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Male & Female Reproductive Systems: Structure, Function & Processes

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Introduction - Reproductive System Anatomy & Processes

Task 1:

Male Reproductive System

Prostate gland
 
Seminal vesicle
 
Urethra
 
Testicle
 
Scrotum
 
Epididymis
 
Colon
 
Bladder
 
Vas Deferens
 
Penis
 
Penis
 

Figure 1: Male Reproductive System

(Source: Leisegang, Henkel and Agarwal, 2019)

Penis: Penis is merely located in glands and roots which is functionaly helping in urination and sexual intercourse. Additionally, it helps in producing transporting sperms.

Testes: Testes is usually covered through a tough membranous shell named Tunica albuginea. It is helping in producing testosterone hormones and producing sperms (Leisegang, Henkel and Agarwal, 2019).

Prostate Gland: Prostate Gland is structurally a type of chestnut shaped major male reproductive organ. It is secreting a fluid which is nourishing and protecting sperms (Leisegang, Henkel and Agarwal, 2019).

Scrotum: It is a type of loose pouch sac of skin which is functionally connected with blood vessels and many nerves in terms of protecting testes and also useful for sorting of active climate control system.

Female Reproductive System

Cervix
 
Ovary
 
Muscular wall of uterus
 
Vagina
 
Inner lining of the uterus
 
Funnel of oviduct
 
Vaginal opening
 

Figure 2: Female Reproductive System

(Source: Nasiadek et al. 2020)

Fallopian Tube: It is a tube shaped and it extends near the uterus and curves around the ovaries. It transports Oocytes and helps in fertilization.

Ovary: Ovary is producing eggs named as Ova or Oocytes. After that, it is transported into fallopian tubes for fertilization (Nasiadek et al. 2020).

Cervix: It allows sperm to pass into the uterus through the endocervical canal. It is also producing mucus for facilitating sperm entry.

Funnel of Oviduct: The oviduct Funnel is transporting ova from the ovaries to the uterus. It is also used for sperm fertilization (Nasiadek et al. 2020).

Vagina: It is playing a major role at the time of sex, childbirth, pregnancy and menstruation.

Task 2

Organs Structure Function
Ovaries Ovoid and almond structured and located in the shallow depression known as Ovarian Fossae. Producing egg cells which are called ova or oocytes
Fallopian Duct These are tube shaped and each tube is extend near the uterus and curves around the ovaries It is transporting oocytes and helps to fertilize properly in the human body
Uterus it is a pear-shaped organ and located in female pelvis The major function of uterus is nourishing the procedure of developing the fetus prior to birth.
Vagina It is a canal and it is joining the cervix Plays a major role during menstruation, pregnancy, sex and childbirth
Testes It is olive shaped and located and present in the scrotum Helps to produce testosterone and producing sperm
Epididymis It is coupled tube structured and connect with testicles It carried sperm cells and helps in fertilization
Prostate Gland It is a walnut shaped and located between. Penis and bladder It is secreting a fluid which is nourishing as well as protecting sperms
Seminal Vesicle It is located in behind the bladder but front of the rectum in male pelvis Producing fluids which is tiring into semen
Penis It is located above the scrotum of male reproductive system Penis helps in urination and sexual intercourse.

Table 1: Male and Female Reproductive System

(Source: Vommaro, Donato and Giglio, 2022)

Task 3

  1. The role of mitosis in the human body is primarily the replacement of old and dead cells that are no longer fit for proper functioning. This possess involves the doubling up of chromosomes within a cell into two daughter cells each inheriting equal parts of the parent chromosomes. This phenomenon is important for the growth of the body and the replacement of old cells (Sato, Kakui and Toya, 2021). Another important role played by mitosis is the repairing of damaged cells and helping the cells to maintain a constant size. In sexual reproduction, the two gametes sperm and egg fuse together to form the zygote and the division of this zygote involve mitosis. This is important for the cells to divide so that these can, later on, lead to the formation of the foetus.
  2. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in four daughter dells instated of two and this phenomenon plays an important role in sexual reproduction. As per Crickard and Greene, (2018), both “spermatogenesis and oogenesis” involve the production of haploid cells that require meiosis. The maturation of the cells into oocytes and spermatozoa happens because of meiosis. Genetic variation in individuals is also caused due to meiosis and meiosis helps in maintaining constant cell numbers. This is because it helps maintain the oocyte cytoplasm in the process of oogenesis and all the steps in spermatogenesis involve meiosis.

