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The following report will concentrate on elaborating the impact of teamwork and motivation within employees and the ultimate effect of these two variables on an organisation. It will discuss various theories and models as well as techniques of delegation for implementation in this process.
1.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
According to this theory, when the needs of individuals are fulfilled, they feel motivated. These needs begin from the lowest degree of fundamental necessities and move upwards as each degree of need is fulfilled. In this scenario, the leader must understand the particular need of each sub-ordinate in the team and work to assist them to complete those needs accordingly.
Figure 1: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
(Source: Knowledgehut, 2021)
1.2 Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Vroom opined that individuals become extremely productive and motivated when people believe in the possibility of their efforts to be led towards successful outcomes and also believe in the assurance of being rewarded for their success. These people are motivated in exercising a higher degree of effort if they believe in the relationship between their endeavour, their achieved performance and receiving rewards against them.
Figure 2: Vroom's Expectancy Theory
(Source: Haque, Haque and Islam, 2014)
1.3 Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory
The two-factor theory classifies the need of two wide categories including motivation factors and hygiene factors. The former ones are required in assuring satisfaction among employees and motivation for their higher performance, while the second group of factors are required to ensure the absence of dissatisfaction among employees. The guarantee of motivation is not provided with the presence of hygiene factors only; on the other hand, the motivation factors do not work effectively in the absence of other ones.
Figure 3: Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory
(Source: Knowledgehut, 2021)
2. Teams and Groups
A deliberately chosen team unites well-informed individuals with an essential assignment in a team setting.
2.1 Sequential-Stage Model by Tuckman
Most theories regarding team development concentrate on recognising a sequence of evolution which groups go through from the time of creation until they get dissolved. Tuckman has explained the team formation process through a theory of four stages which was later extended to five stages over the years in the area of approaches in theories regarding theories and organisational behaviour. The five stages are forming at setting up the stage, storming at the conflict stage, norming at cohesion stage, performing at effectiveness stage and adjourning at the dismantling stage.
Figure 4: Sequential-Stage Model by Tuckman
(Source: Walker, 2016)
2.2 Three-Stage Theory by Homan
This model by Homan proposes that groups operate within the organisational background which is characterised by physical conditions after achieving the tasks such as architectural components or furnishing of workspace, by technological equipment like the type of technology used for task fulfilment, by organisational variables like policies and practices, by cultural variables including norms and values shared by team-members, and socioeconomic variables such as profit and legislation. Thus, the theory is structured with three stages in action:
Figure 5: Three-Stage Theory by Homan
(Source: Zoltan and Vancea, 2016)
2.3 Individual Role in Team and Belbin's Theory
The foundation blocks of top-class companies are high-performing teams. The productivity of the individuals inside them is allowed. When a community and organisation are created, each person's abilities and deficiencies are merged to create a group of skills and incapacity. A team must consider how characteristics come together to make progress, create challenges or create discrepancies. It is our understanding that allows us to discuss how any effort we make will build more successful teams. Belbin has elaborated the role of the individual member s in group work in his three action-based theory, according to which a team role is a tendency for behaviour, contribution and interrelation with other in a specific manner (Fraser, 2016). The theory is briefly described in Figure 6 below:
Figure 6: Belbin's Theory of Team Roles
(Source: University of Cambridge, 2016)
Delegation is an ideal way to guarantee that further work is completed with less time which therefore creates team capacity. Six steps are taken to delegate tasks effectively, as per Randall (2013).
Preparation: Delivering quality results through completely thinking out the delegated task and pre-decided expectations from them
Assignment: Conveying information to the sub-ordinates by leaders once the mapping out is finished for what is anticipated
Confirmed Understanding: Making sure that the employees understand what has been assigned to them
Confirmed Commitment: Getting assurance from the employees that they have accepted the assignment with utmost commitment
Avoidance of Reverse Delegation: Coaching and training the employee through the task assigned to avoid the task coming back to the management personnel
Assurance of Accountability: Regular two-way communication with employees to ensure they are accountable for their work
4. Training and Learning
Training is important within an organisation as it enables employees for new skill acquirement, better performance, sharpening existing skills, increasing productivity and become better as a leader. Following, according to Raynolds (2019), are the most popular and effective training methods used within different organisations:
Training to enhance social interaction and the handling of disputes will develop the working of a team, which can improve the efficiency of the team. Training makes a great contribution to the improvement of teamwork within an organisation as it enhances the skills and capability as well as knowledge of an employee. Due to the increase in knowledge, employees feel motivated as well. Through training, leaders and managers can inspire their sub-ordinates to motivate them for better productivity in the tasks assigned to them.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Both training and motivation are important organisational variables that impact to a great extent in the overall success of the organisation. The report has evaluated the stages and models of team development and motivation as well as discussed the feature of each model that can influence the organisations. It is recommended for the organisations, based on the report, that the leaders and managers of the organisations must be the ones that must be responsible to carry out effective motivational setting and teamwork spirit within the workforce.
Chopra, B. Importance of training and development in an organization. [online] Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/hr-leadership/people/importance-of-training-and-development-in-an-organization/articleshow/48739569.cms [Accessed on: 13.02.2021]
Fraser, V. 2016. The Role of Individual Development in Team and Organizational Success. [online] Available at: https://trainingindustry.com/articles/strategy-alignment-and-planning/the-role-of-individual-development-in-team-and-organizational-success/ [Accessed on: 13.02.2021]
Haque, M.F., Haque, M.A. and Islam, M., 2014. Motivational Theories-A Critical Analysis. ASA University Review, 8(1).
Knowledgehut. 2021. Motivation Theories. [online] Available at: https://www.knowledgehut.com/tutorials/project-management/motivation-theories [Accessed on: 13.02.2021]
Randall, M. 2013. 6 Steps For More Effective Delegation. [online] Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/3006643/6-steps-more-effective-delegation [Accessed on: 13.02.2021]
Raynolds, J. 2019. The Most Effective Training Methods. [online] Available at: https://hrdailyadvisor.blr.com/2019/05/22/the-most-effective-training-methods/ [Accessed on: 13.02.2021]
University of Cambridge. 2016. Belbin's team roles. [online] Available at: https://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/dmg/tools-and-techniques/belbins-team-roles/ [Accessed on: 13.02.2021]
Walker, T.L., 2016. Ecological systems theory: Using spheres of influence to support small-unit climate and training. ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FORT BELVOIR VA FORT BELVOIR United States.
Zoltan, R. and Vancea, R., 2016. Work group development models-the evolution from simple group to effective team. Ecoforum Journal, 5(1).
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