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Chapter 1: Task-Oriented Dialogue System Dissertation Sample

1.1 Introduction

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Task-oriented dialog system has been rising nowadays popularly in industries and companies. It is very effective for the human beings for their own capabilities. It can also save the money and the time for some specific reasons and works. The TODS is very potent and a good initiative approach to systems. It is basically the focused design for primary works and it can make quality attributes. It can help to make the interaction between a dialogue system and humans. So this research can explore the design process of Chabot as TODS and the evaluation of the dialogue system for quality attributes in it. The performances and the examination can also be executed in this research dissertation.

1.2 Background

The Chabot are the basis of an interactive dialogue system with humans. The approach and the system of Chabot can be defined as two different categories. The first one is the system of chat oriented dialogue system and the second one is the TODS or task oriented dialogue system. TODS can be used as the assistance of a user to complete some work (ACETA, FERNÁNDEZ, and SOROA, 2022). There are some specific TODS in recent years and the companies can make some potential in the resources of the human based dialogue systems. The prediction of the research can give a draft view of a global Chabot system that can reach almost 1.5 billion by the year 2025. The Chabot and TOD’s system can focus on against the human generated feedback. So this research can explore the design process of Chabot as TODS and the evaluation of the dialogue system for quality attributes in it. The performances and the examination can also be executed in this research dissertation. The correlation of direct systems can be assumed as the task of resolution and the TODS system (AGHAEI et al. 2022).  The satisfaction of the users can be efficient in this process. The usual approaches and the judgments of humans can be specified in this process. The modelling process and the models can provide the performance rating of human beings. Then the labels are used to make the target of the evaluation model and the performance of the attributes.

1.3 Rationale 

The research and the process are about the feature of Chabot and making some models. Those models can make some interesting task oriented performance as the works and goals. This can make some assist on the conversational agents. It can also complete some specific tasks like weather reports and train or flight bookings, etc. To make these processes valuable, the real world life Chabot should be implemented to get some more TODS benefits (DA-JINN, TSONG-YI, and CHIA-YI, 2022). There are some different types of Chabot, openly used Chabot, task specified Chabot, the Chabot for datasets, and the evaluation of metrics. The importance of Chabot can be executed as they can improve the recent generation and their qualifications. They can ask questions and make the users' journey valuable. As per the view of FUAD and AL-YAHYA (2022), it can be stated that some important pieces of information create some leads. Potentially, the customer information can be delivered to the sales team with the help of Chabot. So it can engage as the lead also.

1.4 Problem statements

The research approach is basically focused on the tasks of users' needs will be easily identified through a machine learning technique to decrease the monotonous and resource-intensive process of labelling interactions. But there can be some important and different problems in this research. As per the view of DERIU et al. (2021), the first one can be the data scarcity and it is based on the complexity of NLP tasks. It is basically the grammatical error detection and language generation process. Then the problems can be executed for the multi turn dynamics of the dialog systems. It can be used as the focus of the generation of meaningful responses. Some more problems can be executed as privacy protection, future research, robustness, and also the knowledge integrations.

1.5 Dissertation aims and objectives

Aim

The main aim of this research is to develop taxonomy of conversational quality characteristics by doing research, experimental works, and differentiating the part that plays important role in TOD’s performance and finding the characteristics will be based on the publicly available datasets of tasks users need to make the process of labelling interactions.

Objectives

  • To find and execute the impact and performance of the TODS in comparison to Humans
  • To evaluate about specialized Chabot systems work and their impacts
  • To implement the analysis of conversational attributes on the performance of the dialogue based system
  • To explore the models and methods to get a result about their performances
  • The implementation of real-world Chabot for garnering more amount of TODS benefits
  • The usage of Chabot and the associated models to gets some works like generation of weather report, flight bookings, etc. get done

1.6 Research question

The research questions of this research must be executed as the objectives of the research. So the research questions will be related to the objectives of the research about Chabot and Task oriented dialogue systems. The research questions of this research dissertation can be discussed as follows:

  • How to identify and explain relevant quality attributes for conversation and observe their impact on the performance of TODS?
  • What quality methods are used to get a TODS performance in the dialogue course?
  • How is state-of-the-art methods used to define TODS?
  • How can the implementation of the analysis of conversational attributes on the performance be executed for dialogue based systems?

1.7 Significance of research

The importance of Chabot can be executed as they can improve the recent generation and their qualifications. They can ask questions and make the user's journey valuable. It can also provide some important pieces of information and create some leads (FIRDAUS, SHANDEELYA, and EKBAL, 2020). It can also gather the insights of the users and the customers. So the companies can find out the data of the customer to check the details. The more data can be executed and found with the help of this technique. To make the better conversations between customers and the companies, the Chabot can play an important role to develop the company approaches. Basically, it helps to understand the company openers and customer marketing approaches to reach more customers. The TODS corresponds to a suitable initiative to the system as a method of approach. This is fundamentally a focused manner of design which can easily render some of the attribute having sufficient clarity in particular. The entirety of the process of design for the Chabot in the form of TODS along with the dialogue system’s evaluation gets thoroughly evaluated by way of this research. The dialogue system has a direct bearing on the quality attributes in this regard.

 

1.8 Dissertation structure

 Dissertation structure

1.9 Summary 

The main approach of this research is to find out the work progress and importance of TODS and Chabot with humans. So the research is to execute and develop taxonomy of conversational quality characteristics by doing research, experimental works, and differentiating the part that plays an important role in TOD’s performance. Task-oriented dialog system has been rising nowadays popularly in industries and companies. It is very effective for the human beings for their own capabilities. It can also save the money and the time for some specific reasons and works. The TODS is very potent and a good initiative approach to systems. The further approaches and processes can be evaluated in the next part of this dissertation report.

Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Introduction

The approach and the system of Chabot can be defined as two different categories. The first one is the system of chat oriented dialogue system and the second one is the TODS or task oriented dialogue system. TODS can be used as the assistance of a user to complete some work. It can help to make the interaction between a dialogue system and humans. So this research can explore the design process of Chabot as TODS and the evaluation of the dialogue system for quality attributes in it. The review part of this research can be defined as the performance and the architecture of Chabot and how Chabot can work. The performances of dialogue based systems and the evaluation of using the dataset can also be executed in this research. The challenges and advantages and disadvantages can also be evaluated. The Chabot systems can help customers and the companies to make a bridge-type conversation between them. The Chabot system can work as the surveys of the company. It can make some impact of the responsible terms to increase the traffics of the business. So in recent times, each market business organization is using the Chabot to make the increment of revenue. The conversion drive and the market boost can also be executed with the help of Chabot. So the further research and surveys have been executed in the next part of the literature review.

2.2 Performance of TODS

In world full of technologies, TODS is one of the most initiative and active systems for the ecommerce site to different types of business companies. In the following, circumstances, TODS can be used as the interaction between customers and companies (JUNE-WOO, YOON, and HO-YOUNG, 2022). It should elicit the user's experiments and resolve the tasks or queries. So it is quite based on the efficiency and the resolution of the task. The virtual conversation aunty interactions are growing day by day to make an impact on customer queries and services. The evaluation of this system can make the surveys of some sections and develop the required attributes of that company. The highlights and the attributes are very prominent in this TODS performance. It can be based on the performance of task resolution. It is the practical view of task completion and accessing the metrics. Predefined functions can be resolved to execute the TODS and the success of TODS. It is also important there to fulfil the customer appearance and the user information’s to make the benefit of system performance. As per the view of LEE and PARK (2021), the usability and the efficiency of the dialogue system can be also defined as the performance of the TODS. It is based on the satisfactory result of the customer visualization and uses. Here it can be defined as the performance of the completion rate, the accuracy of the Chabot, and the metrics. The user sentiment analysis can also be performed with the help of TODS. The views of the sentiment analysis can be done with specific bodies and the social media performances. It can be performed in the large quantities in tweeters and platforms. The different methods TODS can be sued for the machine learning and the classification algorithms. The user interfaces can be individual and different from TODS for different sites or companies. The sentiment score can detect the scores of the users and it can help with the semantics of the interactions between the company and customers. The sentiment analysis of the conversation one and two can be analysed like a graph shown as follows:

The sentiment of two conversations

Figure 2.2.1: The sentiment of two conversations

According to FUAD and AL-YAHYA (2022), “Despite the scores fluctuating throughout the interaction, both threads end with a positive conclusion, indicating that the user was satisfied with the outcome.” So the ultimate outcome of the TODS can be specified with the examination of values of specific attributes.

2.3 Architecture of Chabot system

The most valuable architecture of the Chabot system can be defined as four different pillars of implementation. One is the intents, the second is entities, the third is a dialog flow and the state of the machine and the last one is “scripts” (LUBIS, HECK, VAN NIEKERK, and GAŠI?, 2020). The third part of dialog flow consists of the block diagrams and the states of the users and company navigations. It can be executed as one more entity and the intent. The basic components of the Chabot are as follows:

  • The flow diagram of the users and the intent
  • The NLU toolkits with the different classifiers and extractors
  • The fetching responses and the dialog management tools
  • Machine algorithms for the classification process
  • The pattern heuristics and models of retrieval
  • The part of integration in the API and database
  • The environment of the Chabot, documents, and WebPages

The following architecture and the diagram flow have been given for the Chabot system as follows:

Architecture components of the Chabot system

Figure 2.3.1: Architecture components of the Chabot system

Chabot can also be detected as a bot that is a basic commuter programming simulation process and makes conversations naturally with humans. As per the view of JANNACH and CHEN (2022), “Speech is one the most natural and powerful modes of communication, and is “widely accepted as the future of interaction with computer and mobile applications.” So the process of text and speech conversation has been evaluated to automate the method and these methods can be specified with different dimensions as follows:

  • The size: the size of the vocabulary can be started with the help of minuscule. So the only included phrases that can be available easily are yes, no, ok, etc.
  • The independence of the speaker: This architecture of the Chabot can be specified as the recognition of the particular speaker. This can be only used when the Chabot is used for recognizing the users' details and responses (MATSUMOTO, SASAYAMA, and KIRIHARA, 2022).
  • Noise specification: This is the ability of the Chabot to filter the users’ speech and record the details of that user.
  • Microphone: An important architecture of the Chabot should be executed as the microphone. Because this is the only thing that makes the Chabot able to start the process of speech recognition from a distance of users.

Different types of particular architecture models have to be implemented to get the Chabot and build a perfect Chabot for the company. Thus the whole Chabot architecture has been defined in this part.

2.4 Performance of the dialogue-based system

The dialog system can be defined as the evaluation of human questionnaires. So this type of system can be so time bounded and costly. This type of system work can be done with the methods that can allow reducing the behaviour of humans (ZHANG, ZHAO, and TAN, 2021). The main effectiveness of the dialogue based system is the requirement of participants. Those participants can have the different types of standings. It can also be explored openly and judgment less. It can follow some specific rules like the common interests, common interaction words, and speeches. The main system of dialogue based system can be worked as computer based CUI, GUI, and different types of models of AI.

According to PARK, KANG, and SEO (2018), “Dialogue systems employed one or more of text, speech, graphics, haptics, gestures, and other modes for communication on both the input and output channel.”

So it can be in clear view that this type of system works can be done with the methods that can allow reducing the behaviour of humans. The main effectiveness of the dialogue based system is the requirement of participants. The importance of a successful communication can be defined as the tools of that communication process. It can help to allow the users to take different types of options and viewpoints with different prospective.

