonia, and Australia's indigenous population. Research into the dearth of range inside D & I literature points to the analysis being heavily dominated by the US Centric (Jonsen, Maznevski, and Schneider, 2011). This isn't always unexpected in that a great deal of the pioneering paintings in D&I studies are associated with historic US rules associated with affirmative motion, identical employment opportunities, and moves driven with the aid of "Workforce 2000". Jonsen, Maznevski, and Schneider's (2011) studies unearth gaps in literature wherein study settings do not now address cultural contexts or do not inspect underlying beliefs and values.

Research aim:

The aim of the research is, to access the organization’s (PNG) output while perceiving the D&I and how D&I has an impact on the organization’s employees, and what is the profit of the company from implementing the new rules of D&I (Romero, 2021).

Research objectives:

The objectives of the research are as follows:

  • Extant the research to know the organizational impact on relationships by implementing diversity.
  • Author, Shemla et al. (2016) find that there's a growing hobby in perceived variety that is a function of the statement that people react based on the belief of reality in place of actual reality (Shemla, et al. 2016). This and different studies have focused on demography wherein D&I is embedded in not unusual discourse and offer a possible explanation for the restrained achievement of organizational D&I outcomes.

Hypothesis research:

In this analysis part, the study has to examine the organization’s scenario in the development process of the organization while implementing the Diversity and Inclusion of the hypothetical statements of the company Papua New Guinea (PNG) (Tveit, 2020). In this research, a directional hypothesis has been implemented to know the relationship between the organization's management team and the employees, and the decision-making process of the company.

Research significance:

The research significance is meant to be the importance of conducting a research study. By using an expanded labor force inside a business, a few answers for a great many difficulties in help might be advertised. Answers for getting and allotting assets can be made accessible. Managers from all foundations give their special capacities as well as their mastery in advancing thoughts that are versatile to changing business sectors and client assumptions. There is much significance for conducting this research study, initially, this research has been adopted to understand the concepts of diversity and inclusion (Anantharaj, et al. 2021). The importance of diversity and inclusion in the business organization and how it influences the organization's performance along with employee performance. A review-based argument has been presented in the research to improve the depth of knowledge about the context. The reshapes have improved the understanding of the proper usage of appropriate research methods in a study.

Research structure:

A generic research structure has been followed in this research. The research structure has been presented in the figure. According to the figure, the first section is the introduction section. In this section, a detailed explanation has been presented about the research, aim, objectives, background, and rationale of the research to introduce what will be done in the research. The second part of the research is the literature review section, in which arguments have been presented about the context by reviewing such authors’ articles. This has improved the research undersign and provided a general overview of the context (Jonsen, et al. 2021). The third section is about the methodology section, in which an explanation is provided about the methods and techniques that have been used in this research to gather data and pieces of information. The fourth section is about the data analysis and discussion section. in this section, detailed analysis and discussion have been presented on the gathered data and information through some statistics and graphical presentations. The last section is about the conclusion section, in this section, a summarization has been presented about the outcome of the research.

2.0 Literature review

Empirical study:

According to the author Yombai et al. (2021), the study has provided essential information about the NG forest where the ground is dwelling for ants that have been surveyed by the researcher by applying two methods along the 9.6km of transects above the sea level. The author has researched the b elevations in ant affluence and the diversity in the measurement of high in a lowland forest. The author has established the majority of the ant species in the lowland that occurred in the lowland to the shortest range of elevation. Tuna baiting and the hand collection method have been implemented to investigate the diversity and the community which has sampled in Papua New Guinea in the sixteen sites that have composite with the ant's diversity (Yombai, et al. 2021). The effect of diversity is not very essential when using multi-variety randomization because the ant species has dominated the forest class. So the amazing diagram of the ant species abundance is high in the disturbed site which is the sampling of the peaceful communities in all the elevations.

According to the author Homot et al. (2022), the assessment result of the company Papua New Guinea has presented the total diversity of lianas are 68 genera that belong to thirty-three families. There is no difference between the species of lianas abundance in the lowland logged and unlogged forest. The opposite outcome of the research has reported the species that have decreased their bounty with the elevation of the species. The research presents a very high taxonomy of the species of lianas in the company Papua New Guinea. The case study of the author has highlighted that the abundance of lianas tends to decrease abundance (Homot, et al. 2022). There is no vital difference between the lowland’s logged and unlogged forests which have reduced their frequency to experience the recovery of the disturbance period of the forest. The statistical findings have suggested there is no understanding of the impact of the lianas abundance on diversity.

