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Dubbing in Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling, Dubbing and Cultural Sources

Introduction: Dubbing in Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling, Dubbing and Cultural Sources

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This research aims to analyse relationships between different types of synchrony concerning culturally specific and dubbing items based on localised target text effectively.


  • To identify different types of synchrony and affected factors in cultural-specific dubbing processes
  • To evaluate different types of synchrony concerning audiovisual translation and culturally specific items
  • To explore relationships among types of synchrony concerning culturally specific and dubbing items

Literature review


A literature review is a method of collecting data with the help of different forms of data collection processes that helps in understanding the aims and objective of the research. Articles or journals are supporting the research from previous research and support in better understanding of the topic. The research emphasises analysing cultural effects and advantages due to the audiovisual translation process in various other regions. It supports in better understanding of audiovisual translation as well as the dubbing process with specifications regarding ole of dubbing in the process of improvement in audiovisual translation aspects. The cultural References to various languages associated with the implementation of audiovisual translation aspects based on explained with proper examples. The theoretical perspective and conceptual framework have also been shown for better understanding.

Conceptual framework

Conceptual framework

Cultural aspects of audiovisual

According to Huber and Kairys (2021), as the change, int eh area language and the scent of the region also change the different areas have their language and own way of speaking. The cultural aspects are not maintained while dubbing or providing subtitles. The focus of the study is to provide a better understanding of visual content. It focuses to provide an effective language and fulfilling the gap in culture. The dubbing has an effect on the understanding of people the words can be understood but the sense and meaning cannot be recognised. According to Chaume (2020), the audiovisuals that are presented on the screen have faced various controversies as they cannot meet the demand of the people and cannot make the content as interesting as it seems to be in the original. The cultural gap is maintained through the subtitles and the dubbing is done in segmentation then also there is a lack of core competence. The dubbing industry is missing the skills that need to be provided for meeting the culture of the region.

Factors concerning dubbing 

According to Fuentes-Luque, (2019), the audiovisual has a huge impact on the people viewing the visuals some of the factors that affect visuals are the accent used in different regions. This article gives an example of a silent film focusing on the Spanish-speaking world and the film was made in Joinville and Holywood. The dubbing was done in various regions but the skill required for providing the originals concept of the film was not fulfilled. The article gave an important aspect about the cultural gap faced by dubbing the film it also provided an effective subtitle but the meaning was not confirmed through subtitles. 

According to Spiteri Miggiani, G., 2021), the major factors that affected the culture of the region were the tempo of the sentence and the timing of the words. The major factors that affect the culture of any particular region were rhythmic synchrony and the timing of the lip movement was not matched. This shows that a major of the factors that affect the understanding of visual aspects in different regions include the mismanagement of emotions. The speech melody, unnatural intonation, and hollow sound quality of an instance especially during outdoor scenes were noticed. These are the major challenges faced during the dubbing of any audio-visual. The research focuses on collecting the ground report and it focuses on the research strategies that will support the further research process. 

Theoretical perspective 

"Subtitle translation theory" is the theory that relates to the management of the subtitle that focuses on meeting the needs of the viewer by providing an effective understanding of visual films. This theory states the immediate translation of the audio used in the visual aspects and provides an effective understanding of the film that will be displayed at the bottom of the screen. It interprets the audio of the desired language needed for an understanding of viewers. It also relates to the big bang theory, it provides an effective understanding of television drama and films. It is also used to motivate studies in china. It is based on the linguistic and communicative dimensions and culture of the region for a better understanding of the language of the audio used in the visual. 

Literature Gap 

The articles and journals used for a better understanding of the research topic lack in some aspects. According to Huber and Kairys (2021), the research provides theoretical data if it would provide statistical data representation then a better understanding could be concluded. According to Spiteri Miggiani, G., 2021), it provides an effective understanding of the topic with the help of secondary data but if primary data will be collected then it would provide a better analysis.  

Research questions

RQ1: What are the different types of synchrony and affected factors in cultural-specific dubbing processes?

RQ 2: What is the role of different types of synchrony concerning audiovisual translation and cultural specifics items?

RQ 3: What are the relationships among types of synchrony concerning culturally specific and dubbing items?  

Research methods

The methodology part is a vital part for conducting research in a systematic order by identifying, the research approach, philosophy, design, data collection and data analysis method as well as data type and data source. Research regarding "Subtitling and Dubbing & cultural references" in the case of Audiovisual translation or dubbing will conduct through a secondary qualitative research method. As opined by Youn et al. (2019), research philosophy is categorised as positivism, realism and interpretivism. The secondary qualitative research method is associated with collecting information from previous research-based literature and conducting a thematic data analysis process.  This research is concerned with applying the “positivism research philosophy" for conducting the research process and reaching the ultimate decision concerning the ineffective data analysis process. "Positivism research philosophy" is concerned to maintain the stability of collected evidence and making frames based on the aims and objectives of this research project. This philosophy helps to reach the findings of research by comparing variable aspects and analysing every dimension in an argumentative manner. In this research, the application of "positivism research philosophy" will contribute to analysing different approaches and issues in the "audiovisual translation process based on cultural and dubbing references" depending on assumption principles considering existing evidence. 