Some purposes of the dialogue systems are as follows:

  • Showing the character with the voices of the users with different types of identifications
  • The plots with advanced points of view to understand the details
  • Providing the collected information about the place and effective time
  • Bringing the narrator's best monologues and helping to break them down
  • Using the old flashback conversation to the present system

The importance of a successful communication can be defined as the tools of that communication process. As per the view of RAZUMOVSKAIA et al. (2022), “Dialogue can also help charge scenes with emotion, heightening tension between characters or building suspense ahead of a key event or turning point in the plot.”

It is the basis of the dialogue generation to understand the natural input of the languages. The output of the product can be processed with the help of this dialogue system. The dialogue systems can be intended and used for the humans for interactions. It can be used to make the perfect Chabot and the conversation system between the systems and humans.

2.5 Evaluation of Dataset

The implementation evaluation metrics are operated to compute the interpretation of the users acquainted with machine learning prototypes. This assists in encountering the betterment of the user's machine learning prototype that specifically can perform on a dataset that it maintains never noticed before (YADAV, and KAUSHIK, 2022). To estimate such a representative, the user can determine any of the multifarious metrics unrestricted to the user, like Accurateness, Perceptiveness, Particularity, Preciseness, F1 Score, Possibility of Entryway, ROC Curve  AUC. It is consequential that this alternative is reinforced by analytical reason. Repeatedly, the user will pick Model Accuracy to assess the quintessence.

The 3 characteristics that are considerable consequential to the populace are, in dropping order of precedence

  1. Those physicians eventually accountable for treatment and diagnostics planning.
  2. That the artificial intelligence conclusion support is answerable.
  3. That artificial intelligence technology has been experimented with for bias.
  4. That the Chabot responds to the volume and the conversation length of the Chabot.
  5. That the target of the session on the volume of the targeted audience.

A Chabot should be used for basic two reasons (YIN, LI, and LIN, 2019). The one is to detect the details of the people and the requirements of the replies of the system. In this specific investigation, the differentia characteristics, which are appropriate for the software of Artificial Intelligence systems, are remembered as testability self-descriptiveness, and usability readability. Metrics are associated with these characteristics and calculated for the web application to Artificial Intelligence systems. So a useful Chabot can make a huge training data order to make the system quicker and

Users can do the interaction properly. The measurement and the customer’s satisfaction can be the successful measurements for the humans. It can be basically, used as a short conversation to collect the data and the details of the customer to the company (TIWARI et al. 2021). Analytical approaches, users’ pieces of information, queries, Quash, and many more terms and conditions can be verified using this system. The data analysis of Chabot can be enabled the business to make it bigger and broader to execute the analytical data.

2.6. Conversation quality attributes

In the field of the dialog system, it would be divided into two types: the first one is chat oriented dialogue system and the other is chat oriented dialogue system. Basically, the chat-oriented dialogue system has a stimulating response system. And the task-oriented response system would be used to determine and help to complete the user's main goal. Therefore in recent years, the task-oriented dialogue system has been in demand. Therefore in this topic users would use the machine learning algorithm with the help of python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform to develop the task dialogue system (Beygi et al. 2022). So the task-oriented system would be able to provide the most effective user experience and that system would be able to complete the task in a very effective way. The evolution of the task-oriented system would be able to optimize the main two types of qualities. These two main qualities would be dependent upon the resolution of the task and another one is dialogue efficiency.

Therefore this topic would briefly describe the quality attributes and the conversation quality of the task-oriented system. Basically, task resolution is one of the main accessible matrices which are an easy way to determine the user's goals. Therefore the main aim of the task-oriented system is to assist the users with some specific task. So that this kind of dialog system would be able to fulfil the user's requirement which depends upon the information system. Also, this system would be able to complete the user’s goal.

Therefore another dialogue system which is task resolution can be used to test the dialogue system. For this reason, this system would be able to determine the accurate results for the system. For this reason, this system would be able to determine some given components for the particular task (Budzianowski et al. 2019). This task can be divided into two types: a set of constraints and a set of requests.

Therefore one of the main challenges would be present in the task resolution part which can be known as performance metrics. Therefore this system would be able to change their interaction as well as the system behaviour because the different users have different goals.

So that the interaction made with the dialogue system would end when the users are able to terminate the conversation. For this purpose, users would be using the same classifier and the NLP model by using the machine learning algorithm to resolve this kind of problem. For this reason, this system would be able to fulfil the user's goals. And a mechanism that is used in this system is able to determine or measure the goals relative. Task-oriented dialog systems have been rising nowadays popularly in industries and companies. It is very effective for human beings for their own capabilities. It can also save money and time for some specific reasons and works. The TODS is very important and a good initiative approach to systems.

In this project users also use the usability and dialogue efficiency system which is able to provide the learning ability as well as the efficiency of the system. Basically, this is the main base of the dialogue system (Henderson et al. 2019). So that this kind of system would be able to develop or evaluate the task-oriented dialogue system.

The factor of the metrics pertaining to the performance of the users is extremely important in this case. As each of the users has various objectives to fulfil according to their choice, so it is obligatory for the system to be able to alter the behaviour of the system as well as the level of interaction. The through implementation of the NLP model can assist this system in fulfilling the corresponding goals of the users on the whole.

2.7. Learning architecture of the task-based dialogue system

So in this project users would be used the machine learning algorithm, with the help of python programming in the jupyter notebook platform to develop or evaluate the task-oriented dialogue system. Therefore most of the dialogue system would be focused on structure-related slot-filling tasks. In recent times there is much-advanced research that could be applied to the task-based dialogue system. But in this project, the users would use the architecture of the neural network which is the most effective way to develop the task-oriented dialogue system. So that the conversational models model can be used in this project and can easily be implemented by using the machine learning algorithm with the help of python functions (Hosseini et al. 2020).

Therefore the end-to-end task-based dialogue system would be implemented, and the response generation model would be developed by using the Twitter data. And this Twitter data would be collected from Github. Basically, the dialogue system would be able to transform the conversation context into the associated as well as the verified response (Hosseini et al. 2020). In the future, this system would be developed for the larger conversation context by using the neural network which would be implemented by using the machine learning algorithm.