According to the author Kang et al. (2019), to achieve diversity and inclusion it is not essential to endeavor but a top-down approach. The company has to implement leadership and cardiothoracic surgery in the decision-making process especially the leadership such as STS which has reviewed the diversity and inclusion of the company. The STS has recognized that there is a lack of diversity in cardiothoracic surgeons and saw an increased percentage of females, American Africans, and Hispanics enrolled in medical school in the U.S.A (Kang, et al. 2019). To assist the company the task force of the company has performed a survey to identify the STS members and get their opinions on the necessity of diversity and inclusion in the company to review the organization’s specialty it is the main report where the author has been illustrated the result to insight on the lack of diversity and inclusion which has considered as a necessity to getting a successful and effective specialty.

Conceptual framework:

Relation between variables:

In this research, there is a dependent variable which is the employee's performance and the organization’s improvement. Which is depend on the gender of the employees, the ethnicity of the project and the working process of the company, and the inclusiveness of the climate of the organization which has to be the relevant environment for the work to work properly to meet the company’s goal, and inclusive leadership to train the employees and communicate properly with the employees so the employees can do according to the company’s need and can achieve the target (Solkhe, 2021). These factors help the company to improve its productivity and increase its profitability by improving the employee's performance towards the company.

Theories and models:

There are many theories for managing diversity in the workforce to get an individual reaction, and it has been explained that diversity is harmful or beneficial to the organizations to get the outcomes. There are three types of theories in it (Furtado, et al. 2021). These are the cognitive hypothesis of diversity, the social identity theory and the similarity-attraction paradigm, and the suppression model of justification which explains the individual tasks on the prejudices.

Literature gap:

After reviewing the case study there are many gaps have been identified. The gaps are described: After reviewing the project there are many gaps such as the data is not proper to analyze it and the sampling of the data also not properly merged which has affected the researcher and faced some difficulties in analyzing the data. While reviewing the case study the data is very poor to understand properly and the data is backdated which is also a big problem for the research to analyze it properly (McCoy, et al. 2019). There is a lack of proper information so the data is not understood by the reviewer of the case study. The researchers need to further research and collect the recent data and it is very important to address the data properly sample the data properly and put the necessary data in an appropriate space.

Research challenges:

In implementing the survey many challenges have been faced by the researcher. So the researcher did not efficiently collect the proper data in the need for the case study which caused the lack of proper information and has affected the analysis part of the case study to get the right information about diversity and inclusion (Köllen, et al. 2018). The researcher could not manage the time properly for the survey process which affected the research by getting the backdated data from the survey report. The researcher could not format their documents of research so the data is not understood properly to get a piece of knowledge about it. The researchers have used too many direct statements and communicated directly in this segment which helps the students to understand their abilities.

3.0 Methodology

Research design:

In the study's format, the studies will seem in a few ranges. At first, the researcher made a questionnaire to acquire the statistics. The design of the look-at technique is the entire approach it is practiced to perform the research (Abutabenjeh, et al. 2018). In this take-look at's format, primary statistics have been amassed. The facts have been amassed using the qualitative design technique. This layout approach has shortcomings and is beneficial. The researcher has to don't forget the hypotheses of the records series and the evaluation technique is maximumly applicable to locate the facts.

Research onion:

Research approach:

In this research, the primary statistics have been accrued while enforcing the quantitative method of information series. The “Deductive” technique has been implemented to gather primary information from the belief in Diversity and Inclusion. The information evaluation is based on the belief in Diversity and Inclusion to enhance the agency's performance to make a terrific courting with the personnel and the clients to boost its productivity (Uekusa, et al. 2020). To collect the proper statistics approximately it the researchers have carried out that technique as a good way to assist them to get the survey on it and get the right records from the survey. Two factors have been defined which might be “predictability” and “consistency” that have helped the Organization to make the proper decision approximately the implementation of the perception of Diversity and Inclusion to grow its sales and productiveness.

