+44 203 318 3300 +61 2 7908 3995 help@nativeassignmenthelp.co.uk

Pages: 8

Words: 2077

Developmental Psychology

Introduction - Developmental Psychology

Get free samples written by our Top-Notch subject experts for taking the Uk's No.1 Assignment Help from native Assignment Help.

“Development Psychology” is defined as a scientific approach that aims to explain change, growth, and consistency in the whole lifespan. It looks at how feelings, behavior, and thoughts are changed in the life of a person. This development is mostly focused on the development at the time of childhood. Childhood is the stage in which most changes have occurred.

Question 4. Outline the development of the self-concept across the lifespan.

There is a fluctuation of self-esteem or self-concept that is reflected due to the change in the social environment and the changes in maturity such as a cognitive decline in old age and puberty. These changes are identified and it also impacts the change and there is a normative shift in self-esteem during the period of development. There are different changes among the individuals based on their different life spans that are starting from childhood to old age. There are various changes that are described below with respect to different ages.

Childhood: It is said that the children have a high self-concept that reduces over time. This is so because the child’s self-evaluation is based on the feedback from the external environment as they have positive and unrealistic views (Conde-Pipó et al., 2021). After that, the children receive feedback from the social environment and comparisons which enables them to form a accurate and balanced appraisal in their academic areas. For example: as children move from pre-school to high school, they get more negative feedback from the teacher, which makes their self-esteem towards themselves more negative.

Adolescence: it is kept on the decline at this stage also. It has been analyzed that this is due to the change in the body image and problems they are facing due to puberty. They think more abstractly about themselves and also the future (van Halen et al., 2020). There are challenges faced in the schools, many expectations are missed, and the social environment is more complex in the junior schools.

Adulthood: This self-esteem increase more in this adulthood phase. At this stage, an individual is occupied with feelings of being positioned in status and power that leads to the promotion of a feeling of self-worth. As per the theoretical aspects, these changes of personality that occurs at this time reflect more on the adjustment and maturity (Mohd Zaini et al., 2021). This is due to the high level of emotional stability and consciousness.

Old-age: at this stage, self-esteem is decreased. At the age of 70, this self-esteem starts to drop. This can be due to dramatic changes that take place at this stage. There is a change in the roles, relationships, and also physical functions. The socio-economic status is also dropped. At this stage, there is a significant change in the behavior of the person analyzed. They become more humble, modest, and have balanced views. The person may feel a deep sense in their own worth (Lichner et al., 2021). The self-esteem is dropped and the willingness to analyze their limitations and faults is increased. They feel to provide a positive light to others. Thus, it can be said that this self-esteem tends to decrease with the age.

Gender differences: Males and females both have the same features related to self-esteem in them, starting from childhood till old age that is rises from the childhood and reduces at old age. However, there is a gender gap that is analyzed that says that in childhood both have the same self-esteem and in adolescence, the boys have more self-esteem than the girls. This gender gap exists till adulthood and then narrows down and sometimes disappears in old age. This gender gap in terms of self-esteem is analyzed from the maturational changes that are linked with puberty in the factors related to social-contextual in the difference in the body image of the boys and girls.

Thus, it can be said that self-esteem is a varied experience in the lifelong process. It also shows systematic changes that are linked to the age-related life experience. There are many difficulties that are analyzed with the self-esteem of an individual. It is analyzed by certain studies that this difficulty can be solved. In recent days there boys and girls have the feeling of self-concept and if it is hurt, they take a drastic step against it (Lichner et al., 2021). The self-esteem stability in the different age groups is analyzed through comparisons with various dimensions of personality based on, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, opening to the experience, and conscientiousness. It is viewed that the person with high self-esteem in the early life has high self-esteem at a later age and those with low esteem at an early age possess the same in the future. 

Question 6. Outline factors that may affect cognitive health in older age, focusing on two or three key factors.

It is analyzed that as the individuals grow old, there is a need to improve their quality of life. If a person wants to live a long life, then more focus is needed to be placed on the quality of life and especially among the old people. Normal functioning means a healthy lifestyle is to be selected. The quality of life based on the health-related are said to the personal sense toads on the social and mental health and also their ability to react to the social and physical factors. 

Cognitive health is termed as the ability to think clearly, learn and also remember. Thus, cognitive health is overall based on the health of the brain. Brain health is affected by changes in an age that is such as stroke, mood disorders like stress, depression, Alzheimer’s diseases, and many more (Cunningham et al., 2020). It can be said that if an individual takes care of their health from an early age then it will be beneficial for them in the future terms. There are certain things that are to be considered as a routine so that it could function better. There are:

  • Taking proper care of physical health.
  • Managing the high blood pressure.
  • Eating healthy and nutritious foods
  • Keeping the mind active.
  • Being physically active.
  • Staying connected with the social activities.
  • Managing stress.

