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An immigration system can be defined as the implementation of certain policies whereby the influx of individuals that tend to reside foreign is controlled by the state. Policies in a particular immigration system include rules regarding rights to access a territory, authorisation for participating in the labour market and others (Perez, 2015). Brexit can be described as the abbreviation of two words that are Britain and Exit. It can be defined as a political deal through which Britain has withdrawn its membership from the European Union (Wallenfeldt., 2022). The study is based on an analysis of the immigration system imposed by the UK government after Brexit.


Prior to the political deal Brexit, moving and residing in the UK was not so challenging for foreigners including people from nations that are members of the European Union. Before Brexit, there were free movement rules in the UK that provided people in the EU member nations with the right to reside and work in the UK independently. They were not obligated to take permission from the UK government to do so (Migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk, 2022).

On 31st December 2020, the free movement of the EU in the UK was ended and the UK government imposed new arrangements for EU citizens to arrive in the UK. However, Irish citizens are still allowed to move to the UK freely. A points-based immigration system to reside in the UK for any purpose has been introduced by the government of the UK after the political deal. However, the UK government after has introduced new immigration routes. The routes for immigration are different for people intending to live, work and study in the UK. To reside, work or study in the UK, foreigners have been obligated to apply for and pay for a visa online. In fact, proper biometric information has also started to be taken from applicants when they apply for visas. Non-EU citizens separate the process of applying for a visa for EU, EEA and Swiss citizens from the criteria of applying for a visa. To get a visa after Brexit, people from the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland are obligated to provide a digital image of their faces using smartphone applications (Gov.uk, 2022). However, they are not obligated to give their fingerprints when applying for a visa to the UK.

However, the discussed criteria to get a visa to the UK do not match with the immigration criteria that have been introduced for people from Non-EU nations. People from non-EU nations are obligated to provide both images and fingerprints (Gov.uk, 2022). After Brexit, having a skilled worker visa has been necessary for people willing to reside and work in the UK. However, to get a skilled worker visa, an applicant from a foreign nation is obligated to show that the job it has gotten at a skill level of RQF3 or above. In other words, to get a skilled worker visa, an individual has to show the UK government that it has received a job offer for which having a diploma qualification with a minimum of 59 credits is necessary (Distance-learning-centre.co.uk, 2021). Apart from this, people need to have the capability to speak in English. People can even only get a skilled working visa to work in the UK if the employer pays them a threshold salary from their previous salaries. However, people are obligated to be employed by an employer that has been approved by the Home Office of the UK (Gov.uk, 2022).

After Brexit, for people in the EU, EEA and Switzerl and the government of the UK has also launched a global talent scheme. It can be defined as a set of policies to import talent into the UK through which the UK government has started to import highly skilled researchers and scientists (Gov.uk, 2022). The UK government has also introduced new student visa routes after Brexit. However, to get such a visa, students from the EU, EU and Switzerland have to show that they have been placed in an educational course in the UK. The capability to speak, read and write English thoroughly is also necessary for such students (Gov.uk, 2022). Such students cannot be permitted to reside in the UK without showing adequate financial capability to support themselves and pay for their educational courses in the UK. In fact, a graduation visa has also been introduced by the government for students who have completed a degree of graduation in the UK (Gov.uk, 2022). The UK government has also launched a Marriage Visitor Visa. Through this policy, people from the EU, EEA and Switzerland and other nations are being permitted to visit the UK to attend marriages and even reside if their families are already there in the UK (Gov.uk, 2022).

It has been found that after Brexit when importing workers in the UK has been challenging for UK-based businesses, the agriculture industry of the nation has started to face issues with a shortage of workforce. Around 40,000 have expanded the number of labours in the seasonal worker route the government for horticulture and poultry in 2022. In the entire food supply chain in England, the government has also commissioned an independent review into a shortage of workers. An investment of £10 million has also been made with the launch of a skills and training scheme with an intention of supporting new entrants in the fishing sector of agriculture (Nicolson, 2022).