Research method:

At first, the researcher surveyed the organization to collect the proper data and made a questionnaire about the perception of diversity and inclusion and asked the questions to the management team, employees, managers, and the owner of the organization (Schmid, 2022). The researchers have collected the primary data through the survey because the survey report can explain the original data from those who have experience with it.

Research philosophy:

In this, a look at positivism and constructivism is obtained. Positivism adheres to what's facilitated via using the announcement manner. It consists of an honest dimension approach. The fundamental precept of positivism is that there can be no distinction between logical inequality throughout technological expertise (Žukauskas, et al. 2018). In this device, the studies ought to no longer count on and give an explanation. The research observation can be completed in the human revel. With good judgment, technology ought to be judged and it must be value-unfastened. The hypothesis ought to be examined within the research technique wherein positivism ought to be involved. The pretty dependent studies technique used by positivist researchers permits them to duplicate identical observations within destiny. Positivism is primarily based mostly on the supply of knowledge which is based on area and time but is now not based totally on experience.

Research strategy:

The important strategy of the research is the records series approach which has been completed with the aid of the survey (Rong, et al. 2020). The researcher sampled the accrued statistics nicely and created a mission timeline to get the critical records from the survey. Though the researcher has amassed the number one records the researcher has implemented the quantitative method inside the records series method.

Data collection method:

For this research purpose, the researcher has used the quantitative data collection method. This method has helped the researcher to explore the organizations and the employee's behavior to collect the data (Moises, 2020). This method regarded the main data which is collected from the Interviews, questionnaires, and observation to understand the data. It is a visual material which has Interacts with face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and computer-assisted personal interviews, and the questionnaire is surveyed by internet-based questionnaire, mail questionnaire, and face-to-face survey to observe them and it has helped the researcher to gather effective information by observing the people.

Data sampling method:

The records can be accrued with the number one approach. The primary facts were gathered via the manner of easy random sampling facts. At the primary level, the researchers are going to distribute the age. Secondly, the survey has been executed amongst the human beings and the records while asking them the questions. The sampling chance showed up because the facts have been accumulated from sampling. The primary information has become collected through the procedure of direct and personal interviews (Prendergast, et al. 2020). In this approach, numerous questions may be requested from the individuals in a nice c language of the time. The important advantage of this method is that it is a much extra effective approach however time-eating. Collection via neighborhood resources is one of the incredible strategies for accumulating information. This method is cheap but offers only estimates.

Research ethics:

The ethics of the research have furnished the rule for the responsible conduct of research. The ethical ideas are honesty, objectivity, integrity, carefulness, openness, confidentiality, responsible monitoring, appreciation for colleagues, social responsibility, competence, legality, and human safety (Cascio, et al. 2021). Those ethics have to follow study features to get the proper facts and make a tremendous relationship with the informer and the clients. The researcher has to document the records, techniques, processes, and results. The objectivity of the experimental layout, statistics analysis, interpretation, peer evaluation, professional testimony, and the alternative components of the studies. Honest conduct is compulsory for observing fulfillment. The dishonest conduct creates a negative settlement which could lack belief and behave to the dishonest pastime. Respect is one of the important ethical matters inside the enterprise. The researcher and the client must be sincere and admire every difference to construct the right consideration among them. Respect method of listening carefully and confirming the inherent with specific humans. Making the right network is one of the number one priorities inside the organization. This creates an agreement for a number of the personnel and complements their empowerment behavior.

Research limitation:

For the research purpose, the limitation is very important. For this research, the researcher has taken time 100 days to the survey to collect the data (Covington, 2021). And 50 days to analyze all the data to get the result. It is better to identify the shortcomings of the research.

