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Time Parents Spend With Children And How That Affects Development Case Study

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Time Parents Spend With Children And How That Affects Development Case Study

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Introduction

Parenting time and quality time spent with the children affect a lot over the developmental issues of children. Across several countries, during the previous 50 years, parents have spent more time with their children (Felfe & Lalive, 2018). Despite major modifications throughout family structure such as an increase in single-parent status and a substantial increase in the proportion of working women outside their homes, this is true. Looking at the time when parents go with their children and the influences that form this time attentively helps people learn a significant element of family and childhood development. The behavioral problems of children at school or home are less significant. Children who spend more time with their families are less prone to be involved in dangerous activities like drug use and alcohol use. It helps to maintain the children psychologically and emotionally solid that parents are loving and caring for them (Del Boca, Monfardini & Nicoletti, 2017). As a parent, spending quality time regularly with them is the greatest way to achieve this. Children with their families who spend much quality time are much healthier physically. In general, it is vital to spend good time with the children, but also to personal well-being. The main problem is that parents with different perceptions treat this issue separately and often some of them do not account for the necessity of spending time under consideration. This proposal report is mainly to understand and evaluate the significance of parenting time and child development study and also to conduct analytical research with the help of some methodologies to obtain results in this context.

Problem Statement

Ideally, parents should spend quality time with their children for their overall development including mental and behavioral changes. However, it has been observed that many of the parents of this generation are not taking this issue seriously and often neglect their children for spending quality time with them (Crowell, Keluskar & Gorecki, 2019). Though it is always emphasized to take mental and behavioral care of children through their growing process, parents are not well aware of these issues often. As a result of this problem the consequences occurring in these contexts are sometimes adverse in the result. Children are often being involved in violence or some addictions due to loneliness. The long-term effect of this can be detrimental for both the parents and their children. Children become more stubborn and they start to do unethical work which their parents can not control in a deteriorating situation. In the future, this affects the entire career of children and mental and behavioral decay is being observed due to this reason. To bridge this gap and make a solution to this problem, this study is being conducted. Several methodologies along with data analytics will create a complete observational report on this issue and that can be conveyed to the parents to understand their needful action towards their children.

Study Significance

The contextual understanding of the importance of parenting and the time spent with children has a critical impact on their development thus reviewed in this study. The significance of this study underlies the aspect more effectively with research evidence from previous studies and also induced an insight to understand the influence and effect of parenting time over a child's growth and development (Nikken, 2017). The importance of parental figures in a child's life should be comprehended involuntarily. It can be preferably considered as a diversified topic to be forwarded as a part of moral or an ethical interpretation. Consequently, the time effectively induced by parents to insist on the proper development of their children is what is being reflected through this study and thus significantly determined as an observatory point for discussion. Further, the rapport has been delivered to find out the jinx as to what may be the well-predicted cause of failure in maintaining a good time and relationship with the children by their parents reflecting the present nuclear setup of a family.

Literature Review

The influential understanding of the contribution and reciprocation of the information in this study has effectively sourced the evidence about parental influence on a child's development process. It is an obvious fact that parental figures play a pivotal role in every young fellow's life (Elam et al. 2019). They critically constitute the pillar necessary to inbuilt the cognitive and interpersonal structure of a child which typically influences the future perspective successively. This pillar mainly provides a structural inference as part of necessary support, guidance, and love. The proper maintenance of a parent-child relationship is considered to be a critical constituent and the initial step to explain parenthood. Since the birth of a newborn, the parents must retain their job of inducing reliability, resilience, and accountability to infer better growth and developmental prospects in a child (O'Hara, et al. 2019). Thus, the productive insinuation of this study has not only diversified the aspects related to time spent by parents with their child and the effect it prevails but also restore the significance of overall parental influence on child’s development and adherence of the intermittent factors.

The study conducted by (Tang et al. 2018) has introduced the practices regarding media parenting that has been consistently associated with young children and their screen time. It is a cross-sectional study that promotes a major contribution to the crisis that has been screened based upon sedentary behavior observed within young children. The perspective of this study reflects health issues among children, typically obesity, and the parenting practices associated to create a greater impact on the children (Zannella & De Rose, 2020). The main understanding has reflected the behavior that the mother and father induce and the time they spend caring for their child actively. Preferably the main introduction of this study has examined the children's attraction towards the use of mobile media and the critical inclusion of fathers' role regarding media parenting promotes fuller acknowledgment of the practices in today's media environment. The critical analysis of the study shows that the screen time modeling of the mother the meal-time screen used as well as the influence towards controlling behavior promotes positive adherence to children's weekly screen time (Laws et al. 2019). The practices regarding the monitoring process of Mothers and their limited screen-time has been inversely associated with a child's weekday springtime. Consequently, Fathers' influence towards meal-time screen use shows a positive association with child's Vedas screen time full stop on the other hand the monitoring screen time as well as the limited setting has an inverse relation to a child with screen time. Thus, it can be concluded from the intervention that there is a real association of the parenting practice with children's screen-time and the study has aimed to reduce the screen time for both parents in media parenting practice (wiley.com, 2021).

