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Research Development And Practice

Introduction - Research Development And Practice

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Coronavirus disease, also known as COVID 19 is a disease caused by the "SARS-CoV-2 virus". This is an infectious disease. If someone gets infected by this virus, in most cases, the person may experience respiratory illness. The illness may vary from low to moderate and it can be recovered without any special treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, the patient may get a serious illness and needs special medical treatment. Several other medical conditions may affect the recovery of the disease, such as diabetes, respiratory disease or even cancer (Simonetti et al., 2020). The age of the patient is another factor that may influence the recovery of the disease. Older people take more time to recover from this disease. However, patients with or without medical conditions and patients of every age can get seriously ill or even die from this disease.

Several physiological problems can be seen among the patients infected by COVID 19 disease. Some physiological problems can be seen only during the infection of the disease but in some cases, several long-term physiological problems can be seen. In those cases, the patients face problems even after the recovery from the disease. This condition can be called `post-COVID 19 syndromes'. Aged people and people with a serious medical history generally get “post-COVID 19 syndromes' '. Several health problems can be seen during and after the COVID 19 disease infection, those are, breathing difficulties, coughing, chest and joint pain, problems in memory, the patient cannot concentrate properly and may face sleep problems. Besides, several other physical problems can be seen after COVID 19 b infection, those are, pain in muscles, headache, increased rate of heartbeat, the patient can lose his smell or even taste and so on.

Besides, several organs can be damaged due to coronavirus infection. This virus mainly and primarily affects the lungs (Mishra et al., 2020). Hence, it may also damage the heart, kidney, and even brain. Sometimes, it causes stroke and even paralysis temporarily.

Problems with blood clots and blood vessels can also be included as the effect of post-COVID condition. The virus makes the blood clot process unusual. The blood cells clump up hence, blood clot gets easier. This situation increases the chances of stroke and heart disease. Sometimes, the virus may cause heart disease that may increase the risk of blood vessel blockage. Besides, other parts of the body may also be affected by the infection. Lungs, liver, and kidneys can be affected the most by the infection. Sometimes, it makes the blood vessels weaker; it may result in the leakage of the blood vessels. This is the reason for long-term problems in the liver and kidney.

Hence, this study aims to identify the physical changes or problems people may face during or after COVID 19 infection. In this study, primary data will be collected from the people who are COVID affected as well as from the people who are not affected by the infection. Hence, the main objective of the study is to find the physiological changes among the COVID infected people. The data will be collected from a prepared questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, hustle strength tests and other physical tests (Pandita et al., 2021). Hence, from this study, an idea about the physical changes and problems can be found by comparing the physical measurements of infected and uninfected people. The data will be collected from a large group of people. Hence, this will be easier to compare.

Background of the research

“Muscular strength”, “cardiovascular endurance”, “body composition”, “muscular endurance” and “flexibility” are indicators of the physical fitness of any person. Moreover, if the lungs are healthy they supply a sufficient amount of oxygen to the organs during any physical activity (da Silva et al. 2020). Therefore, it is very crucial that the physiology of the person is in good condition to ensure physical fitness. Physical fitness is referred to as the ability of a person to perform daily activities to an optimal level with proper management of diseases, fatigue as well as stress (Júdice et al. 2017). The study on the mortality causes of COVID-19 showed that approximately half of the non-survivors of COVID-19 died due to acute cardiac damage as well as cardiac failure. It has been found that patients who had Diabetes, hypertension and obesity had the most risks of respiratory failure and death (Bornstein et al. 2020). This study, therefore; aims to analyse the effect of Covid-19 on physiology and fitness not only worsened the chances of survival in some patients. In order to investigate the changes in physiology that affect physical fitness will be compared and a detailed plan will be discussed in the methodological section of the research proposal.

COVID 19 disease causes several physical problems, especially; heart, lungs, liver, and kidney problems can be seen. Lungs are the most affected part due to this infection. Several short terms and long-term problems can be found due to this infection. Hence, in this study, a physiological comparison between COVID affected and unaffected persons will be done. This will help to identify the impact of the infection on the physiological system. Leakage in blood vessels due to the virus infection results in several other diseases, such as problems in the kidney, liver, and muscles.

Research rationale and contribution

Effect of COVID 19 on the pulmonary system

COVID-19 causes some changes in the pulmonary system by damaging the alveoli. “SARS-CoV-2” affects the alveolar cells and disrupts the endothelial cells of the lungs. According to a study by Fumagalli et al. (2019), fluid exudation occurs in patients with severe COVID-19 infection, which causes acute fibrinous. This significantly enhances the chances of pneumonia in patients. Other than that, aggregation of alveolar fibrin occurs which causes airway inflammation. In addition, capillary permeability cause that leads to “intestinal oedema” in patients.