Task 4

  1. Fertilization is the term given to the fusion of the male and female sex gametes inside the uterus of the female. This involves the functioning of the Luteinizing hormone and the “Follicle Stimulating hormone” and it takes place after 20 minutes from sexual intercourse.
  2. Implantation refers to the process in which the fused egg passes down the fallopian tube and settles at the uterine wall until delivery. The hormones “estrogen and progesterone” are responsible for the “structure and functional remodeling” of the uterus during this stage (Van Geelen, Ostergard and Sand, 2018). It usually takes 3 to 4 days for the egg to completely settle in the wall of the uterus.
  3. Pregnancy or gestation is the term given to the whole period involving the baby developing inside the mother’s womb. “Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG)” and “Human placental lactogen (hPL)” along with estrogen and progesterone are involved in this process (Van Geelen, Ostergard and Sand, 2018). This whole period can last up to 10 months depending on the condition of the mother and the fetus.
  4. The final process of the baby being delivered from the vagina of the mother is known as childbirth. The only hormone that is involved in this process is oxytocin which is responsible for the contractions leading to labor pain in the mother.

Task 5

  1. The main issue with thecontraceptive process is that it does not reduce the risk of “sexually transmitted diseases” and involves a risk of infection. Patients suffering from uterine anomalies are advised not to go through these processes due to various complications (Ahuja et al. 2019). However, these are very effective measures that can be used to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
  2. “Sexually transmitted diseases” can cause various adverse effects on a person’s body but the most significant one is that it reduces the immunity power (Ahuja et al. 2019). This prevents the person from building a defense mechanism in case of further diseases and can also lead to infertility in some.
  3. Reproductive technologies are mainly accessed by people suffering from infertility issues and all these methods involve the production of a child in unconventional ways. The various artificial reproductive technologies are “In-vitro Fertilization”, “Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer”, “Zygote Intrafallopian transfer” (Kawwass and Badell, 2018). These processes have been proved as highly effective in producing babies but there are some issues related to these as well. The primary one is the ethical considerations associated with these methods because these are being conducted artificially in the laboratory and involve huge costs.

References

Task 1

Leisegang, K., Henkel, R. and Agarwal, A., 2019. Obesity and metabolic syndrome associated with systemic inflammation and the impact on the male reproductive system. American journal of reproductive immunology, 82(5), p.e13178.

Nasiadek, M., Stragierowicz, J., Klimczak, M. and Kilanowicz, A., 2020. The role of zinc in selected female reproductive system disorders. Nutrients, 12(8), p.2464.

Task 2

Vommaro, M.L., Donato, S. and Giglio, A., 2022. Virtual sections and 3D reconstructions of female reproductive system in a carabid beetle using synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast microtomography. Zoologischer Anzeiger.

Task 3

Crickard, J.B. and Greene, E.C., 2018. Biochemical attributes of mitotic and meiotic presynaptic complexes. DNA repair, 71, pp.148-157.

Sato, M., Kakui, Y. and Toya, M., 2021. Tell the difference between mitosis and meiosis: interplay between chromosomes, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle regulation. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9.

Task 4

Van Geelen, H., Ostergard, D. and Sand, P., 2018. A review of the impact of pregnancy and childbirth on pelvic floor function as assessed by objective measurement techniques. International urogynecology journal, 29(3), pp.327-338.

Task 5

Ahuja, V.K., Patnaik, S., Gurchandandeep, Y.L., Sharma, N., Goyal, S. and Singh, G., 2019. Perceptions and preferences regarding sex and contraception, amongst adolescents. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 8(10), p.3350.

Kawwass, J.F. and Badell, M.L., 2018. Maternal and fetal risk associated with assisted reproductive technology. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132(3), pp.763-772.

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