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Elderly peoples require more attention related to healthcare as compared to any other age group as the ageing of the population is a significant issue of concern for the nations across the world.With the increasing age, the individuals tend to become more inactive, and due to this, they face a wide range of health isA and are at higher risk of diseases. Old age is one of the most sensitive phases, and the individuals in this age group need more attention and care, which can help them in living a more comfortable life(Jeffs, et. al. 2013). Also, the individuals belonging to this age group face different health issues such as heart diseases, hypertension, cancer, blindness, asthma, diabetes and this is because of the deteriorating physical and mental health of old age peoples. And due to this reason, they need attention and care. Individuals belonging to this age group face several chronic diseases due to which they need better medical care.

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Identifying Health Needs

Title, Year


Findings of the health needs

Relate health need to theories ( Maslows, Doyal&Goungh and Seedhouse )

Identify the type of health needs these are : (Bradshaw's types)

Forecasting the care needs of the older population in England over the next 20 years: estimates from the population ageing and care simulation (PACSim) modelling study. (2018)


Secondary research, Qualitative research

Complex care need

Maslows need: physiological needs

Dough and Goungh: Intermediate needs

Seedhouse: a sense of belonging

Felt needs

Understanding the care and support needs of older people: a scoping review and categorisation using the WHO international classification of functioning, disability and health framework (ICF). (2019)


Secondary research and qualitative research

Need related to the physical care

Maslows need: the feeling of belongingness

Dough and Goungh: Autonomous needs

Seedhouse: all the basic needs

Normative needs

Optimal healthcare delivery to care homes in the UK: a realist evaluation of what supports effective working to improve healthcare outcomes. (2018).


Primary research and both qualitative and quantitative research methods

High quality healthcare service is require for older people.

Maslows need: physiological needs

Dough and Goungh: Autonomous needs

Seedhouse: all the basic needs 

Normative needs

Discussion of Health Need Theories

Understanding the specific needs of the patients is important as it would help the healthcare service providers in delivering better care to the patients. All the individuals are different and also the different health conditions require different care and healthcare assistance, so it is important to understand the specific needs of the patients. Different theories associated with the health needs of the individual can be implemented, and this can help in identifying the needs in an effective manner. Maslow's theory of needs is an important theory which can help in exploring the different needs of the individuals. According to this theory, there are five different needs which can are important for individuals while receiving healthcare, and it is important for healthcare professionals to fulfil all these needs(Osemeke and Adegboyega, 2017).

Five important needs of the patients is the physiological needs, safety needs, feeling of belongingness, esteemed needs and self-actualisation needs. For addressing all these needs, it is important that the service providers should focus on communicating effectively with their patients which would help them in understanding the needs of their patients. Along with thisDoyal and Gough had also mentioned the different needs on the basis of their importance. According to this theory, there are eight intermediate needs of the employee, which is required to be addressed in an effective manner(Sever, 2019). The different needs mentioned by Doyal and Gough theory of needs are physical security, economic security, safe birth control and childbearing, basic and cross-cultural education, the security of childhood, appropriate health care, non-hazardous physical environment, adequate protective housing, non-hazardous work environment, the non-hazardous physical environment and adequate nutritional food and water.

All these needs are important to be addressed, and the healthcare service providers should try to offer them the best care on the basis of their needs. The needs which are being mentioned in Maslow's theory of needs are the basic needs so the service providers should ensure that these needs should be satisfied. In support of this, the screenhouse had also mentioned that the basic needs of the individuals are required to the addressed when healthcare is being provided to the patients, when the individual is receiving the healthcare or social care than it is important that the basic needs such as food, shelter, proper nutrition, personal hygiene, respect, feeling of belongingness, care, motivation and better prevention and management of the diseases are the needs which are required to be addressed.

The demographic factors of the patient to which the healthcare is being delivered is an important thing,and among all the factors age is the important one as the needs are great changes on the basis of age of the patients. The patients in the old age require more specific care as they are at higher risk of diseases and are already having several chronic diseases due to it becomes important and difficult for the healthcare service providers to address all the needs of the old age peoples. These theories can help them in understanding the needs of this chosen population.

Prioritising the health needs

A different group of patients have different specific needs which need to be fulfilled when the healthcare service is being delivered to the patients. The chosen group of patients is the old age peoples who are more complex to manage and needs to give special care because at this age they require more care and proper attention when the healthcare service is being provided to them. Old age patients are having multi disorder diseases and chronic diseases due to which they need intensive care in doing all the daily activities also. The patients of this age group are having several chronic diseases or are at high risk of diseases such as heart diseases, stroke, cancer, respiratory diseases, depression, arthritis and many more health issues related to the mental and physical health of the individuals(Schoen, et. al. 2011).

