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EV640 Event Safety and Visitor Welfare Assignment 

Introduction - EV640 Event Safety and Visitor Welfare Assignment 

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Critical analyses on ‘Crowds are the elephant man of social sciences’

A crowd of an elephant is monstrous, pathological or strange for the people which are seeing it from far. There is a part of the crowd which is not going to use their mind and just follow the other's point of view which is a very dangerous situation. Elephants have the same thinking and the other elephant just copy the thinking which limits the thinking level (Haghani and Sarvi, 2018). It is important for the crowd to have their own thinking which is going to make sure that there is a better lifecycle which would be present if the people are going to have their own point of view. The crowd is a very dangerous word that is used because there is a leader who is powerful and the other just follow the people in the front. It is important to have their own point of view so that there are better decisions and working which is going to be present. Individual behaviour of all the humankind are different but they all act like elephants and are not wanting to think different and revolt on all the things which are present in front of them (Stott and Drury, 2017). Good communication is present which has to be understood well so that there is going to be right social importance that is going to be present.

The elephant man of social science refers to the behaviour made by the crowd towards society and social factors. It is essential for them to develop working in where they need to understand that they are helping society but actually the crowd is making it bit damaging the rules of society and creating a huge mess for the same. Crowd behaviour is very vital and its need to be developed in the understanding of a better workplace. The UK government sets different criteria which help in identifying the crowd (Kim and et.al., 2021).

Size: It is essential for the understanding that there is different size of the crowd on which the UK government are categorizing to understand the crowd. The size is vital factor as how big the crow is and how to identify their factors that can impact on the social factors of the country. The elephant man is including the size and it need to be separated to understand about the size and work on the crowd control to help the society.

Density: Crowd density refer to the ways they are gathering in the areas and how they are forming all the collocated in a particular area. The distribution of the density is crucial and the ways they are developing more of the ways to provide an understanding about the crowd.

Time: There is different time when the individual is gathering in the places differently and creating a crowd gathering by coming to a particular place.

Collectivist: They are those in the crowd who represent through the identity or a social identity which have a common goal or interest.

Novelty: Manners are important and they need to develop a way of showing the manners, unfamiliar situations etc.

The crowd can be of different styles which include different names with different targets to deal with:

Aggressive or hostile crowd: Crowds which are behaving in a rude way and provide a social threat to any particular things or objective on which they are targeting through the crowd gathering. In this they abuse or use vulgar words, threatening, disregards the instruction from officials etc. It needs to be controlled and it is important for them to control the crowd and work accordingly (Zakaria, Yusof and Naim, 2019).

Participatory crowds: these crowds are gathered for a particular event or activity where the crowd want to participate and show the interest in that activity or event. This is that crowd where the events are going and the people are so determine towards the activity that they make a huge crowd to go and participate.

The crowd can create difficulty, risk or issue for any event or party as it can create a huge damage to the properties and creating issues with one another. It is vital to make sure that the risk management activity and the procedures are to be applied where the crowd is gathered so that they can provide a control if there are changes of conflict and creating of risk situations. It can be natural risk and cause by the crowd for some particular differences. The crowd behaviour can be different and crowd can react accordingly as how they are feeling and this can lead to create a risk for the different number of people. It is important for the events to make sure that they understand the crowd and creating a better working of handling the crowd and their behaviour (Phillips and Pohl, 2021). Crowd behaviour is very important and it needs to be understood so that they can control the conflicts and emergency of the crowds.

Crowds are depending on the geographical aspect as well which are their size, density, time, collectivist and novelty. Elephants have a factor of racism as well which is not a good factor for the human kind as well and changing mentality is a very difficult aspect to have which is going to impact the performance as well. Understanding the crowd is important but also having an opinion of self is important so that there is better standards and working which is going to be present. People who are not supporting and go against the people is not going to be right because the people (Marsden and et.al., 2017). Crowd management is an essential element that must be present in companies in order to make sure that there is effective influence that is present. Crowds normally have a common goal which needs to be achieved when working together otherwise they do not stop to try and motivate each other to achieve it.


Critical analyses on the theory of crowd behaviour

Gustave Le Bon’s is the father of social psychology which is the study of human behaviour in a crowd. There is a great influence which is present of the others in all the individuals’ lives. Crowds have a common goal which they want to achieve and if there is a good understanding of this aspect then the negative side of the crowd factor can be reduced. The heads or members of the group have to be given the right communication so that there is a good thinking and achievement of the expectations and demands they are wanting or the aim of the group to be achieved (Haghani and et.al., 2019). This theory is divided into sub categories like anonymity, contagious acts, and suggestibility so that there is a better understanding of the characteristics.