Therefore in this model, only conversational models can be used for the vector representation. So that this kind of system would be developed for the human subject study and on a smaller scale compared to the application.

In recent times, the encoder-decoder hierarchical framework version would be developed. For this type of proposed system, the conversational models should be present at the top of each framework. The Chabot is the basis of an interactive dialogue system with humans. The approach and the system of Chabot can be defined as two different categories. The first one is the chat-oriented dialogue system and the second one is the TODS or task-oriented dialogue system. TODS can be used as the assistance of a user to complete some work (Lei et al. 2018). There are some specific TODS in recent years and the companies can make some use of the resources of human-based dialogue systems. The prediction of the research can give a draft view of a global Chabot system that can reach almost 1.5 billion by the year 2025. The Chabot and TOD’s system can focus on human-generated feedback. So this research can explore the design process of Chabot as TODS and the evaluation of the dialogue system for quality attributes in it.

This kind of system would be totally dependent upon these machine-learning approaches. Which can provide the propagation error towards the many accessible components? Therefore the main aim of this dialogue system is to reduce human efforts and that system would be able to provide an accurate design for this kind of system. Therefore in this system, the neural network would be implemented into the end-to-end decoder and this system would be able to obtain or retrieve the system without the help of any kind of modular supervision.

Basically, the task-oriented dialogue system would be able to determine the prediction problem which is dependent upon the single sequins.

The algorithms that have been executed in this context are linear regression and decision tree classifier respectively. The analysis done through linear regression algorithms helps in predicting the underlying value of the concerned variable predicated upon the values of any other variable in general. The variable that gets predicted is known by the term dependent variable. Whereas, the variable which has been utilized to suitably predict the value of the other variable is known as independent variable. This algorithm is predicted on the aspect of supervised learning in respect of the domain of machine learning. Decision tree refers to the “supervised” machine learning algorithms that has also been utilized for rendering prediction predicated on the manner in which the previous array of questions have been answered. This model has been trained as well as tested upon the concerned dataset which included the “desired” categorization.

2.8. Literature gap

Therefore in this project users would be using the machine learning algorithm to develop the task-oriented dialogue system, with the help of python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform (Li et al. 2020). In the past, the end-to-end conversation system would be developed by using some traditional methods. For this reason, this system cannot provide accurate values. But after using the machine learning algorithm the system would be able to provide accurate values and help to achieve the user's goals. The aspect of data cleaning is extremely critical in this context as far as the accuracy of the algorithms are concerned. This in turn can help clean the dataset off all the irrelevant as well as null values that if exists, can derail the results from the ideal condition.

2.9. Conclusion

Basically, the task-oriented dialogue system can be used as the single-phase casual model. So in this project users would use the machine learning algorithm to develop the task-oriented dialogue system with the help of the python programming language. Basically, the task-oriented dialogue model can provide the leverage types of pre-trained models. This model would be able to transfer the conversational text into the access points (Lin et al. 2020). So the language transfer would be the open-demand settings where all the data should be open sources. The main approach of this research is to find out the work progress and importance of TODS and Chabot with humans. So the research is to execute and develop taxonomy of conversational quality characteristics by doing research, experimental works, and differentiating the part that plays an important role in TOD’s performance. Task-oriented dialog systems have been rising nowadays popularly in industries and companies.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1. Introduction

Basically, the task-oriented dialogue system would be divided into three types of tasks such as it would be able to understand the user input, decide on actions by the users, and this type of system would be able to generate the user's response. Basically, the simple task-oriented dialogue system must be used in single as well as casual language, and this system would be able to determine the problem of single sequence prediction. The approach and the system of Chabot can be defined as two different categories. The first one is the chat-oriented dialogue system and the second one is the TODS or task-oriented dialogue system (Liu et al. 2020). TODS can be used as the assistance of a user to complete some work. It can help to make the interaction between a dialogue system and humans. So this research can explore the design process of Chabot as TODS and the evaluation of the dialogue system for quality attributes in it. Therefore in this project users would use the machine learning algorithm to develop a task-oriented dialogue system. And this machine learning algorithm also helps to improve the tracking of dialogue state. Also, this system would be able to improve the main metrics which can be able to determine the action generation as well as the end-to-end response generation system. Basically, the demand for the task-oriented dialogue system would rise continuously. By using this type of technology many industries would be able to save time as well as money. So that the primary aim of the task-oriented dialogue system is that it would able to complete the multiple tasks the hand. For this reason, this system would take priority on the task resolution of the metric. By using this system it would be able to build the connection between humans and chat bots. Therefore this task-oriented dialogue system would be able to determine the achieve the goals of users. Task resolution is one of the main priorities of the task-oriented dialogue system and that would be able to determine or provide the smoothed user’s experience. So this paper would able to describe the performance of the task-oriented dialogue system. So this literature survey would explain the total performance of the task-oriented dialogue system.  The resolution of the task and the goal completion is one of the main as well as the most accessible metrics. Therefore the main objective of the task-oriented dialogue system is that it would be able to perform the specific task of the users and the automated function.

3.2. Research design

In this research, the users would be using the machine learning approaches with the help of python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform. These machine-learning approaches help to improve the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed system. Basically, the task-oriented dialogue system would be developed into the three sub-tasks; the first is tracking the dialogue state, dialogue management, and the generation of the response. By using this process the decomposition would be able to create the model. This model would be generated for each sub-task that is present in the dominant approaches. In this research design, machine learning approaches would be used (Louvan et al. 2020). Basically, in this project in the task-oriented dialogue system, reinforcement learning techniques can be used.  For this purpose in this type of dialogue system, the conversation would start before the chat bots would start the conversation. For this purpose, the system would be able to choose each time step and the bot would be able to choose the finite state which can be programmed to complete the particular task. In this process when the bot would be performing then the dialogue would be transferred to the next step.