On the other hand, due to Brexit, a departure of large number of labours from the UK has been noticed. In fact, the training process of new labours in the UK has also been stalled by the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic. A rising skilled shortage has been noticed with rising vacant positions in the transportation industry of the nation (Cholteeva, 2022). In fact, due to Brexit, the supply chain of workers in care homes in the UK has also been disrupted. It has been found that in almost a decade, social care workers has shrunk for the fit time, whereas, due to Covid-19, there was a growing demand and congestion of bed in healthcare institution across the UK. During that period, when there was a requirement of 500,000 labour engagement in the healthcare system of the nation, a shortage of around 50,000 people in the healthcare sector of the nation was noticed. The fact is that around 165,000 vacant job positions in the healthcare sector were there in the UK (Booth, 2022).

Vacant job positions for social care workers from 212 to 2022

Figure 1: Vacant job positions for social care workers from 212 to 2022

The work of the European Payments Council has been valued by the UK payments industry for a long time. As an example, the UK used to allow Single Euro Payments Area transactions. However, after Brexit to be able to provide labours with increased salaries and wages, the government of the UK has started to charge an increased amount for such transactions (Europeanpaymentscouncil.eu, 2022). On the other hand, In fact, the criteria to pay labours minimum so that they can afford their necessities may have also contributed to the improved financial conditions of foreign labours in the UK whether they are involved in agriculture, transportation or the home care sector.


It can be concluded that the occurrence of the political deal Brexit has imposed challenges for businesses in the UK to import workers to the UK. The political deal has significantly disrupted the supply chain of workers in the agriculture, transportation and home care sectors. With the rising number of vacant job positions in those sectors after Brexit, disruption in the supply chain of the workforce has been noticed. Due to Brexit, importing workers from the EU, EEA and Swiss have been complicated for businesses. In fact, people from those nations have been obligated to meet an increased number of eligibility criteria to immigrate to the UK.

Reference list

Booth.R, 2022. England’s social care workforce shrinks for first time in 10 years. [Online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2022/oct/11/englands-social-care-workforce-shrinks-for-first-time-in-10-years [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Brexit exacerbated UK labour shortages, but causes are ‘more complex’, research says. Cholteeva.Y, 2022. Brexit exacerbated UK labour shortages, but causes are ‘more complex’, research says. [Online] Available at: https://www.peoplemanagement.co.uk/article/1795782/brexit-exacerbated-uk-labour-shortages-causes-more-complex-research-says [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Distance-learning-centre.co.uk, 2021. Adult Care - Level 3 Diploma (RQF) Course. [Online] Available at: https://www.distance-learning-centre.co.uk/adult-care-level-3-diploma-rqf-course/ [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Europeanpaymentscouncil.eu, 2022. The Payments Landscape in the UK after Brexit. [Online] Available at: https://www.europeanpaymentscouncil.eu/news-insights/insight/payments-landscape-uk-after-brexit [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. Apply for the Global Talent visa. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/global-talent [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. Graduate visa. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/graduate-visa [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. How to apply for a visa to come to the UK. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/apply-to-come-to-the-uk [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. Marriage Visitor visa. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/marriage-visa [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. New immigration system: what you need to know. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/new-immigration-system-what-you-need-to-know#:~:text=You%20will%20not%20be%20able,not%20received%20a%20decision%20yet [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. Skilled Worker visa. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/skilled-worker-visa [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Gov.uk, 2022. Student visa. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/student-visa [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk, 2022. EU Migration to and from the UK. [Online] Available at: https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/eu-migration-to-and-from-the-uk/ [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Nicolson.J, 2022. Labour Shortages: Agriculture and Fishing. [Online] Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2022-09-08/debates/0701E736-F4B3-4C06-93EB-2F95602B388E/LabourShortagesAgricultureAndFishing [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Perez.A.S, 2015. Immigration Policy. [Online] Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/immigration-policy [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

skillsforcare.org.uk , 2022. The state of the adult social care sector and workforce in England. [Online] Available at: https://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Adult-Social-Care-Workforce-Data/Workforce-intelligence/publications/national-information/The-state-of-the-adult-social-care-sector-and-workforce-in-England.aspx [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

Wallenfeldt.W, 2022. Brexit. [Online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Brexit [Accessed on: 24.12.2022]

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