According to the author (Schneider, Hastings & LaBriola, 2018), the explanation about historical increases in the inequality of income has coincided with the widening of classes, and their division regarding parental investment for both money and time has a critical impact on a child's development process. The widening aspect of this class gap has a significant impact on parental investment since it is one of the pathways that transmit the advantages across the generations (Steenhoff, Tharner & Væver, 2019). The investment of knowledge data and inferential measures to understand the impact of income inequality has been devised in this study to find out robust evidence about white car glass gaps within parental financial investments as well as the time given to their children (Elam et al. 2017). The exploration of the mechanism has driven the relationship which elevated inequality which explains that the increasing concentration level of income is a wide aspect that promotes a critical influence on a child's growth and development. Further, the investment of parenting time towards the children is strongly patterned with socio-economic status and also reflects the education level of parents and their income status to spend quality time with their children with measurable care (Mikolajczak et al. 2018). It has highly influenced and targeted the age-appropriate development of the child with effective care.

Theoretical Framework

The reflective understanding from recent studies that have been integrated into this report has proactively introduced associative information which deliberately conveyed the importance of parenting time for the significant development of a child and also the impact it may ascertain with the failure (Fontanesi et al. 2020). One of the studies from recent time has shown that the parents that are actively participating and giving time to their children have helped them to develop the crucial cognitive skills, the life expectancy skills, and the motivation that will insist them to be successful in their near future. With a supporting and time-giving parent, the child can significantly promote successive growth factors and development and will have no regret while taking risks. It thereby insists them to be an anchor of their voice and have a self-directed personality. The bonding time between parents and children creates an effective impact on the child's influential growth and development, both mentally and physically (wiley.com, 2021).

Lay Beliefs and Parental Behavior

The theory briefs about the parent and child relationship which sometimes induces a capture about aphorisms and cliché identifications. It mainly commemorates the understanding about the effective child-rearing process, may it be lay or scientific explanations about the importance of the facts that denote the effect of good parenting and hence prescribes the ways which the figures must induce in their behavior to be the good anchor for their child (Sim et al. 2018). It is an old conventional belief among various parents that spending too much time or giving much attention to a child can retard their growth or, specific to the point, spoil them. Thus the lay beliefs can counteract the beliefs and also simplify the misconception that has overgrown its roots in learning theory. It is nothing but a simplified version of an interaction process.

The theory put forward and described by Sigmund Freud in the early years of the 19th century has highlighted the "five psychosexual stages" that mainly reflected the transition brought forward among the children and the role of the parents therein (Reed, Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2017). Although the theory has received little to no significance, Freud's contribution to the theory has opened the door to a scientific approach about the child-rearing process and parental influence as a mentor.

Aim and Objectives

The contribution of this study has progressively reciprocated the knowledge about the impact that parental behavior induced on a child's development. In a most reflective context, parenthood can be denoted as a lively and responsible venture which is insignificant for any further debate (Sullivan, Gershuny & Robinson, 2018). The convenience of the proactive parenting style in the recent era has presented the difficulties that mark certain obligations in promoting good development among the children. It is a common scenario nowadays that the interaction between parent and children and the time spent between them seems to be insignificant which suggestively retards the growth and development process of the young fellows. Thus, while contemplating the issue the aim of this study has focused on the time that the parental figures spent with their children and the effect prevalent to their development phase.

Reflecting on the aim, the study has induced the following objectives:

  • To promote an understanding of the effect of parental interaction with the children
  • To acknowledge the issues that can affect the interaction
  • To understand the effect of time spent by parents with their children on their development
  • To access and analyze the evidence from previous studies to promote an in-depth result on the fact

Research Question

The typical influence of the study has been promoted with the acknowledgment of critical aspects regarding the parental impact on a child's development. The development prospect of a child lies with certain interventions from parental perception. In the most convenient term, the parent mainly entitles a visionary point and the primary anchor in a child's life. Thus, the need to assist and understand the overall influence of the bonding pattern and the time spent is a characteristic response and interrogative point of this study.

The study has been interpreted with the following research question:

  • What effect does the time spending pattern of parents with their child have on their development process?
  • What are the underlying aspects that critically influence interactive patterns between parents and children?