This research design would be based on real-world data. For this reason, the user would choose the descriptive research design. By using this type of research design, the main aim of this research design is to create or obtain information regarding the situation. The descriptive research design would be approached or it would be able to investigate the different types of variables that are present in the dataset. The descriptive research method is one of the main experimental methods which can be used in quantitative data and qualitative data. Therefore this type of research design does not control or manipulate any kind of the data variables which are present in the dataset. So these kinds of variables would be identified, observed, and measured.

In the descriptive research design, there would be many characteristics that can help to build the proposed system.

One of the main characteristics of the descriptive research design is that this research design is quantitative in nature. This research design would be able to collect information about the systematic data and this data can be used for statistical analysis. Then the other characteristic is that this research design has uncontrolled variables. So these research methods cannot be manipulated or controlled by any kind of variables that are present in the dataset. This research design also included the cross-sectional as well as the observation study. So this kind of study would contain a variety of variables and gather information about the individual data from the real world (Ni et al. 2022).

Also, this research design would provide many advantages such as by using this research design it would be able to measure the trends of the data. Also, this kind of research design would be used for comparing the different types of variables. This descriptive research design also helps to determine the different types of characteristics. This research design also helps to provide multiple ways to collect the data. These descriptive research design approaches also provide very fast and cost-effective design approaches.

The above advantages would be present in the descriptive research design for this reason users would choose the descriptive research design approaches.

3.3. Research approaches

In this project, users would use the machine-learning algorithm with the help of the python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform. These machine-learning approaches help to develop the task-oriented dialogue system (Qin et al. 2022). This system can help to determine or help to achieve the user's goals. In this project to develop the task-oriented dialogue system, the neural network module must be implemented by using the machine learning algorithm. Basically, the convolution neural network is one of the most powerful models which are implemented in this project. By using these models it would be able to extract the features from the feed-forward layers. The feed-forward lawyer would be determined by some parameters such as linear operation and non-linear operation. A framework for the chatbot has been created for the rental shop. The different questions can be identified and the problem can be solved with this project. The contextual responses can be given by this agent where the different responses are based on several questions for the specific shop. The different query handle is also possible with the help of these specific responses in different ways. Basically, the deductive research approaches would be dependent upon the developing hypothesis (Sun et al. 201). So there would be many research designs present but users would choose the deductive research design because it would have many advantages such as it would be the ability to create the relationship between the concepts and the variables which are present in the dataset. Also, this research design would be able to develop the quantitative concepts that would be collected from the research design. Also, this research design would be able to find the certain as well as the generalized extended.

3.4. Tools and techniques

In this project, users would use the machine learning algorithm to develop a task-oriented dialogue system with the help of the python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform. Basically, the Jupyter notebook is one of the most effective as well as open source platforms that are able to determine or provide much visualization which can help to provide accurate accuracy for the dataset. The most valuable architecture of the Chabot system can be defined as four different pillars of implementation. One is the intents, the second is entities, the third is a dialog flow and the state of the machine and the last one is “scripts”. The third part of the dialog flow consists of the block diagrams and the states of the users and company navigations (Wen et al. 2018). It can be executed as one more entity and the intent. The users would be using the machine learning algorithm to implement the NLP methods which can help to determine the accurate values for the dataset.

3.5. Data collection

Therefore in this project users would collect the dataset from GitHub and the dataset would be based on the chatbot interaction. So that in this project the frameworks of the chatbot are defined as the JSON file. In this dataset, it would present many key features of the column such as “greeting”, “goodbye”, “thanks”, and the hours (Wu et al. 2019). There are different analysis procedures that have been conducted. The data has been collected from online trusted sources such as GitHub. The JSON file has been used as the dataset to build a model for this. In a specific way, a particular structure is required for the conversational model. The internet of the conversations model has been retrieved from GitHub. The internet consists of three continents. Ione is the response, another is the tag, and the last one is the pattern. The tag specifies the unique name, the pattern specifies the specific pattern of the different sentences taught that will be used in the “neural network text classifier”, and the last one is the response that specifies the specific response that will be used for the framework (Zhang et al. 2019).

3.6. Data analysis

The data analysis has been done for the specific text, in the analysis; the text classification is done with the help of the “neural network text classifier. The intent JSON file consists of the different data that are tag, response, and the pattern that will be used for the conversational model. The document list has been created with the hello of the specific intent. The document list is nothing but the sentences that are obtained from the JSON file which is loaded in the python environment (Zhang et al. 2019). The different text cleaning has been done where the unusual entries have been successfully removed from the document lists and then the “two layers neural network” has been developed. The TensorFlow has been shed to take the different data that is shuffled surfing the analysis procedure then these data are used for the accuracy gauging of the created model.

3.7. Conclusion

In the current situation, there would be more advanced research that can be applied for developing this kind of system. Therefore in this project users would use the machine learning algorithm to develop the dialogue task-oriented dialogue system. This task-oriented dialogue system would be able to determine or be able to achieve the goals of the users. So in this research design users would be able to create end-to-end learning frameworks. The proposed design would be based on the NLP methods which are implemented into the machine learning algorithm, and the proposed system would be able to define the interactive connection between the users and the chat bots. Also, the proposed system would be able to detect the dialogue state, and then it would be able to retrieve the information about the external source. So this proposed system would be able to build a connection between the users and the chat bots.

Chapter 4: Implementation

4.1. Introduction

The fundamental domain upon which the machine learning operations have been performed is the dataset in question. At the very beginning, the dataset has been imported and then uploaded into the platform of software for the purpose of performing further operations. The libraries have been included into the platform by way of pertinent queries in general. As this step formed the very bedrock of the machine learning process, the next steps of data preprocessing have included many aspects. These are the cleaning of the whole dataset to eliminate the null values, the showcasing of the attributes regarding the data, etc.