Time Horizon:

4.0 Data analysis

In the part of analyzing the data, the researcher has implemented the quantitative method to analyze the primary data. The author has surveyed the organization PNG to collect all the appropriate data to analyze it for the proper information. After analyzing all the data the researcher has got knowledge about the D&I effect in the organization PNG. Scholarly studies in D & I and has observed the direction of its evolution with the first generation of control research inside the 80s and 90s in large part centered on the "Business Case". Early scholars inside the range field hypothesized that range makes commercial enterprise experience. In the 2000's it has become obtrusive that plenty of the hypothesized costs changed into contentious. As a result, studies focused on more nuanced knowledge of the range and brought the concept of Diversity Management (Peixoto, et al. 2018). Contemporary studies are directed closer to perceptions of range and enhancing outcomes of introducing an organizational climate for inclusion that could have an impact on fantastic consequences of variety whilst concurrently lowering terrible consequences along with distrust and miscommunication. Although the topic of D&I has currently entered the public discourse at a countrywide level, there remains a confined supply of scholarly studies on the subject. Much of the literature to be had relates to practitioner articles, corporate brochures and Sustainable Development / Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reports in MNC's annual results. Whilst interesting, the content is not critically researched. As such entry into secondary research and facts are confined. To this, this thesis analyses number one studies and records this is supported by theory researched in the literary evaluation. The constrained public D&I dialogue introduces every other venture inside the number one principles that aren't fully understood. This calls for a phenomenological angle with a one-on-one interview system. This limits the quantity of number one facts, but the opportunity to provide an explanation for and contextualize the standards of D&I to individuals wherein English may not be their first language will provide a more accurate and richer degree of number one information. Research into D&I has grown since the 1980s, and there is now a large collection of scholarly articles within the area and subfields inside the subject matter. It is unexpected to locate so much literature associated with and researched via Western authors and related to the principle of Western evolved economies. Papers are beginning to emerge from the BRICS geographies and this is a feature of these economies, moving from growing to advanced popularity. Despite this, there is confined research into D&I in the Pacific Island countries and no related scholarly research in PNG. This thesis aims to address this hole with research associated especially with the PNG context. Early research D & I was brought about employing "Workforce 2000" and this became contextually relevant in the UK. In other advanced economies, a shift within the group of workers' demography toward immigrants, females, and older employees isn't the case in PNG. It is predicted that women will become greater represented inside the body of workers, however, the group of workers will become more youthful. There are only a few immigrant people, and they may be all expatriates employed for their unique competencies. Successive governments have promoted Nationalisation programs, and as a result of this, the indigenous staff becomes extra educated and competent. If D&I is a control resource to promote productivity, then research desires to be directed to meeting the particular demands of PNG-based establishments. This thesis's goal is to provide primary research to provoke further academic and practitioner discourse on this subject.

In Figure 3 the age chart is shown. The above desk compares the consolidated results of general roundedness of whether employees perceived Organizational Culture as having an advantageous effect on organizational output, against the roundedness on the demographic of the sample set for the same question (Ramezanzadeh, 2019). Variations of negativity greater than 10% are highlighted at the age of 20-30 and greater than 87% are highlighted as positivity implementing diversity and inclusion. At the age of 30-40, the negative effect has increased by 15% and the positive effect has the same as the age of 20-30. At the age of 50+, some issues have been shown in the company’s productivity. So the negative effect has increased by forty percent and the positive effect has decreased by 60% which is a huge effect shown in the company.

In Figure 4 the dominant identity is shown as the most effective part of the research. Variations exist in Dominant Identity primarily based on gender and seniority. For the reason of the survey, the researcher asked individuals what they considered most the people others might see them as. The responses have been open however then summarized to the key identities of ethnicity, gender, and seniority (Ohunakin, 2019). Identity is a robust theme in PNG, wherein the “wantok” way of life dominates people’s association with their identification. This affiliation is so robust that Schram (2015, p.40), observes that the “wantok” way of life “has a basis in primordial and affective attachment, both as an extension of traditional family unity or emerging ethnic identification”. As such it's far more exciting to say the ethnicity subject no longer monitors any huge variations to the consolidated result.

In figure 5 the ethnicity of the research has been shown in this graph which describes the company’s specialty and strategy. Over the 1st year of implementing diversity in the company has negatively affected the company in a ratio of less than 0.2 and it has a positive effect on the company by increasing the company’s productivity by a ratio of 0.8 (Garcia, 2021). In the 2nd year of applying diversity, the negative impact has decreased by a ratio of less than 0.2, and the positive impact on the company by a ratio of greater than 0.8 which has impacted the company by increasing its productivity in the market of the U. S. A.