The above points can overall reduce the risk towards cognitive health. Genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors have an influence on cognitive health (Pollock et al., 2021). There are some factors that contribute to the decline in the ability to think and perform daily tasks such as, paying bills, driving, taking medicines, and also cooking. It is analyzed that the genetic factors pass from parent to child and that cannot be controlled. However, there are many lifestyles and environmental factors that can be managed or changed in order to reduce the risks. These factors are as follows:

  • Injuries of the brain due to accidents and falls.
  • Some mental and physical problems like depression, high blood pressure, and many more.
  • Improper intake of medicines.
  • Poor diet
  • Lack of physical activities.
  • Loneliness and social isolation
  • Drinking alcohol too much.
  • smoking

Brain injuries: it is analyzed that old people have a high risk of car accidents, falls, and many more accidents that cause injuries in the brain. It is said that the intake of alcohol and certain medicine can affect the ability of a person towards driving and thus, it increases the risk of accidents (Martyr et al., 2018). If the old people feel too much stressed and depressed, this may affect the brain and may also lead to brain-related diseases. Old age people also sometimes feel lonely due to the absence of a partner at that age. These all factors lead to mental health issues.

Medicines: There are some combinations of drugs or medicines that affect the mental health of the person. These medicines can sometimes lead to memory loss, confusion, hallucination, and others in old age persons. These medicines can also react with dietary supplements, food, or alcohol. These combinations react with the function of the brain. The drugs that harm old age include sleeping aids, muscle relaxants, medicines for depression and anxiety, medicines that are taken to relieve the cramps of the stomach, bladder, and intestine., and many more.

It is said that the medicines at an early age are to be taken with concern by a practiced physician that may cause cognitive problems (Pollock et al., 2021). If the care is been taken at the early stage then there will be no issues related to cognitive health in old age. 

Poor diet: There is much food that affects both physical and mental health. The intake of these foods at an early age can increase the risk of health diseases. This is because of the gut-brain axis. It is not a surprising fact that an improper diet can lead to cognitive problems that are such as, learning, remembering, and thinking. These improper diets release too many types of stress hormones that activate the brain's atrocities and microglia. Thus, these unhealthy food habits majorly affect the health of the brain. Proper care from an early age can reduce these problems in the future.


Thus, it can be concluded that this development psychology is vast and vigorous. The study of the relationship of the family highlights the roles of ecological characteristics that affect and alters the family relationship, the complex relationship among the family, and the various development pathways taken by the family or an individual.

looking more information about Psychology


Conde-Pipó, J., Melguizo-Ibáñez, E., Mariscal-Arcas, M., Zurita-Ortega, F., Ubago-Jiménez, J.L., Ramírez-Granizo, I. and González-Valero, G., 2021. Physical Self-Concept Changes in Adults and Older Adults: Influence of Emotional Intelligence, Intrinsic Motivation and Sports Habits. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(4), p.1711.

Cunningham, C., O'Sullivan, R., Caserotti, P. and Tully, M.A., 2020. Consequences of physical inactivity in older adults: A systematic review of reviews and meta?analyses. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports30(5), pp.816-827.

Lichner, V., Petriková, F. and Žiaková, E., 2021. Adolescents self-concept in the context of risk behaviour and self-care. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth26(1), pp.57-70.

Martyr, A., Nelis, S.M., Quinn, C., Wu, Y.T., Lamont, R.A., Henderson, C., Clarke, R., Hindle, J.V., Thom, J.M., Jones, I.R. and Morris, R.G., 2018. Living well with dementia: a systematic review and correlational meta-analysis of factors associated with quality of life, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia. Psychological medicine48(13), pp.2130-2139.

Mohd Zaini, S.N., Md Rami, A.A., Mohamad Arsad, N. and Mohd Anuar, M.A., 2021. Relationship of academic performance and academic self-concept with career decision-making among UPM undergraduate students. Asian Journal of University Education (AJUE)7(2), pp.50-61.

Pollock, A., Campbell, P., Cheyne, J., Cowie, J., Davis, B., McCallum, J., McGill, K., Elders, A., Hagen, S., McClurg, D. and Torrens, C., 2020. Interventions to support the resilience and mental health of frontline health and social care professionals during and after a disease outbreak, epidemic or pandemic: a mixed methods systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (11).

van Halen, C., Bosma, H.A. and van der Meulen, M., 2020. Experiencing self-definition problems over the life span. Identity20(3), pp.170-187.

Recently Downloaded Answers by Customers
Our Exceptional Advantages
Complete your order here
54000+ Project Delivered
Get best price for your work

Ph.D. Writers For Best Assistance

Plagiarism Free

No AI Generated Content

offer valid for limited time only*