Effect of COVID-19 on Cardiac effect

Myocyte invasion by the virus has been seen in some patients. In addition, cytokine storm leads to myocarditis and which causes arrhythmias as well as heart failure (Fersia et al. 2020). The patients with existing CVD or hypertension or previous history of cardiac failure showed the most numbers of mortality rates and the reason was mainly due to inflammation caused by cytokine storm, hypoxemia, and other metabolic abnormalities.

Effect on brain

Cytokine storm in the body due to Sars-Cov virus caused brain inflammation as well as oedema in the brain. Moreover, death due to brain stroke with the possible reason of cerebral artery blockage seemed to be one of the major causes of death (Mukerji and Solomon, 2021). Altered levels of “carbon dioxide” and “oxygen” levels due to reduced capacity of the lungs significantly disrupted the oxygen levels in the brain also known as “Cerebral hypoxia” led to brain death or coma.

Therefore, it can be stated that physiological changes are associated with changes in lung capacity, cardiac rhythm, and brain functionality. Therefore, this research sheds light on the detailed changes in physiology and the effect of this physiology on the physical fitness of patients who previously suffered from this disease.

Literature Review

Research questions

Question 1: What is the relation between Covid-19 impact and physiological changes in the human body?

Question 2: What kind of changes has appeared in human physiology due to the Covid-19 virus?

Question 3: What kind of challenges does human face during Covid-19 virus infections?

Question 4: What kinds of strategies need to be implemented for the prevention of the challenges that have been faced by humans due to the Covid-19 virus?

Prevalence of severe patients admitted to the hospitals and mortality numbers

CODIV 19 infection can be the server for many patients. Patients especially with several medical histories of illness may get serious illnesses due to the infection of this disease. Besides, age is another factor. People, who are aged, may have more severe health risks due to the infection. People with severe conditions can face many healthcare problems including respiratory problems, heart disease, and liver and kidney problems (Arora and Grey, 2020). Among these conditions, respiratory problems and heart disease are the most important. This may even cause death. Many people have been admitted to hospitals in severe conditions. They should be treated with special care, as there is a life risk for them. Patients with serious conditions cannot be recovered without proper treatment and special care. Patients with mild infection can be recovered easily, no special treatment is necessary. However, severe patients may die without proper treatment in hospitals.

The above diagram shows the number of patients in the UK. The patients with serious conditions are not treated with special care their life risk may increase. This diagram also shows the death rate of the COVID 19 patients (Bbc.com, 2022).

Effect of Covid-19 on the pulmonary system and cardiac system

Corona virus can damage the heart; however, this disease generally attacks the respiratory system of the patients. Damage to the heart tissues is caused by several factors due to this infection, those are,

  • Lack of oxygen: this virus results in the air sacs filled with fluid. Less oxygen reaches the blood vessels. Hence, the heart has to pump harder to distribute the oxygen. This condition may cause the heart problem of the person. Hence, the heart may fail. This can happen due to overwork of the heart. Besides, insufficient oxygen in the heart cell may damage the cells. People with a previous disease may have a greater risk.
  • Myocarditis: this can be considered the heart inflammation. When the virus damages or infects the tissue of the heart, other infection risks also increase (Pietrzak et al., 2021). Sometimes the heart can be damaged due to the immunity system of the body indirectly.
  • Damage to vessels: Corona virus may cause damage of the vessels of the heart. This can be realist in the inflammation of blood vessels. A clot is the small blood vessels that may result in a heart block and stroke.
  • “Stress cardio-myopathy”: this infection may cause a disorder in the heart muscles, called cardio-myopathy (Fan, et al., 2021). This may result in the reduction of the ability of the heart to pump blood. If the infection is recovered, there is a chance to recover from the heart problem.

Concept of physical fitness measurement techniques

Measurement of physical fitness will be very important for this study. When the corona virus infects a person, he or she may have to face several physiological problems. Anthropometric measurements are very important to measure several physiological aspects. Several instruments can be used in anthropometric measurements, some of those are, the anthropometry, Martine’s sliding calliper, Martin spreading calliper and so on. Besides, heart rate monitoring is also very important. Measurement of weight and blood pressure are also very helpful for physical measurement (Irawan et al., 2020). These are very helpful to identify if the person is fit or not. In this study, their measurement plays a very important role. This will be very helpful to measure physiological functional changes among the corona virus affected people and non-affected people. This can be helpful to identify whether there is any relationship between COVID infection and physiological functions.

It can be said that measurement of physical activities may provide much useful information about the health condition of the person. Besides, the physical strength and weakness of the person may have resulted. However, the measurement methods should be proper and the instruments should be error-free (Shen et al., 2020). If there is an error in the method of measurement, it is possible to get the wrong infor4mation about the physiology of the person. On the other hand, the instruments should also be error-free to get authentic information about the physiology of the person.