In Figure 6 gender has been shown to know the company’s specialty and access to diversity and inclusion in respect of the company. At a gender degree, a larger percentage of the members understand that an inclusive way of life promotes higher organizational results than at a consolidated stage. This suggests that contributors experience that the inherent organizational culture acknowledges their gender (Johnson, 2019). After implementing the females in the company the growth of the company has increased day by day. In the 1st year, the company’s growth increased by greater than 0.8 and the negative impact was shown in the ratio of 0.1. In the next year, the productivity decreased by less than 0.8 and the negative impact has been increased by a ratio of greater than 0.2. It is the cause that the company has faced a huge loss in the next year of implementation.

In figure 7 the seniority has been shown in the graph presentation. Seniority has impacted the company by increasing productivity and it affects diversity in the company to meet the company’s goal. The seniors are experienced a lot it is a plus point for the company and it increases the productivity in year 1 it has increased by very close to 1 it negatively affects the company by a ratio of less than 0.1 (Amin, 2022). In year 2 the negative impact has increased because their employees are getting old the negative impact is shown in the ratio of greater than 0.2 and the positive impact has decreased by 0.6 which is a huge fall for the company. But in year 3, the positive effect increased by 1 and in this year there is no negative impact has been shown that can affect the company. In years 4 and 5, the company’s positivity and the negative impact are almost the same which is a sign that the company has run in line to meet its goal.

Tenure is the most effective part of the company which has a positive effect on the company and helps the company to grow in the market of the U. S. A. In figure 8 the tenure has positively increased in a ratio of 40000 has a huge effect shown in the company’s growth after implementing diversity and inclusion to the respect of the company (Moreno, 2022). It mainly affects the company’s workforce to increase its productivity positively. In this graph, there is no negative effect has been shown which can reduce the company’s growth.

5.0 Conclusion


There are many recommendations for the company PNG. The recommendations are as follows:

  • The company has to behave the same with the different diverse employees and the customers as the company has behaved with their same cultural employees. It can help to build a b relationship between the company's management team and the employees and this can help the company to increase its productivity effectively. 
  • The management team has to look after their financial ability and check all the records of the company's financial condition (Huang, 2021). This can help the company to invest in the right place and get the profit they have estimated before.
  • The company's team leader has to motivate and communicate with the employees so the employees can work efficiently toward the company's goal to achieve it. It also helps the company to identify the faults the PNG Company has developed and implement the new tools for increasing productivity. 

Linking with the Objectives

The organization’s (PNG) output while perceiving Diversity and Inclusive and how Diversity and Inclusive has an impact on the organization’s employees, and the profit of the company from implementing the new rules of Diversity and Inclusive. The objectives of the research that has been analyzed are the organizational impact on relationships by implementing diversity. There is a growing hobby in perceived variety that is a function of the statement that people react based on the belief of reality in place of actual reality (Horváth, et al. 2018). This and different studies have focused on demography wherein Diversity and Inclusive are embedded in not unusual discourse and offer a possible explanation for the restrained achievement of organizational Diversity and Inclusive outcomes.

Future scope

Many scopes were identified after the research. Diversity affects the company by increasing productivity and it helps the company to build a good relationship with the customers and employees which is beneficial for the company to grow and increase its productivity to meet its goal of the company (Rogers, et al. 2019). Effective leadership can help the company to grow by providing effective training among the employees and communicating effectively about the company’s plan and goal which can help the company by increasing its productivity and help to achieve success as the company’s target.


The researcher has researched the company’s diversity and inclusion in the PNG in the U. S. A. PNG carries the overall spectrum of D&I attributes as in some others U. S. A., but there are regions in which there are clean and obvious biases affecting the representation of member businesses in businesses: Gender and Ethnicity. PNG is ranked a hundred and fifty-five out of 189 countries internationally for the equality of gender, (Development Programme of the United Nations, and Report of Human Development, UNDP, 2020), and is reflective of the decreased social popularity of ladies over guys. As a result of this, ladies face barriers in social, cultural, political, and economic environments. PNG is a patriarchal society, characterized by “Big Man” authority. This is a characteristic of the “wantok” lifestyle and is evidenced inside the work area, and the social surroundings, however most glaringly in government, wherein girl leaders are rare, with the best seven ladies ever elected to the PNG Parliament and the best three girl individuals in the contemporary parliament.

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