Gustave Le Bon’s has given contagion theory which is to make sure that there is a good understanding of the human behaviour so that there is a better living situation which can be created for the long run. Individuals which are present in a crowd do not use their knowledge at all and work according to the crowd which they are a part of. The personal identity and personality is lost of them which have to be well thought of so that there is a good knowledge which is going to be present. The outcomes of the crowd expectations have to be achieved by the people present in the crowd and they only have one thinking process which is being told to them (Gayathri, Aparna and Verma, 2017). The individual beliefs are going to be ignored and make sure that there is a better collective belief that is going to be developed in the people. There are fashionable trends as well which are going to be present as well so that there is a better understanding and working which is present. Contagion theory is not a good factor for the overall working which is going to be present for the people as well. It is very important that the individuals do not lose their personal identity otherwise they would not be able to speak up. There is a pressure which is going to be present in the people when they have to follow others which has to be understood otherwise so that there is something which is going to be present.

Advantages of Gustave Le Bon’s crowd theory are that there are people which are going to have a good understanding of the ideas and expectations which they are going to want. There is a clear agenda that is present and this is going to make sure that there is effective working that helps to analyse crowds and make necessary arrangements (Du and et.al., 2018). Crowds need to have the right knowledge of what the crowd they want that is going to make sure that there is not negative influence. Having negative influence can also lead to challenges and make things difficult especially for a crowd. The negative aspect of crowd is that they do not have their own mind set and they follow the leaders blindly. It is very essential to have a mindset of self so that they would be able to make sure that there is effective working and processing that is going to be there. Trusting the leaders blindly is not a good factor because there is a lot of misleading and miscommunication which can take place (Cao and et.al., 2021).

Contemporary audience safety management

There is a lot of safety management which have to taken in order to make sure that the people are having the right security that they need. There are a lot of crowds which are not going to be safe for the people and can make the harm on the people be higher as well (Zhao and et.al., 2019). There are a lot of risks in a crowd which is going to be present and the safety has to be higher as well. There are demands and there are people against it as well and though here is right to speak but not everyone understanding those demands. The people in support for the good can also be at a great risk. There is a need of good protection for the individuals which are present so that there is good working and processing that is going to be there. There are risks for the individuals because they go against everyone and that is not a good factor for the people.

Support has to be gained by those people who are going to have their own ideas and methods of working so that they would be able to make sure that there is a good development that is present as well. Individuals have to put forward their thinking as well so that they would be helpful in making sure that the crowd is putting forward their ideas and knowledge of the demands and needs which are important. There are uncontrollable associated with crowd which are present without even knowing and these crowds have to be well guided so that there is going to be right working and functioning that is present (Elaiw, Al-Turki and Alghamdi, 2019). People have to have the same thinking in some of the cases as well but individuals must be heard so that there is a common goal that is present. Good governmental support has to exist as well to make sure that there is good working and processing of the crowds which is positive for the people and make sure that there is good working that exists.


Compare and contrast the long-term legacies of 2 high-profile sporting events

The comparison and contrast is going to be between two events which are the FIFA world cup and the Olympics game. There is a lot of difference which is present between the two events but there is a lot of crowds which is attracted to both these events (Di Vita and Wilson, 2020). There is not much difference between the two since they are having a good presence of an audience that it is attracting.


FIFA is an international association football competition which is for national teams of the members which are present in FIFA. There are people travelling to watch a game of their favourite football team from countries so that they would be able to enjoy the game live. FIFA world cup is having only one game which is focused on so that there is going to be attracting only the people which are presently understanding or have interest in this field. There are a lot of awards and world recognition as well that is present for the people which are participating in these events. There are 1.12 billion viewers and there is approximately about $6 billion. The people who are participating in FIFA world cup are the leaders and influencer for a large population so that there is going to be higher (Tennent and Gillett, 2018).

Olympics are taking place in one city throughout but there are a lot of countries and many participants which are present in this game. The game is held every four years so that there is going to exchange of culture and people are going to be there. Olympics game is a multi sport event which is conducted. This game is to make sure that there is peace between the countries and also make sure that there is good relationship as well (Preuß, Andreff and Weitzmann, 2019). People come to support the country so that there would be right understanding which is going to be a great factor. There is high competition which is present between the countries and this game was made so that the people would be able to understand each other and make sure that there is better harmony which exists. During an Olympics game there are people coming from around the world to support their country which results in exchange of culture and beliefs so that they can have a better perspective of others and make an improvement in their knowledge and work accordingly.

In the same regard, Football is one of the most loved sports all over the world and every country is fighting to win the FIFA world cup. Crowds come to both the events and follow it religiously and have different sections of audience as football is FIFA whereas Olympics has a list of different types of sports ranging from gymnastics, basketball etc. World cup shows a different emotion and feeling for which people or players are developing their game and creating different plans to work. The teams of different nations are also supported by different country people who are having their favourite superstar (Ribeiro, Correia and Biscaia, 2020). There are different teams from different countries which are present in world cup of FIFA and they are developing more crazy fans around the globe which are waiting for their team to win. This is totally different from the Olympics as the football fans are having much higher desperation and energy to win the cup and the fans around the globe are crazy in their spirit for game.