Basically, the dialogue system is also known as the virtual assistant who has the ability to build interaction between the users and the chat bots. This interaction would be built by using the interface of natural language (Dziri et al. 2019). So that the task-oriented dialogue system cannot be used for maintaining or monitoring the interaction between any other properties, also this kind of system can be used for determining or achieving the user's goals. Therefore this type of application can be used for many purposes such as customer support, booking reservation at hotels and restaurants, and online shopping purposes. Therefore in this project users would use the machine learning algorithm to develop the task-oriented dialogue system which can help to build the interaction between the users and the chat bots.

In recent years neural networks is implemented by using the machine learning algorithm. This system would be able to provide many facilities as well as improve the whole system. Nut this system, would be in the development phase, and threw would also present many limitations by using the task-oriented dialogue system (Gao et al. 2018). To improve the whole system of task-oriented dialogue system, machine learning NLU techniques can be used which can able to handle the management of the dialogue path. Modelling this kind of system would require expertise which is the backbone of the system and the ability to determine the accurate values of the system.

4.2. Implementation process

Basically, in this project, the users can use machine learning techniques that can help to build the neural network model to improve the task-oriented dialogue system. This neural network would be implemented by using the python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform. Basically, in this project users would create the chatbot framework, which can help to determine or build the interconnection between the users and the chat bots (Li et al. 2018). So that the chat bots can be able to handle some questions, and these types of questions would be depended upon the operation, reservation, and many other purposes. This implementation process would be working in three phases as it would able to transform the definitions of the conversational intent which would be included in the TensorFlow model. After completing this process the users would be able to create the chatbot framework to provide the process response. And in the last step users would be able to show how the basic context would be included in the processor of the response system.

Basically, the dialogue management would be dependent upon the dialogue graph which is implemented or created by using machine learning techniques. Therefore each node that is present in the graph can represent the dialogue state and the edge of the graph can represent the transition form of the dataset, and the user’s utterances, and these types of conditions would be derived from the neural network which is implemented by using the machine learning algorithm. If the users would be able to change the dialogue system behaviour then users need to change the transition table structure. Therefore in this project users would use the machine learning algorithm to determine the accurate values of the system with the help of the python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform.

For this reason, users would use the machine learning algorithm to develop the TensorFlow model, in the python jupyter notebook platform (Ling et al. 2020). To create the chatbot framework for this reason users need to have the structure of the conversational intents would be defined. For this purpose, it would be required the JSON file. Therefore in the chatbot intent, it would contain many conversational contents which are a tag that can be defined as a unique name, patterns it can be defined as the text classifier of the neural networks, and the last one is the response this type of intent can be used as a response purpose. After that users would be added to the basic contextual elements (Cai et al. 2020).

After completing all the above processes then the important step is that import the necessary libraries which can help to determine the neural network model to improve the system performance of the task-oriented dialogue system. For this purpose, the users would be able to build the N LP model, for this purpose users need to import the nltk libraries. And to create the TensorFlow model users need to import the tolerant and the TensorFlow as of libraries. Google Colab which is a platform that allows executing multiple codes in a single script is utilized to implement the TensorFlow library and develop the model. The conversational intent data has been considered to develop the model.

After importing the all necessary libraries into the machine learning techniques then the users need to import the JSON intents file, so this kind of JSON file would be contained many sensitive documents of the organization, and also the word as well as classes of classification. To import the changes intents file into the machine learning algorithm then users need to use the “intent. Json” file to create the chatbot framework. After completing all the above processes then users would be created the word as well as the classes of the classifications. This is basically the list of documents, which is included with the sentences, also each of the sentences would be contained the stemmed word, then each document would be connected with the classes of the intent.

Then after this process would be showing the results which are 27 documents, and the 9 classes. And this document also included the 44 types of stemmed words. Then this process would be able to show that the stem “take” word can be matched with the ‘take’, ‘taking’, and ‘tackers’ different types of words. Then users would be using the machine learning algorithm to remove a range of useless words or entries from the database. But this kind of dataset would not work under the TensorFlow model, for this reason, this kind of data would be transferred into the TensorFlow numbers, by using the machine learning algorithm. By using this technique it would show that the data which is present in the dataset would be shuffled and then it would be used as the test data as well as provide the accurate gauge accuracy for the new model which is implemented.

4.3. Results

In this analysis, the TOD has been developed with the help of Python programming. The dataset has been chosen from the online portal where the JSON file has been chosen where the specific responses and the sentences are available for the agent. The implementation of context handling can be seen in this analysis with the help of TensorFlow. There is the conversational model that has been developed in this analysis to classify the different sentences for a particular situation and the different responses have been created as per the different questions. In many chat agents, it can be seen that the lagging of the conversational context is the main issue of the different chat agents that can be seen in many areas. This issue has been solved with this project where the use of the conversational model has been developed in this analysis procedure to classify the different texts and to make the proper response against them. The use of the different models can be seen in the analysis procedure. In this entire analysis procedure, three different steps have been executed for the requirements. In the first stage, the conversation intents have been transformed into the TensorFlow model which is the main task that has been done in this project. The second stage is building the framework that is developed for the responses. The third stage is the incorporation of the basic context into the response processor. These are the three different stages that have been executed in the entire development of the project; the stage has been described briefly below section (Yang et al. 2021). 

Importing the required libraries

For this entire task, there are some specific libraries that are required for the model buildings and other purposes. There are several libraries that have been imported to the python environment for the specific requirements. There are some specific libraries for the NLP and the other libraries are required for TensorFlow (Su et al. 2021). 

From the motion figure, it can be seen that the required libraries have been imported at the initial stage of the code. The nltk and the lancasterstemmer are used for the “natural language processing”. NLTK is used for the working purpose of human language and the different applications of statistical analysis. There are different functions available in this library such as parsing, and tokenization other features are available in the library. From TensorFlow tflearn is used which is modular of the TensorFlow framework and is able to give a “higher level API”.

