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PSYC6004 Trial Protocol Coursework

Introduction-PSYC6004 Trial Protocol Coursework

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The focus on interventions across the world has become highly reputable as it helps to solve various social issues that seem to be occurring. There are a number of interventions that can be held like a learning intervention, relationship based interventions or even systemic interventions. This report will be based upon behaviour change intervention. Such a type of intervention has become highly likely to be useful as it seems that the rise of health related work areas are increasing. The use of an intervention within research is to attain a desirable outcome for the various participants that have been selected. This research will highlight how an intervention will be carried out for a specific group of people. A behaviour change intervention is going to be analysed through this report regarding behaviour change intervention.


The intervention that has been planned is a behaviour change intervention because at the time of such a pandemic it is necessary for people to keep a check on their health. The concept of having a healthy lifestyle has become highly important as it shows how there can be various areas for targeting and also provide a clear outline of what are the different solutions that can be opted by them. Within such an intervention there is both targeting done of the mental and physical health so that individuals can lead a better lifestyle. The importance of such an intervention is to make sure that individuals present in a certain nation will be able to have a healthier lifestyle hence helping to end the suffering that they are currently facing.

The health issue that is going to be focused upon is obesity which seems to be increasing around the world. This issue has been present across the world and seems to have captured the attention of healthcare agencies. This has been a worrying factor as the World Health Organisation (2021) has shown that 39% of global adults are overweight in the year 2016 and 13% were obese. Children have been found to be the most obese within this case scenario hence increasing the amount of importance that is to be given to such an area. In order to narrow down the area for research the country is Naura which is present in Oceania. It was found out that 90% of its population was obese hence showing the need for an intervention within this country. When a person is obese there are further medical diseases that can come with it such as type 2 diabetes and many more hence it is important to target such an area (Hardin et al., 2018). This is considered to be a chronic ‘lifestyle’ disease as it affects the lifestyle of a person.

A behaviour change intervention would help to highlight the various changes in behaviour that are needed for further discussion to be done upon. There are a number of behaviour change interventions that are present such as education, reminders, persuasion or even continuous medical education. This is important to be looked at because it would help to see what would be the various areas that can be targeted accordingly. The behaviour change intervention will imply that a behaviour change intervention is included in order to provide a clear outline of how to manage the work to be done (Abarca-Gómez et al., 2017). There have been many studies that have been done within this area that can help to provide an outline of how to reduce and manage the level of obesity that is rising within an area. According to Teixeira & Marques, (2017) it seems that the planning of such an intervention is important so that there can be better changes made in the behaviour. The authors have also shown that the use of technology is highly important for lifestyle interventions as it provide a clear idea of how weight can be reduced at a low cost. It will also highlight various large scale areas that influence the behaviour in the long-term. The level of personalisation would also be introduced by the use of technology as each of the obese people would need a different motivation level and also there might be other diseases that they might be suffering from (Vineis, 2017). The author has also shown that the theory of social cognitive and planned behaviour have been used in order to analyse the behaviour of the people that are being targeted. According to Sheeran et al. (2017) it can be seen that another area that can be looked at is that the use of experimental medicine would help in this area. But it seems that the behaviour of the customers on trying out new medicine might cause there to be further medical diseases or side effects to be reached. This EM approach might be useful but would also cause further areas of concern to be raised as well.

Another area of behaviour that can be highlighted is that in order to make sure that there are positive changes within the participants. In order to do this their behaviour would be analysed and seeing what their eating patterns are and also what can be the different applications that can help to involve this (Williams and Periasamy, 2020).). The paper presented by Zhao et al. (2016) has shown that there would be various clarification on what can be the different areas that can be targeted but the use of mobile application for further behaviour to be developed. The use of mobile applications for weight loss can be introduced within an intervention so that there is a clear outline of what are the different exercises that can be done for getting this done. Also, a diet plan can be enabled for there to be further work to be done hence creating a clear outline of the necessary steps that need to be followed.

From the above it can be seen that there is an important need for having a behaviour change intervention for achieving health benefits and for obese people this can be beneficial as they can help to increase the amount of work that has to be done accordingly.



The participants that are involved within this intervention would be be for the individual that are years 20+. This age group has been chosen as it seems to be the most obese age group within that specific country hence targeting it would be effective. Also, the decision making power is highly dominant in such an age group as well as the understanding level as compared to an early intervention that might not be too successful.


Within the intervention it seems that there would be various areas that would need to be analysed so that the development of it can be done effectively. This is because the change within the behaviour is not an easy area that can be changed within a done and only with one component hence the use of various models and theories would be used in order to develop such a model.