There are different healthcare needs which are important for the old age or elderly persons and these needs include the needs such as physiological needs, needs related to the mental health, feeling of belongingness, proper care, basic needs, proper nutrition, personal hygiene needs, shelter, proper sleep, proper medication, assistance in all day-to-day activities and complex care. Among all the different healthcare needs which are important for the old age peoples, complex care is one of the most important and needs to be paid special attention. The reason behind selecting this healthcare need is that majority of the patients belonging to this age group are having long term diseases or the chronic diseases, and for addressing and managing these diseases it is important that the complex care should be given to the patients(Torke, et. al. 2019).

For prioritising the needs different theories are being proposed which can help the healthcare professionals in identifying that which need is most important for the patients belonging to a particular group. Bradshaw had classified the needs into four different types such as normative needs, comparative needs, expressed needs and felt needs. The normative needs are the one whichis being defined by the healthcare experts for a particular level of service and appropriate standard, and they describe that what is the expectable level of health status by the community. In contrast to this, the comparative needs mention the needs which describe that different group with the same characteristics should receive the same care.

The expressed needs mention that what are the different needs which are being expressed by the patient and are observed by the practitioners. Along with this, the needs which are being felt by the individual are the felt needs. On applying the concept of characterising the needs the specific needs of the old age peoples are also being classified and prioritised. From the evaluation of all the different needs the priority health need is complex care for the old age peoples. The need for complex care is a normative need for the patients which are important to be fulfilled.



The aim of this study is to satisfy the complex care needs of old age patients.


  • To provide complex care to 30% of the old age patients having multi-disorder diseases within one year.
  • To provide personal counselling to 50% of the healthcare service providers in care to the old age patients in the UK.
  • To improve the overall quality of the complex care provided to the patients by the end of 2021.

Health Promotion Activities

For promoting health, it is important that all the different factors which are having an impact on the health of the individual needs to be managed and improved so that the overall health of the individual can be improved. In the context of the old age individuals, it is important to take care of all the biological, physical, medical, environmental and psychological factors which are having an impact on the overall health of the old age person. For the elderly population, it is the overall health care be improved by getting them involved in the physical activities and motivating them to maintain their healthy weight. Regular exercise can help the old age individual in reducing the risk of several chronic diseases, and if the individual already has the diseases, then also it helps in managing the disease in an effective manner(Vermunt, et. al. 2019).

Different health promotion approaches and models can be implemented for developing a better plan for addressing the issue of complex care needs of the individuals. Beattie's model of health promotion is an important model which promotes and suggest better practices which can help in promoting health in an effective manner(Whitehead, 2018). This is an effective model which focus on different parameters of the health promotion, and it explains that who the health promotion can be embedded in the context of social and cultural practices. By implementing this model, one can analyse the present and the previous health promotion strategies and also assist well in developing new strategies and practice which can help in successful health promotion.

This model focuses on four different quarters which are arranged in the two axes. The model explains the different ways in which the health can be improved by the healthcare professionals, individuals and the government as well. Also, the theory suggests that how these stakeholders can improve health through legislative actions, personal counselling, community development and health persuasion techniques. In the context of improving the care provided to the old age persons and satisfying the complex care needs of the old age peoples if this model is implemented then it would be effective(Hubley and Copeman, 2018). Health promotion activities mentioned by the Beattie's model of health promotion is are explained below in the context of complex care of old age such:

Health Persuasion

Activity: For health persuasion, it is important that the activities should be developed, which can directly affect the individual's concern towards his health. Proper guidelines will be given to the old age peoples in the context of their daily intake, required physical activities and how they have to focus on taking proper medication on time. Promoting health education related to the different risk of diseases will also be provided, which will enhance their knowledge. Along with this, the message related to the importance of care and the need for complex care for old age patients will be delivered to the population through mass media practices.

Description: for health persuasion proper mass media practices would be implemented so that the message related to the importance of care for the old age can be delivered to the patients and the entire population in an effective manner. Knowledge would be delivered to the patients or the old age person by organising awareness campaigns by the healthcare service providers and also by the government as well.

Justification: Enhancing the knowledge of the individual in the context of their healthcare and care requirements is important, and this will help the old age peoples in understanding the importance of proper diet and physical activities and how this can help them in reducing the risk of several chronic diseases.

Community Development

Action: Motivating the population to focus on raising the concern for complex healthcare for the old age peoples which is important as the number of old age population is increasing rapidly in the UK and also in the entire world. We are focusing on community engagement.

Description: the entire community would be motivated to come together and make better actions which can help them in improving the quality of life of the old age peoples.

Justification: this would expand the knowledge of the entire community that how important the complex care is for the old age and how the proper care can help in reducing the risk of several issues and this would help in improving the concern of peoples towards their health, and this will would have a positive impact on the overall quality of life.

Legislative Action

Action: suggesting the government that they should develop laws for the proper check-up of the old age peoples for analysing all the different diseases and how they are being managed. Also, the government should develop laws for proper health surveillance would be developed by the government.