Data loading and document organization

The libraries have been successfully imported and then the next step has been initialized where the internet JSON file is loaded for the document listing. The data cleaning procedure has been executed and the duplicate words have been removed from the different sentences for the document lists (Sun et al. 2021).

From the mentioned figure, it can be seen that different lists have been created such as document, class, and words. The length of the lists has been shown in the above image. The specific classes for the different sentences have been shown in this analysis procedure. The duplicate words have been removed from the sentences and the stem and lower is applied to each of the words and stored in the lists. The tokenization of each sentence has been done in this procedure. 

Training data preparation

In this procedure, the training data has been caret and the word document has been transformed to the tensor numbers that can be seen in the mentioned figure. The training day has been prepared for the model development. An empty array has been initialized in this process for the output values. The “bag of words ' has been created for the different sentences. The “bag of words array” is created for the different words that will be stored in this array for the different models. The training lists and the testing lists have been created and specified for the model development (Chen et al. 2021).

From the mentioned figure, it can be seen that an employee array has been initialized at the initial stage and the different lists have been created for the training of the data. The training list has stopped the words from training data. Then the train and test split has been done for training the TensorFlow model in the python environment (Pei et al. 2021).

Model development

The training data has been created in the previous section now the development of the model has been done where the TensorFlow is used for different usage. In the Thai stage, the different steps of the model building have been discussed. The word has been shuffled properly in the previous stage and the training data is also prepared so it is the prime time to develop the neural network with the training data. It has taken some time to visualize the accuracy of the model after the report model fitting (Mi et al. 2022). 

From the mentioned figure, it can be observed that the tensor structure has been visualized. The “default graph stack” has been reset at the initial stage (Ding et al. 2021). Then the neural network is started to build where the input data is taken as the traianig_x data. In the next stage, the model has been defined and then the training of the model is stated in this process. In this model training procedure “gradient descent algorithm” has been used as the training algorithm. Then the model has been saved and the structured data is saved. In the next step, the framework of the agent has been created where the different functions have been used for the framework and the data has been used to see the different responses to the particular questions. A different response can be created for that particular question with that agent that is implemented in the next stage (Qin et al. 2021).

TOD Attributes

TODS have rendered exhaustive modules in respect of the fact of creating the machine-learning based systems in this context. The functionalities rendered in this regard are data preprocessing, detection of different algorithms, and many more.

Critical Evaluation

The necessary libraries have been considered and imported in the very initial step in this context. These are nothing but bundles of code which gets utilized in different areas of the program in respect of the objectives. The objective of carrying out natural language processing is done with the help of the corresponding libraries. The functions present within the imported libraries in question have also been used to render a “higher-level” API amongst others.

Analysis

The framework pertaining to tensor has been visualized properly in this context. The neural networks have been applied on the training data from which the algorithms have shaped itself with respect to the nature of the data present in this case. Various functions have also been utilized so as to construct the underlying framework. The agent gets implemented in the upcoming stage for the sole objective of garnering different sets of responses and outcomes on the whole.

4.4. Summary

So in this project users would be developed an automated goal-oriented dialogue system that can be implemented by using the machine learning algorithm with the help of the python programming language (Lubis et al. 2018). So this task-oriented dialogue system is in the development phase in the future much-advanced technology can be used to determine the accurate accuracy of the system. Basically, this system would be very useful for the initial purpose, and that system would be developed by using the neural network by using the machine learning algorithm. It is very effective for human beings for their own capabilities. It can also save money and time for some specific reasons and works. The TODS is very potent and a good initiative approach to systems. The further approaches and processes can be evaluated in the next part of this dissertation report.

Chapter 5: Evaluation

5.1. Introduction

So in this project users would be developed the task-oriented dialogue system by using the machine learning algorithm with the help of the python programming language in the Jupiter notebook platform (Madotto et al. 2018). So in this proposed system, there would be present many limitations to using machine learning techniques it would improve the whole system during the deployment of the application. So that this system would be a task-oriented system that can be implemented by using the execution graph which is based on the rule-based. For this reason in this project users would be implemented the neural network model which can be used for task-oriented purposes. So in this project users would use the machine learning algorithm to determine the graph-based system which can help to modify the whole system and that system can able to improve the whole system. In recent years neural networks is implemented by using the machine learning algorithm. This system would be able to provide many facilities as well as improve the whole system. Nut this system, would be in the development phase, and threw would also present many limitations by using the task-oriented dialogue system. To improve the whole system of task-oriented dialogue system, machine learning NLU techniques can be used which can able to handle the management of the dialogue path.

5.2. Evaluation of implementation process

In this process, users would be able to use the machine learning algorithm to determine the task-oriented dialogue system with the help of the python programming language in the jupyter notebook platform. So in this project users would be able to develop or determine by using the existing execution graph. Basically, the log escalation system would be able to describe the dialogue or create a dialogue between the chat bots and the users (Nouri et al. 2018). This step there would also present the failure point. Basically, the failure points can be able to determine or able control or monitor the human agent escalated. This path would be included in the single path execution graph of the dialogue. After completion of the escalation section part then the log would be able to describe or create the interaction between the users and the chat bots. Basically, the conversation is one of the external dialogue systems so there would not be present any kind of execution graph path.

So that the main aim of the users is to create the node or the path by using the execution graph which is present in the escalation node of the system. Therefore the users would be able to obtain multiple conversations that can be included in the specific escalation node. The system would be able to determine the response of the humans as well as this system also creates a conversation between the users and the users or the human agent. Multiple libraries and modules are considered to design the model for the analysis of the Chabot framework. This framework is used to provide responses against specific questions which are configured using the model. A chatbot book framework is developed to design a conversation model that allows the evaluation of the performance of the chatbot.