Com-B Model

(Source: Social Change UK, 2021)

From the above image it can be seen that there are 3 main aspects that can be analysed hence increasing the change within the behaviour. The capability aspect of the model shows what the psychological capability that are present of the participants that have been taken. This is important in the case of the obese people as it would be seen whether they have both the mental and physical health for making sure they can take on the solutions being provided within the intervention. Opportunities also need to be identified within the area that the intervention that is being taken place. There also have to be social opportunities that can be looked at in order to make sure that there is clear outline of how obesity that can be managed. The level of lack of having healthy sources for food and also a high illiteracy rate within the country, there would have to be various policies that need to be developed accordingly (West & Michie, 2020). The motivation factor has two aspects that are involved within it where one of them is reflective motivation. Through this the intervention that is taking place reflective motivation would be given by presenting various methods that have been adopted in similar interventions so that individuals understand that they can also become in the best shape of their life. Reflective motivation would also highlight various policies that can be used that have been developed by WHO for effective results to take place. Guidelines would be explained to the participants in order to increase their motivation that have been developed by WHO. The other is automatic motivation in which the intervention would see what motivates the people of Naura. This is important to be done as it is one of the factors that would help to increase it for further work to be done.

Behaviour Change Wheel

(Source: Atkins, 2017)

The above wheel helped to see what can be the various areas that should be focused upon by the intervention. This wheel shows that there would be a clear outline of the various functions and categories that have to be looked at. This wheel involves that there are factors of the Com-B model which are capability, opportunity and motivation that are being used. The first area that the wheel highlights is looking at the issue of obesity within the country that has been chosen. This has already been highlighted that there has been a less focus on eating healthy as there are more imports of various unhealthy products like sodas that has been done within the country (Ogden, 2016). The healthcare knowledge that is present is that there would be a large amount of misunderstanding that can be done due to which it has caused further damage to be done for more weight to arise.

The use of the change wheel will further provide a clear outline of what can be the different areas for further development to occur in the intervention that will take place. There intervention functions that are present in the wheel can help to increase the amount of work to be developed accordingly. The use of these functions can be used to establish a clear outline of how intervention that has been devised can be carried out.



Use of Intervention


This function helps to make sure that the target groups increases their knowledge regarding a specific factor.

The use of this in the intervention is to provide knowledge to the people of Nuru on how obesity can lead to the end of their lives at an early stage.


The concept of communication is linked here as it shows that there would be need to confirmation of various areas for further development to take place.

There would have to be interventions that have to be done accordingly to the work to be planned so that communication for further persuasion to occur.


This shows that the people involved in the intervention should be able to expect a reward.

The reward for the intervention being planned would provide the individuals with a better and healthier lifestyle.


Here there is a level of cost that is created if the intervention is not effectively done.

There would not be any such cost done in the health intervention that is being planned. This is because it is a voluntary intervention and people whom are considered about their obesity can join.


The skills that are necessary for the intervention to take place will be decided upon.

All of the individuals that is helping to get the intervention done will need skills like communication and persuasion so that they can make sure that more participants are added.


There should be certain rules and regulations done so that engagement of the targeted participants can be measured.

There should not be any force that should be put on individuals on why they should join the interventions.

Environmental restructuring

Looking at what can be physically or socially changed.

The change in the eating disorder would have to be make sure that there will be effective measures to be taken.


Providing examples of real life events that can help to increase the motivation of the participants.

There will be seminars that can be presented in which people whom have reduced weight due to obesity can be represented accordingly.


If there are any barriers present then all of them should be reduced.

The intervention would outline that eating habits would have to be developed accordingly.

Target behaviour Description

Questions for the intervention

Need to be done!

Who needs to perform the behaviour?

There would have to be a better diet plan adopted with the help to technology and healthcare agencies for better food intake.

Also, simple exercise at home that can be done would be shown.

What do they need to do differently to achieve the desired change?

There would have to be regular follow-ups for healthcare education to be provided on whether such individuals are gaining positive impacts from the intervention or not.

Helps in motivation levels to rise.

When do they need to do it?

Change in diet plans

Opening of more healthy stores

Having better nutrition knowledge

Understanding risks of obesity

Where do they need to do it?

This can be done at healthcare centers where seminars about such can take place.

How often do they need to do it?

The seminars will take place once a week while dieting and everything else will be done at home.

With whom do they need to do it?

Can be done by self or better to do it with a partner so that motivation levels can increase.

The final step would be to imply behaviour change techniques that can be done by adoption of various behaviour change theories. This is important as it would help to increase the amount of satisfaction that can be achieved at the intervention. The use of the planned behaviour theory would be useful here in order to achieve a high satisfaction level (Michie et al., 2013).