Description: the health surveillance would be the conducted for both the patients and also of the health care service providing organisations would be done which would help in proper monitoring that how effectively the healthcare is being provided to the patients belonging to old age group.

Justification: This is important to monitor the care which is being provided to the patients which can help the organisations in developing their services effectively and making improvements in their services so that better care be delivered to the patients. Along with this, it also helps the individual in understanding that they are addressing the complex care needs of the old age peoples or not.

Personal Counselling

Action: providing proper counselling to the healthcare service providers and also to the patients how important critical care is for them. Also, it will offer better clinical consultation to the patients who are at higher of multi-disorder diseases.

Description: proper counselling related to the importance of care and complex care needs would be provided to both the patients and service providers which would help them in addressing this issue in an effective manner.

Justification: These activities would expand the knowledge of both the individuals and the healthcare professionals in the context of important of the complex care needs as the old age peoples are at the critical and complex stage of the life due to which they require more attention and critical care.

Resources and communication skills used

While delivering complex care to the old age peoples, it is important to focus on all the important resourceswhich are required. When the care is delivered to the patients that it is important that the patient and the health care professionals should have better communication and better relationships. It is important for the healthcare service provider to have better communication skills which can help them in communicating and interacting effectively with other professionals and patients as well(Park, et. al. 2018).

The professional who is delivering complex care to the patients needs to behave certified training in complex care. Along with all the resources such as better medication and all the other resources which are required for different diseases needs to be available so that the healthcare professional can effectively deliver the complex care to the patients. The healthcare service providers should also have better knowledge related to the legal and ethical code of conduct which is very important in the case of healthcare services. If the professionals follow all the ethics and legal requirements while delivering complex care, than it reduces the chances of errors and conflicts and promotes better delivery of care. It can be said that the if proper complex care with the all the required resources and proper knowledge is given to the old age peoples that it will help in improving the overall quality of life of the old age peoples(Coleman and Boult, 2003).


When the plan is being made for delivering any of the service in an effective manner that it is also important that the performance or the effectiveness of the plan should be evaluated. Different methods can be used for evaluating the plan and effectiveness of the activities. In this present case the process evaluation method would be the effective one for evaluating that how effective the plan is and this will also help us in evaluating the weaknesses of the plans and making better improvements as well. If this model is implemented on the health persuasion stage than it will help in analysing that how effectively the message and information regarding the importance of complex care is being provided. This model is being used for evaluation ad it is an effective method for the plans and after implementation of the plan it can guide the individuals to execute the plan in an effective manner.

Gantt Chart














Responsible authority

Health Persuasion

Health guidelines


Promoting health education

Personal counselling

Providing counselling to old age patients

Providing counselling to healthcare professionals

Community development

Motivating the individuals for community development

Legislative Active

Suggesting the government to develop the law


Jeffs, L., Law, M.P., Straus, S., Cardoso, R., Lyons, R.F. and Bell, C., 2013. Defining quality outcomes for complex-care patients transitioning across the continuum using a structured panel process. BMJ quality & safety22(12), pp.1014-1024.

Torke, A.M., Hickman, S.E., Hammes, B., Counsell, S.R., Inger, L., Slaven, J.E. and Butler, D., 2019. POLST facilitation in complex care management: A feasibility study. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®36(1), pp.5-12.

Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Squires, D., Doty, M., Pierson, R. and Applebaum, S., 2011. New 2011 survey of patients with complex care needs in eleven countries finds that care is often poorly coordinated. Health affairs30(12), pp.2437-2448.

Vermunt, N., Elwyn, G., Westert, G., Harmsen, M., Rikkert, M.O. and Meinders, M., 2019. Goal setting is insufficiently recognised as an essential part of shared decision-making in the complex care of older patients: a framework analysis. BMC family practice20(1), p.76.

Coleman, E.A. and Boult, C., 2003. Improving the quality of transitional care for persons with complex care needs: Position statement of the American Geriatrics Society Health Care Systems Committee. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society51(4), pp.556-557.

Park, K.O., Park, S.H. and Yu, M., 2018. Physicians' Experience of Communication with Nurses related to Patient Safety: A Phenomenological Study Using the Colaizzi Method. Asian nursing research12(3), pp.166-174.

Osemeke, M. and Adegboyega, S., 2017. Critical review and comparism between Maslow, Herzberg and McClellands theory of needs. Business anf finance1(1), pp.161-173.

Sever, M., 2019. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN NEEDS THEORIES FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE. AkademikAra?t?rmalarveÇal??malarDergisi (AKAD)11(20), pp.317-325.

Whitehead, D., 2018. Exploring health promotion and health education in nursing. Nursing Standard33(8).

Hubley, J. and Copeman, J., 2018. Practical health promotion. John Wiley & Sons.

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