So in the final step, there would be present the various types of nodes that can be derived from the different types of models and would be able to provide the various response to the human agents that would be present in the different types of failure points (Reed et al. 2018). After completion of all the processes then the experienced developer can check or verify the suggested nodes when this system would be deployed into the task-oriented dialogue system. Basically, the dialogue system evaluation is a particular task-oriented system that can provide a challenge for the users. So this kind of system is one of the automated evaluation systems which can able to gather data from human agents and also from users so that the dialogue system quality would be very laborious as well as very costly. For this reason, to evaluate the task-oriented dialogue system users must be implemented the neural network by using the machine learning algorithm with the help of the python programming language.

5.3. Evaluation of results

Therefore in this project users would be using machine learning approaches that can able to develop the task-oriented dialogue system. For this purpose, the users can implement the neural networks with the help of the python programming language. Therefore in this project users would use the existing dialogue system instead of adding the new dialogue system. One of the main reasons to choose the existing dialogue model is because this user would be able to remove all the outgoing nodes from the execution graph which is implemented by using a machine learning algorithm. Then this system would be able to predict all possible nodes which are removed from the existing graph, so this kind of graph would be able to determine the behaviours of the system. Moreover, the use of ignoring and class functions has proven beneficial to selecting the actual content from the raw data. A lot is taken to store the words from the Jason file and classify the words accordingly.

The length of the unique words is exploited to ensure the reliability of the Tensor Flow model. The underlying graph data has been considered to design the NLP model with respect to the Jason dataset (Russo et al. 2019). The accuracy of the model is evaluated using the train and test samples. A bow and response function is used to obtain a response against a particular sentence and the accuracy of the model. The response of the sentence is obtained in the form of 0 and 1 using the bow function.

All of the pertinent quality-attributes have been recognized as well as explained for the conversation along with properly observing the effect upon the TODS’ performance. Here, several quality-methods have been utilized for the purpose of getting the TODS performance within the course of dialogue. The machine learning classifier algorithms have been used so as to define the TODS. The aspect of implementation has taken place properly regarding the analysis of the conversational attributes upon the underlying performance in respect of the dialogue-based systems.

Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendation

6.1. Recommendation

Basically, in this research paper, the main aim is to help the customer and able to help to achieve the goals of the users. For the development of this system, the first step is users need to use expert annotations (Shah et al. 2018), which can able to improve the whole system. So in this proposed system users would be used the neural networks model with the help of the machine learning algorithm, to determine or developed the proposed system. Basically, neural networks are one of the most effective ways to determine the accurate values from the system and the ability to create the interaction between the users and the human agents or the users.

6.2. Linking with objectives

Objective 1

The objectives have been satisfied and this section discusses about how these objectives have been met. The first objective is to find and execute the impact and performance of the TODS in comparison to Humans which has been met in this project. Therefore in this project users would be used the machine learning approaches with the help of the python programming language to implement the neural networks which can able to improve the task-oriented dialogue system (Takanobu et al. 2019). Therefore this system would be able to provide a great impact on human interaction. Therefore in this system users would be used the recognizer or the decoder which can able to convert the user’s speaker voice to plain text. Chabots are simulations which mimic the way a human response is given to a person who is seeking validation about some issue. The user’s verbal requests and messages have been converted into textual data and then responses to this text communication are provided by the chabot.  

Objective 2

The second objective is to evaluate the performance of the chatbot to provide responses to the chabot user. The objective is to evaluate the specialized Chabot system's work and their impacts using the machine learning algorithm to develop the special types of the chatbot system which is a task-oriented dialogue system. This system would be able to create an interconnection between humans and the chat bots this system would be able to build the connection between the chat bots as well as the human agents. Basically, this is one of the computer programs that can able to communicate with the human or users in a natural way. The performance of the chabot has been evaluated throughout the tasks that have been performed by the chabot and this has been satisfied across the evaluation and implementation chapters in this dissertation.

Objective 3

The third objective of this dissertation is to implement the analysis of conversational attributes on the performance of the dialogue-based system (Weisz et al. 2018). Basically, this is a computer-based application, which can able to create interaction between the system and the human agent. And this interaction would happen in a natural way. So these types of systems would be the CUI, GUI, VUI, and many more. This objective has been satisfied in the chapter named implementation.  

Objective 4

The fourth objective is to explore the models and methods to get a result about their performances users would create the neural network which would be implemented by using the machine learning algorithm. This system would be determined the accurate accuracy of the system. So that the main aim of the users is to create the node or the path by using the execution graph which is present in the escalation node of the system. Therefore the users would be able to obtain multiple conversations that can be included in the specific escalation node (Vlasov et al. 2018). The system would be able to determine the response of the humans as well as this system also creates a conversation between the users and the users or the human agent. This objective has been met using python programming in the chapter called implementation. 

6.3. Conclusion

Therefore in this project, there would be not present any kind of shortest exploration techniques that can able to determine the task-oriented dialogue system. Therefore this system would be able to build the connection between the users and the human agents and this system would be able to achieve the goals of the users. The analysis of task orientation is properly represented in python software using Jupyter notebook. For achieving a goal, efficient software can use machine learning algorithms that can perform decision tree classification and regression analysis. At first, a dataset is imported by using a function called the head, then the dataset is further analyzed by library functions, then different function names are used. For using machine learning algorithms, the dataset is further analyzed for determining the root means classification. For structuring a task, python language is used in this dissertation as without software, accomplishing a goal shall appear tough. The aspect of data analysis is performed in respect of the text in particular. The usage of neural-network text classifier has helped in performing the process of text classification. The creation of the conversational model has been done with the help of various data such as response, tag, and pattern which are present within the JSON file. The dialogue-system that is task-oriented is extremely beneficial in for the very initial purpose. The usage of neural networks have been very useful in developing the aforementioned system. The TODS has a very effective initial approach with respect to the systems. This investigation has been a very engaging and satisfactory experience for the learner and a lot of features of machine learning have been researched and identified throughout the whole process. The previous research that has been conducted in this field have been cited in the Literature Review and they have been utilized in this research. The research approaches and research design that have been followed have rendered this research successful. The objectives have been met and the challenges in this investigation have been addressed.   

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