This research will follow a “deductive research approach" for data extraction and hypothesis development practice. As argued by Deb et al. (2019), the “deductive research approach" is associated with developing hypotheses and extracting information based on viewpoints and understanding constructs from previous research-based evidence. "Deductive research approach" emphasises reaching a conclusive finding based on existing theories considering data extraction and hypothesis development process without considering the development of new ideas. Application of the "deductive research approach" in the secondary qualitative data analysis process is required to develop an understanding regarding “Audiovisual translation subtitling dubbing and cultural reference" will help to analyse and reach findings relevant to aims and objectives. This research will utilise "descriptive research design" for conducting a data analysis process with a significant research method. "Descriptive research design" is based on the analysis of factual aspects for supporting different p; perspectives and viewpoints considering collected evidence. As researched by De Costa et al. (2019), a "descriptive research design" focuses on describing phenomena and situations regarding the research problem that will be applied to this research process to support the research method. Therefore, applying a "descriptive research design" in the data analysis process will be beneficial for conducting this secondary data analysing process systematically.

Another aspect of the research method is identifying data sources and data types as well as the data collection method that includes collecting information from secondary sources namely articles, journals and books based on previous research. The data type is qualitative data for conducting this research with a secondary qualitative approach.  As observed by Islam (2018), collecting information from previous research-based literature such as articles and journals and developing themes for conducting thematic data analysing process is the main concern of this research method. The "Threshold Radial sampling method" will be used for conducting the sampling process in secondary qualitative research regarding "Subtitling and Dubbing & cultural references in the case of Audiovisual translation or dubbing". The "Threshold Radial sampling method" prefers to sample secondary data straightforwardly with a radial pattern considering existing evidence to reach a decision threshold. "Threshold Radial sampling method" is recognised as a low undetected sample that is concerned about the situation. Threshold radial aims to analyse the contamination level of events and data analysis process to reach a conclusive finding avoiding duplicity.

However, decision criteria through the Threshold radial sampling process help to enhance screening value based on general analysis as well as make finding more specific and significantly relevant to the aims and objectives of the research project. The data analysis process is associated with thematic analysis which is a method for examining qualitative data. The thematic data analysing process depends on entails exploring processes across a data set to analyse, and identify, through adopting a report repeated patterns that will contribute to reaching findings relevant to aims and objectives significantly. The thematic data analysis process prefers to describe information by developing themes and inputting information from previous research-based journals and articles regarding "Subtitling and Dubbing & cultural references in the case of Audiovisual translation or dubbing" (Fuentes-Luque,  2019) The data set and data size of this data sampling method will be developed 5 themes relevant to the objectives of this research project.  The data collection method includes identifying topic-related articles, and journals, and short-listing them based on the year of publication.

After that, find key terms and input information in the data set. Ethical consideration is important for maintaining ethics and advising against risks in a research process that includes several restrictions namely avoiding data manipulation, following copyright acts, and maintaining data security and data confidentiality. “Copyright acts” refers to following proper referencing and acknowledgements during putting information from journals and articles. This research literature was published in 2019 and onward that will be followed to maintain research quality. As cited by Phakiti et al. (2018), maintaining confidentiality and data security with privacy protection is required to enhance data integrity and effectiveness of research methods otherwise research can be faced issues regarding data leakage and breaches.  Avoiding data manipulation is important for conducting research processes with an authenticity that helps to enhance the reliability and integrity of research findings significantly. 

Reference list


De Costa, P.I., Crowther, D. and Maloney, J. eds., 2019. Investigating world Englishes: Research methodology and practical applications. Routledge.

Deb, D., Dey, R. and Balas, V.E., 2019. Engineering research methodology: a practical insight for researchers. Springer.

Islam, M.R. ed., 2018. Social research methodology and new techniques in analysis, interpretation, and writing. IGI Global.

Phakiti, A., De Costa, P., Plonsky, L. and Starfield, S. eds., 2018. The Palgrave handbook of applied linguistics research methodology. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Youn, C.H., Chen, M. and Dazzi, P., 2019. Cloud Broker and Cloudlet for Workflow Scheduling (pp. 1-212). Springer.


Fuentes-Luque, A., 2019. An approach to audio-visual translation and the film industry in Spain and Latin America. Bulletin of Spanish Studies96(5), pp.815-834. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14753820.2019.1605711

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