Design and Outcome

The use of APEASE technique would be done here and also for the interventions behaviour change technique:



This is an intervention that is affordable as various sponsors can be collected for such a cause.


Can be implemented as similar interventions have been taking place across the world.


The outcomes would be highly effective as it helps to help people with a huge issue that is being faced by them.


Will be easily accepted as a global social issue is being targeted.

Side Effects

Is helping to reduce a social issue that is being presented


Large difference is being presented as the education concept being involved is highly likely to increase for the work.

 Ethical Consideration

The top ethical issue is to get the individuals interested into the intervention because it seems that being obese has been adopted as a way of life. This is because the lack of education about the issue for being obese has caused individuals not to realise on how it can affect their lives. The best way to bring people into the intervention is to set out an outdoor seminar in which people have been obese or are in a program that helps to lower weight. Through it can be shown on what are the reasons that people need to attend such a seminar.

Identification of BCTs


Targeted COM-B components

Providing knowledge on effects of obesity

People who have obesity or know someone who has obesity and are willing to help can participate.

Instruction on various methods that can be performed

Involvement of healthcare organisations on how changes in diet are to be dealt with.

Motivation provided on a regular basis so quitting is not an option

People who were obese can help to come to meetings and provide motivation.

Various meetings conducting to show how much weight is lost

Helps to keep the obese people in the program going.

Social support is present

Making sure that local shop owners and helpful individuals are present for providing moral support.


One of the major limitations that can be looked at are the values, beliefs and attitude that shows whether a person might change their behaviour or not. The concept of attitude would affect the intervention which has been planned because to change the diet of a person and keep them on it is not an easy task at hand. It would take a lot of motivational skills to be implemented because the level of dedication that is present within this should be high. This shows that participants might back out and go back to their lifestyle hence making the outcome of the whole intervention a failure. The mitigation strategy that can be adopted for this is that there should be monitoring on the participants and encouragement and motivation should be developed accordingly (Jackson et al. 2015).

The level of influence might be high in the country. This is high risk factor for there to be done hence making sure that there would have to be further focus done. This is because most of the population present within the country is obese and implementing change within the participants would be hard. Being able to change the behaviour of a person whom is under an influence of such a concept is not going to be an easy time. The mitigation strategy here is that there would be more focus on the areas for further development to be done.


Atkins, L. (2017). Behaviour Change. (Online) Pmlive. Retreived From: https://www.pmlive.com/pharma_intelligence/behaviour_change_1190149

Jackson, S. E., Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (2015). The influence of partner’s behavior on health behavior change: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. JAMA internal medicine175(3), 385-392.

Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., . . . Wood, C. (2013). The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (v1) of 93 Hierarchically Clustered Techniques: Building an International Consensus for the Reporting of Behavior Change Interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 81-95.

Ogden, J. (2016). Celebrating variability and a call to limit systematisation: the example of the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy and the Behaviour Change Wheel. Health psychology review10(3), 245-250.

Sheeran, P., Klein, W. M., & Rothman, A. J. (2017). Health behavior change: Moving from observation to intervention. Annual review of psychology, 68, 573-600.

Social Change UK, (2021). The COM-B Model of Behaviour. (Online) Social Change UK. Retreived From: https://social-change.co.uk/files/02.09.19_COM-B_and_changing_behaviour_.pdf

Teixeira, P. J., & Marques, M. M. (2017). Health behavior change for obesity management. Obesity facts, 10(6), 666-673.

West, R., & Michie, S. (2020). A brief introduction to the COM-B Model of behaviour and the PRIME Theory of motivation [v1]. Qeios.

World Health Organisation, (2021) Obesity and overweight. (Online) World Health Organisation. Retrieved From: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

Hardin, J., McLennan, A. K., & Brewis, A. (2018). Body size, body norms and some unintended consequences of obesity intervention in the Pacific islands. Annals of human biology45(3), 285-294.

Abarca-Gómez, L., Abdeen, Z.A., Hamid, Z.A., Abu-Rmeileh, N.M., Acosta-Cazares, B., Acuin, C., Adams, R.J., Aekplakorn, W., Afsana, K., Aguilar-Salinas, C.A. & Agyemang, C., (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128· 9 million children, adolescents, and adults. The lancet390(10113), pp.2627-2642.

Williams, R. & Periasamy, M., (2020). Genetic and environmental factors contributing to visceral adiposity in Asian populations. Endocrinology and Metabolism35(4), p.681.

Vineis, P., (2017). An Overview of What Global Health Is. Health Without Borders, pp.9-20.

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