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Effect of Covid-19 on physical fitness

Due to COVID 19 disease, several physiological problems can be seen. These problems may be short-term problems or maybe long-term problems. Due to the infection of the virus, the respiratory system of the body is affected the most. The virus causes rapid respiratory rate and can damage the lungs of the infected patient. Hence, the patient suffers from respiratory problems. Besides, the heart can be damaged as well. The virus can damage the tissues of the heart as well. This can increase the risk of heart disease and heart failure. However, due to the effect of the virus, the rate of oxygen in the blood decreased. Lack of oxygen in the blood leads the heart to pump the blood harder (Cancello et al., 2020). Hence, the overwork of the heart may cause the failure of the heart. Besides, the infection may be the reason for the blood clot. The condition is responsible for the narrowing of the blood vessels. Hence, it increases the risk of stroke.

Several problems can be seen as the post COVID effect, those are, difficulties in breathing, rapid coughing, pain in chest and bone joints, problems in memory, the patient may face muscle pain and headache, and an increase in the rate of heartbeat is another effect. Besides, the person may lose the taste, smell, and suffer from fever (Qianwei et al., 2020).

Organs can be damaged by this viral infection, the main organs that may have the chances to damage due to this infection are, the liver, kidney, lungs, and heart. In some people, long-Lasting breathing problems and heart problems can be seen. Aged people may be at more risk of covid infection and related physiological problems. The death rate among the old people due to this viral infection is much higher than that of young people (Cheval, et al., 2020). Children and adults may face problems like, “multisystem inflammatory syndrome". Besides, if the person is suffering from several other physical problems, the virus than a healthy person will be affected the person more. Heart problems, and lung problems are the most important to increase the risk of the infection and Covid related other physical problems.


Aims and Hypothesis

The aim of the study is to find out whether there is any relation between COVID 19 disease infection and physiological changes in the patients.

H1: there is a relation between COVID 19 infection and physiological changes in the patient.

H0: there is no relation between CODID 19 infection and physiological changes in the patient.

Research Design

In the present study, an exploratory research design has been chosen. This research design refers to the investigation of a particular problem. In this case, an in-depth investigation can be seen. In the present study, an investigation between two groups of people will be done. Between two groups, one group is Covid affected and the other group is unaffected.


In this study, two groups of people will be investigated. One group of people consists of people with Covid infection and the other group of people consists of people who are not affected by the corona virus. This investigation will help to compare the physiological differences among the affected and unaffected people. Hence, the impact of COVID 19 on physiological functions can be analyzed.

Data collection methods

The method of data collection is primary data collection. In this study, the data will be collected with the help of questionnaires. The questions of the questionnaire will be related to medical history, symptoms of COVID 19 and physical activities (Bisciotti et al., 2020). This will help to identify the present as well as past medical conditions of the patients. Several anthropometric measurement will be used to collect data related to blood pressure, heart rate, BMI, hip and waist circumference, “Forced vital capacity” or FVC and “forced expiratory volume in 1 second” (FEV1). The hip to waist ratio will be calculated. Several “Submaximal fitness tests” will be done such as, walking for 6 minutes and a “Submaximal single-stage cycling fitness test”. Besides, “sit-up” and “push-up tests” will be done to monitor the heartbeat. Muscle strength will be calculated by other tests.

Proposed analysis

This study will be helpful for understanding changes in the physiological functions of the covid-affected persons and primary data analysis will be done. This study will also be helpful for identifying physiological impact due to the infection of the virus. From the literature review, it can be said that physiological measurements are very important for the measurement of the current physical condition of a person. This is also very helpful to get data about the current health condition (Fallon, et al., 2020). Hence, physical fitness is very important for a healthy life for a person. Physiological measurements will be very helpful for analyzing the physical conditions of Covid affected and unaffected people. This is very important because several physiological changes can be seen among the people who are affected by corona virus.

Anticipated ethical issues

In this study, primary data from two groups of people have been collected. Hence, it is very important to maintain the ethical issues regarding the data collection. In this study, the collected data will not be disclosed. The data will be used only for the study purpose. Data will be collected with the permission of the people. Besides, in the study, authentic data will be used; there will be no manipulation of their data to prove certain hypotheses.

Strategies to mitigate the ethical issue

As mentioned before, maintaining the ethical issue is very important. To maintain ethics of the study, the participants will be informed about the purpose of the study and they will be assured that the data will only be used for the research only. The data will not be disclosed and the data protection act will be maintained in this case.

Gantt chart of timescale


From the above evaluation, it can be stated that the overall evaluation will be based on the relation between Covid-19 impacts on human physiology. For the research evaluation, mainly some of the major research question aims, and objectives have been stated here that help in progressing the overall evaluation of this research. Along with this, a literature review has been conducted here, through which a proper methodology will be set. For evaluating the data collection mainly, the anthropometric measurements and questionnaires have been set for taking some of the major data collection. However, for those data collection processes, a proper finding will be evaluated that helps in making the research authentic and significant.


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