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Matlab is very essential software for chemical engineering. Moreover, with the help of advanced technology, this Matlab software can replace manual chemical calculation. Moreover, chemical calculation data are very reliable and effective in this Matlab software. Different types of chemical calculation can be solved with the help of this Matlab software. There are various types of application in chemical engineering. These applications are ranging from process control, process calculation, and numerical manipulation to process simulation and modelling and the last one is optimization. Moreover, different types of factors used in chemical engineering. These factors are math, physical science, and life science.
Taking Rate constant to be × m3/kmol/min
Operating Temperature Rate>-4 m3/kmol/min
Energy Balance: (rA) V>UA(TTc)
For this case>VkCA0(1x) (CB02CA0x)CA0
For Normal Operation, 0.9724 kmol/m3 .>3.
Without the use of numbers, we can show that t>
At 45 mins,about 7%
Heat generation As the operation that has been conducted is isothermal, the rate constant i.e. k will be a constant for the current phase. The rate of the reaction will be maximum at the beginning as the concentration of A and B was maximum at that time. Therefore,
Maximum rate of heat>
Maximum Possible heat removal rate
Hence, with the control of feedback, it was easy to maintain the temperature of bath.
In phase two, the operation becomes adiabatic.
The equations that are needed to be solved are>
Integrating numerically, the conversion is to be 0.085 and the temperature is to be 188.7ºC. 0.0020 kmol/min is the maximum rate. The maximum heat generated at this stage is 3861 kcal/min which is quite less than the Maximum heat removal capacity (5869 kcal/min)
In the third stage if the coolant was supplied fully, then the mathematical integration shows that the bath will definitely cool down.
Thus, with the feedback loop, it is seen that it is easy to operate at 188.7 ? for the rest of the time. This type of operations running for 23hrs gives 94.5% conversion. If it would have been operated isothermally in the 2nd and the 3rd stage then the last conversion would have 87.2%
B. Investigation of two scenarios
Input has new values but in the second stage if the coolant supply is cut.
The starting concentration is 1.7668 and 6.4466 kmol/m3 for A and B respectively.
Highest heat removal is equal, 5378 kcal/min, Max heat generated is 4091 kcal/min. At this point the first stage is okay.
When the first stage comes to an end. The conversion is 0.033608 and the concentration of A and B are 1.7074 and 6.3278 kmol/m3 respectively.
The second stage was running isothermally, found out that the highest generation of heat at the end is 3836 kcal/min, which was below the highest heat removal capacity (5378 kcal/min). The conversion is 0.0407.
The third stage was running isothermally gives about 59 % conversion after 23 hours.
C. Runaway reactions.
The starting concentration is 1.7668 and 6.4466 kmol/m3 for A and B respectively.
Rate Max is 0.0014
Highest heat removal is the same 5378 kcal/min, generation of maximum was 4091 kcal/min. The initial stage is ok.
At the first stage ends, conversion is around 0.033608 and the concentration of A and B are 1.7074 and 6.3278 kmol/m3respectively.
As the second stage completes, conversions is 0.043 and that temperature is 195º
K is 0.0002044 m3/kmol/min. Max rate is 0.0022 kmol/min
The highest heat generated at the current stage is 6570 kcal/min, this is actually a lot more than the possible heat removal rate (6095 kcal/min)
The temperature raised in less than 0.5º C at the beginning, so it will be difficult to have a look at the problem in this stage.
Therefore, for input of regular, 10 mins cutting of the coolant (45mins to 55min) is not a big complication. Isothermal operation is not a problem for larger input. The problem lies with larger input and cutting of the coolant together.
D. Counter Measures
Accidents in the chemical industries are very rare and are very dangerous. It causes loss of life and income of their family. Changes can be a boon as well as a curse, so safety should be the first immediate concern when dealing with changes (mainly in chemicals) The main reason for someone to blame is the chemical engineer himself. He is the person responsible for carving out a more safe process and a system that can, in turn, protect the lives and health of the people working the plant (Baeet al.2017, p. 123).
Here, in this case, the measures that should have been taken are as follows:
In order to avoid the poor usage or handling as well as emergency responses to the accidents that occur, proper labelling should be done for chemicals. It should follow proper standardization. Putting up a label is easy to understand and more importantly, SOP's should be released within the industry with proper approval and tested methods. Identification of threats and hazards is very important (Longley, 2019, p. 10). As soon as the threat is identified, an immediate remedy should be provided. The engineers of bioprocess commonly use criteria for design to minimize the cost or maximize the gains. Moreover, more the barriers put on the potential threats and failures, it will definitely have an increase in the cost of the department. Most common reasons for chemical explosions in the industries due to the pileup of very reactive chemicals in the area of reaction.
This study mainly concludes on the application of Matlab in chemical engineering and ortho nitro chlorobenzene. The Matlab software is an important software in the chemical engineering field. With the help of advanced technology, this Matlab software can replace manual chemical calculation. Ranging from process control, process calculation, numerical manipulation to process simulation and modelling and the last one is optimization these are various type of chemical calculation that can be solved in the Matlab software. In this context, we get physical properties of ortho nitro chemical benzene. Moreover, we get the effect of ammonia concentration and the effect of sulphide concentration.
Bae, C.H. and Chung, S.T., 2017. A study on awareness of risks and countermeasures for chemical accidents among residents near chemical plants. ????????, 13(5), pp.123-134.
Bierman, D.M., Lenert, A., Kats, M.A., Zhou, Y., Zhang, S., De La Ossa, M., Ramanathan, S., Capasso, F. and Wang, E.N., 2018. Radiative thermal runaway due to negative-differential thermal emission across a solid-solid phase transition. Physical Review Applied, 10(2), p.021001.
Bugryniec, P.J., Davidson, J.N. and Brown, S.F., 2018. Assessment of thermal runaway in commercial lithium iron phosphate cells due to overheating in an oven test. Energy Procedia, 151, pp.74-78.
Finegan, D.P., Darcy, E., Keyser, M., Tjaden, B., Heenan, T.M., Jervis, R., Bailey, J.J., Vo, N.T., Magdysyuk, O.V., Drakopoulos, M. and Di Michiel, M., 2018. Identifying the cause of rupture of li?ion batteries during thermal runaway. Advanced Science, 5(1), p.1700369.
Green, D.W. and Southard, M.Z., 2019. Perry's chemical engineers' handbook. McGraw-Hill Education.
Kamel, B.A., Neif, O.O., Shaaban, H.G. and Alsouz, M.A., 2019. Characterization and Spectroscopic Study of 4-(4-Nitro Benzene Azo)-3-Amino Benzoic Acid Compound by Gaussian 09 Program: A review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(2), pp.787-790.
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Longley, A., 2019. Understanding and managing cyber security threats and countermeasures in the process industries. Loss Prevention Bulletin, (268).
Shi, J., Zhang, M., Li, D. and Liu, J., 2018. A method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk: a case study. Environmental geochemistry and health, 40(2), pp.915-922.
Yu, C., Guo, X., Shen, B., Xi, Z., Li, Q., Yin, Z., Liu, H., Muzzio, M., Shen, M., Li, J. and Seto, C.T., 2018. One-pot formic acid dehydrogenation and synthesis of benzene-fused heterocycles over reusable AgPd/WO 2.72 nanocatalyst. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 6(46), pp.23766-23772.
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