Methodology

Overview

The methodology is the activity where the research process of any particular topic is being understood as the conceptual research framework. Several types of methodological interpretation can be performed, i.e. primary data collection and secondary data collection method. The primary data collection needs the fieldwork experience to accumulate the data and the second one is the previous research-based analytical method (Cabrera et al. 2017). In this context of research, the secondary data collected and accumulated from various academic journal sources have been considered for the progression of the methodological analysis. Secondary data from different peer research about the parenting influences and time over the children's development have been considered for further progression.

Research philosophy

The philosophy of research is about the sources, nature, and knowledge growth. Simply said, the philosophy of research is the method of collecting, analyzing, and using evidence about a topic. Practical consequences affect the choice of certain research philosophy. There are different data collection methods like pragmatism, positivism, realism, and interpretivism methods. In this research, the data collected from secondary sources are more likely to be qualitative than quantitative. The interpretivism method of data collection also emphasizes small sampling and in-depth analysis and Also the qualitative investigation of the data is processed. Parenting timing and its effect on child development have more focus on in-depth analysis than superficial data gathering through primary data collection method. In this research study, it is required to support the proper methodological data analysis process to obtain an effective outcome and to make a fair decision about the issue of parenting time and the development of children. 

Data approach

The data approaching method has two framework concepts based on which the data is being collected and processed. Hypothetical data collection has the inductive approach for the method of data collection. But here the collected data is from secondary sources ie. from effective academic journal research and the approach of these data is deductive. That means the data from various journals has been scooping out according to the requirement and based on those research data the methodological approach has been progressed. Parenting time and its developmental effect on children has some pre-research-based data and those data are being considered for the analytical evaluation of data sampling and collection process.

Data sampling

The research topic is based on the child developmental issue over the parenting time and samples are collected in this context. Because the sampling method is deductive and is more focused on the qualitative issues of the secondary data, so all the samples are being collected from research-based journals and evidential information about data and analytics about parenting timing with child development has been targeted for the accomplishment of the data sampling process. Also, the size of the total sample collection is considered for the methodological analysis of this issue.

Sampling size

Data sampling is associated with the size of collected data, i.e the sampling size. The research topic is based on parenting time and its impact on the overall development of children. So, in this context, a total number of 20 peer evidential research-based journals has been taken as secondary data. The total size of data sampling is therefore 20 and the research and methodological framework are based on these 20 evidential journals in this context.

Data Analysis

The analysis of the data that has been taken from various sources and previous studies has provided a comprehensive structure of the historical trends relevant to parent time investment for their child. A survey from 24 hours time-diary retrieved from the harmonized "UK Multinational Time Use Study Data" set contributes with critical facts from three consecutive decades (Attanasio, Meghir & Nix, 2020). The studies that have been documented induce long-term aspects about how the parent figures must use their time to critically influence the growth factor and developmental aspects of children. The data that has been collected is harmonized to produce minimum differences among the methodological surveys. The enhancement of the focus has been conceived with the analysis responding to the comparison of parental-time investment in the educational group which critically reflect the changes among children's behavior compared to the changes produced from the methodological survey. Further, the influence of the analysis has suggested a contextual effect regarding income inequality that may operate and affect economic and time investment for children and also reflect the class gap that creates a direct impact on time spending of parents with their children.

 

Ethical Issues

The consideration of ethical issues while conducting research is a key aspect towards the successful progress of the research. Since the conductance of this study has followed the secondary research method, the convenience to measure the ethical aspects in securing the confidentiality of the data used has been administered. The resources that are used are collected with prime responsibilities and the data that has been used for the purpose kept securely.

Result

The resultant outcomes from the data have promoted the critical flow of information towards meeting the understatement about parental influence on a child's development. The possible meeting of the outcome specifically contributes to their significant investment of time and money and the influence it retains on a child’s growth factor and development (Gathmann & Sass, 2018). The result shows a conflicted result and insists on further explanation of the research from the previous studies. Few studies have explained that in the come inequality and class gap have created an impact that declines the necessary contribution of effective time towards the children by their parents. Several studies have shown a critical contrast between Mothers’ and Fathers' role in media parenting to measure the screen-time to assess their child’s health behavior, especially with obesity control.

Discussion

The consistent approach with evidence from various studies and other sources has decreased the confinement of restricted knowledge and critically elevated the understanding about the time spending capacity of parents and the impact it holds on the developmental aspect of children (Sevilla & Borra, 2015). The information about parental influence on childs' behavior and development is not severed with time investment, rather the study focuses on various factors which critically contributed to educational aspects of a parent, the income inequality and class gap, the motivation promoted to influence the cognitive and behavioral development and media parenting practices to assess health credentials of the child. The findings have insisted on understanding the educational gradient that is relevant to parental time investment that has been widened during the initial period. Further, the wide aspects with theoretical perceptions have been outlined to critically reflect the reason about how the attainment of higher parental education can be associated with efficient time investment for the children.