Olympics was first held in 1896 that was held in Greece which did not attract a lot of people but the right place was made for this event to be carried forward in the future as well (Szymanski and et.al., 2021). There were athletes from 13 nations which were there in the event and that is going to make the stability be present as well. Olympics are to celebrate the event in a religious event in the past so that there is higher creation and honour is going to be present as well. This game would make sure that there is a good spiritual and physical factor which is going to be present and that is a very important factor for the countries to have for the better development as well. There is a lot of development which the countries have had when they hold Olympics in their countries like Brazil, Spain and Greece which have developed good infrastructure improvement. This aspect is visible and there is also an improvement in the thinking of the population which is present so that there is good improvement in the economic factor of the country (Müller and Gaffney, 2018). Olympics are having a lot of individual games as well which are present but in FIFA world cup there are people playing from sports teams and countries as well. FIFA and Olympics needs to have good working and planning since there is a good working audience that gets attracted to both these events. It is important to have the right understanding and design for these events to make sure that the audience is having the right stability and experience. There are more job opportunities that are present in the country as well which is going to make sure that there are good venues that are decided by the committee as well. Holding the game in different locations is making the game even more attractive for the people supporting the teams which are going to be a great factor for the overall working and understanding of the game. There are committees that are present in the association to make sure that the FIFA is taking place effectively and that is going to make sure that there is good prospective that the country is having. There is a growth of the country as well to make sure that there is good working and commitment that is present (Kolamo and Vuolteenaho, 2019). FIFA is held after every 4 years and was held for the first time in 1930 in Uruguay. Olympics is having the right placing for themselves in the world and so is FIFA which is going to make sure that there is good working. It is important to know the features to have better control over the arrangements to be made for crowd control.


Books and Journals

Cao, R.F and et.al., 2021. Simulation of competitive and cooperative egress movements on the crowd emergency evacuation. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. 109. p.102309.

Di Vita, S. and Wilson, M., 2020. Planning and managing smaller events: Trends, needs and opportunities for downsizing spectacle. In Planning and Managing Smaller Events (pp. 1-11). Routledge.

Du, X and et.al., 2018. Crowd evacuation simulation based on emotion contagion. International Journal of Simulation and Process Modelling. 13(1). pp.43-56.

Elaiw, A., Al-Turki, Y. and Alghamdi, M., 2019. A critical analysis of behavioural crowd dynamics—From a modelling strategy to kinetic theory methods. Symmetry. 11(7). p.851.

Gayathri, H., Aparna, P.M. and Verma, A., 2017. A review of studies on understanding crowd dynamics in the context of crowd safety in mass religious gatherings. International journal of disaster risk reduction. 25. pp.82-91.

Haghani, M and et.al., 2019. Panic, irrationality, and herding: three ambiguous terms in crowd dynamics research. Journal of advanced transportation2019.

Haghani, M. and Sarvi, M., 2018. Crowd behaviour and motion: Empirical methods. Transportation research part B: methodological107, pp.253-294.

Kim, D and et.al., 2021. A kinetic theory approach for 2D crowd dynamics with emotional contagion. Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences. pp.1-26.

Kolamo, S. and Vuolteenaho, J., 2019. Urban Media Studies| Uncanny Resemblances? Captive Audience Positions and Media-Conscious Performances in Berlin During the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 2006 FIFA World Cup. International Journal of Communication. 13. p.23.

Marsden, M and et.al., 2017, August. Resnetcrowd: A residual deep learning architecture for crowd counting, violent behaviour detection and crowd density level classification. In 2017 14th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.

Müller, M. and Gaffney, C., 2018. Comparing the urban impacts of the FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games from 2010 to 2016. Journal of Sport and Social Issues. 42(4). pp.247-269.

Phillips, P.J. and Pohl, G., 2021. Crowd counting: a behavioural economics perspective. Quality & Quantity. pp.1-18.

Preuß, H., Andreff, W. and Weitzmann, M., 2019. Cost and revenue overruns of the Olympic Games 2000–2018 (p. 184). Springer Nature.

Ribeiro, T., Correia, A. and Biscaia, R., 2020. The social impact of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games: comparison of residents' pre-and post-event perceptions. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal.

Stott, C. and Drury, J., 2017. Contemporary understanding of riots: Classical crowd psychology, ideology and the social identity approach. Public Understanding of Science. 26(1). pp.2-14.

Szymanski, M and et.al., 2021. Sport and international management: Exploring research synergy. Thunderbird International Business Review. 63(2). pp.253-266.

Tennent, K.D. and Gillett, A.G., 2018. Opportunities for all the Team: Entrepreneurship and the 1966 and 1994 Soccer World Cups. The International Journal of the History of Sport. 35(7-8). pp.767-788.

Zakaria, W., Yusof, U.K. and Naim, S., 2019. Modelling and simulation of crowd evacuation with cognitive behaviour using fuzzy logic. Int. J. Advance Soft Compu. Appl. 11(2).

Zhao, R and et.al., 2019, July. Knowledge Reduction Model of Crowd Evacuation Stability Based on Rough Set Theory. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 563, No. 5, p. 052105). IOP Publishing.

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