Reference list

Journals

Attanasio, O., Meghir, C., & Nix, E. (2020). Human capital development and parental investment in India. The Review of Economic Studies, 87(6), 2511-2541.Retrieved from: https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w21740/w21740.pdf[Retrieved on 18.06.2021]

Crowell, J. A., Keluskar, J., & Gorecki, A. (2019). Parenting behavior and the development of children with autism spectrum disorder. Comprehensive psychiatry90, 21-29. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010440X18301925 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Del Boca, D., Monfardini, C., & Nicoletti, C. (2017). Parental and child time investments and the cognitive development of adolescents. Journal of Labor Economics35(2), 565-608. Retrieved from: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/689479 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Elam, K. K., Chassin, L., Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2017). Marital stress and children’s externalizing behavior as predictors of mothers’ and fathers’ parenting. Development and psychopathology29(4), 1305. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681807/ [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Elam, K. K., Sandler, I., Wolchik, S. A., Tein, J. Y., & Rogers, A. (2019). Latent profiles of postdivorce parenting time, conflict, and quality: Children’s adjustment associations. Journal of Family Psychology33(5), 499. Retrieved from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-06342-001 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Felfe, C., & Lalive, R. (2018). Does early child care affect children's development?. Journal of Public Economics159, 33-53. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272718300148 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Fontanesi, L., Marchetti, D., Mazza, C., Di Giandomenico, S., Roma, P., & Verrocchio, M. C. (2020). The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.Retrieved from: https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-41430-001.pdf[Retrieved on 18.06.2021]

Gathmann, C., & Sass, B. (2018). Taxing childcare: Effects on childcare choices, family labor supply, and children. Journal of labor Economics, 36(3), 665-709.Retrieved from: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/170797/1/dp10813.pdf[Retrieved on 18.06.2021]

Laws, R., Walsh, A. D., Hesketh, K. D., Downing, K. L., Kuswara, K., & Campbell, K. J. (2019). Differences between mothers and fathers of young children in their use of the internet to support healthy family lifestyle behaviors: Cross-sectional study. Journal of medical Internet research21(1), e11454. Retrieved from: https://www.jmir.org/2019/1/e11454 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Nikken, P. (2017). Implications of low or high media use among parents for young children’s media use. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace11(3). Retrieved from: https://cyberpsychology.eu/article/view/8558 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

O'Hara, K. L., Sandler, I. N., Wolchik, S. A., Tein, J. Y., & Rhodes, C. A. (2019). Parenting time, parenting quality, interparental conflict, and mental health problems of children in high-conflict divorce. Journal of Family Psychology33(6), 690. Retrieved from: https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Ffam0000556 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Reed, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K., &Golinkoff, R. M. (2017). Learning on hold: Cell phones sidetrack parent-child interactions. Developmental psychology, 53(8), 1428.Retrieved from: http://www.mnafee.org/uploads/1/3/7/0/13709464/d-1_reed_cell_phone_2017.pdf[Retrieved on 18.06.2021]

Schneider, D., Hastings, O. P., & LaBriola, J. (2018). Income inequality and class divides in parental investments. American Sociological Review83(3), 475-507. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122418772034 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Sevilla, A., & Borra, C. (2015). Parental time investments in children: The role of competition for university places in the UK (No. 9168). IZA Discussion Papers. Retrieved from: https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/114042 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Steenhoff, T., Tharner, A., & Væver, M. S. (2019). Mothers' and fathers' observed interaction with preschoolers: Similarities and differences in parenting behavior in a well-resourced sample. PloS one14(8), e0221661. Retrieved from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221661 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Sullivan, O., Gershuny, J., & Robinson, J. P. (2018). Stalled or Uneven Gender Revolution? A Long?Term Processual Framework for Understanding Why Change Is Slow. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(1), 263-279.Retrieved from: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:b474140a-6ca1-4690-b6b4-ede3aea1fb25/download_file?safe_filename=Sullivan_final.pdf&file_format=application%2Fpdf&type_of_work=Journal+article[Retrieved on 18.06.2021]

Tang, L., Darlington, G., Ma, D. W., & Haines, J. (2018). Mothers’ and fathers’ media parenting practices associated with young children’s screen-time: a cross-sectional study. BMC obesity5(1), 1-10. Retrieved from: https://bmcobes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40608-018-0214-4 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Zannella, M., & De Rose, A. (2020). Couples' Gender Differences in Subjective Wellbeing during Parenting Time. Retrieved from: https://ntaccounts.org/doc/repository/NTA2020%20Zannella.pdf [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

Online articles

wiley.com, 2021, Fathers Are Parents, Too! Widening the Lens on Parenting for Children's Development, Retrieved from: https://srcd.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cdep.12275 [Retrieved on: 1-6-21]

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