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Learning Outcomes Assessed

Introduction - Learning Outcomes Assessed

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Task 1

a) Financial statement analysis

Profit and loss account

Profit and loss statement Saturn Ltd for the year ended 31 March 2022


2022 (£)

Net sales


Cost of sales


Gross margins


Other operating expenses

Administrative expenses


Total operating expenses


Operating income

Dividend receive


Interest receive


Share premium


Revaluation surplus


Total operating income


Net income


Table 1: Profit and loss statement

Profit and loss account is a financial statement which is calculated companies' net earnings in a financial year. The profit and loss statement of Saturn Ltd has computed the total income in the financial year of 2022, which is almost £1340. Total operating expenses which is nearly £6560 while the gross margin is nearly £32939. The selling and administrative expenses are nearly £6560 and the cost of sales is nearly £62561 which is compared by the net sales of Saturn Ltd. Total revenue, as well as total expenses of Saturn Ltd, is calculated by the income statement and net income of the business also calculated by the profit and loss statement. A profit and loss statement summarizes the company's financial records after identifying total revenue and cost (Roška et al. 2019). A profit and loss statement is mandatory to calculate company’s total revenue in a fiscal year. 

Balance sheet

Balance sheet Saturn Ltd for the year ended 31 March 2022


2022 (£)



£ 750

Current assets

Short term investment


Trade receivable


Plant and equipment




Total assets



Trade payable


Taxable charges


Dividend payable




Ordinary share capital


Total liability


Total equity

Revaluation surplus


Retained earning


Loan repayable


Total equity


Total liability and equity


Table 2: Balance sheet

A balance sheet is the financial statement of Saturn Ltd which compares companies' financial performance after identifying total assets and liability. Total assets are almost £2322500, which is calculated by the short-term investment, trade receivable which is nearly £6500, and £26189. Financial statement analysis compares the financial performance of a business after calculating total assets and liabilities. Total liability and equity which is almost £2342675 are calculated by the balance sheet of Saturn Ltd. An economical snapshot of the business organization is calculated after identifying the current assets and liabilities of the business organization (Albanese et al. 2021). Most business organizations prepare financial statements to identify the financial position of a business.

Business investors and owners prepare financial statements to recognize the financial health of the business. Individual financial activities of the organization are calculated by the financial statement analysis. Two important financial statements are mandatory to compare the financial performance of Saturn Ltd. Prot and the loss statement also known as the income statement which calculates the net income of Saturn Ltd which is almost £7900. The operating expenses, as well as the net income of the business, are calculated by the financial performance. Subtracting total cost as well as the total income is easily monitored generated revenue of the business (Huo et al. 2018). The gross profit of the business organization is calculated by the income statements of the business.

b) IASB conceptual framework

Financial performance is prepared or approved by superior methods which are necessary to calculate the financial statements of the business. According to the financial statement, Saturn Ltd compared total assets and liabilities are compared by the financial statements. According to IASB conceptual framework financial performance are necessary to identify companies' financial health. A conceptual framework is a visual representation and develops the relationship among the variables. The fundamental concept of IFRS helps to ensure the financial reporting concept (Kabir and Rahman, 2018). Most business organizations are comparing financial performance by the IFRS standard board which is necessary to establish basic principles of future scope. IASB's conceptual framework states that to meets the definition of assets, liability, or equity.

In order to recognize the financial position of the company, the experiential learning process is important and is to develop the educational design. The major purpose of the IASB framework is to develop future activities which are necessary to review the financial performance of the business. In order to, a review of existing accounting standards ensures consistency across the standard which represents the visualization of activities related to a fiscal year (Van Mourik and Katsuo Asami, 2018). The IASB conceptual framework is composed of basic objectives and fundamental concepts which are necessary to identify the compatibility of business. A visual representation, as well as taxonomy, is included in the conceptual framework of IASB which identifies organizational potential elements by the qualitative characteristics. In order to assumptions about the IASB framework is necessary to underlying financial statements is going concerned.

Current development

The general purpose of the objectives and purpose of the financial reporting is to identify qualitative characteristics which are necessary to identify each reporting entry. The financial performance of the business is compared to the IASB policies which are necessary to recognize numerous elements of financial statements (Alexander et al. 2019). Presentation and disclosure of each financial activity are measured by the IASB policies which are important to achieve sustainable business performance. A conceptual framework of IASB is based on the actual basis which is to measure the units of purchasing power of each unit (Zavadskas et al 2018). There is some basic difference between GAAP and IFRS which is generally accepted by financial practices. There are basic rules of IFRS which is IAS issued international accounting standard board which is develop the relationship between ideas and knowledge. 

There are four important assumptions of financial accounting which is to compare each entry to identify the financial activities of each year. Financial accounting measures each activity of the business and IASB approves IFRS to operate under the oversight of the IFRS Foundation (Masiello et al. 2018). Relevance, reliability, as well as compatibility, is measured by the financial statements, and identifying the qualitative principles undoubtedly meets the objectives.

Task 2


Ratio analysis is financial metric which is important to compare the financial performance of Unilever Plc. There are calculated four types of ratios which are profitability, liquidity, efficiency, and investment ratio to compare the financial performance of Unilever Plc.

Ratio analysis

Profitability ratio

Gross profit margin



Gross Profit

£ 22878

£ 22,040.0

Net Sale

£ 28,684.0

£ 29,102.0

Gross Profit Margin



Net profit margin



Net profit

£ 6026

£ 6,073.0


£ 1240

£ 1300.0

Net profit margin



Table 3: Profitability ratio

Profitability ratio is the accounting ratio of Unilever Plc which is calculated after identifying gross profit and net sales of the business. Gross profit is almost £22878 in 2021 and £22040 in 2020. The gross profit ratio is almost 0.80 and 0.76% in both years of Unilever Plc (Assets.unilever.com, 2022). On the other hand, the net profit ratio is calculated after identifying the net profit and total revenue of the business which is almost 4.98 and 4.67% in both financial years. 

Liquidity ratio

Current ratio



Current Asset

£ 16430

£ 16157

current liabilities

£ 67659

£ 64806

ratio (CA/CL)



Acid test ratio



Current Asset

£ 16430

£ 16157


£ 4956

£ 4746

current liabilities

£ 67659

£ 64806



Table 4: Liquidity ratio

Liquidity ratio measures company’s ability or debt obligations and its margin of safety which is calculated by the liquidity ratio. The current ratio is 0.24 and 0.24% which is calculated by the current assets and current liability of Unilever Plc. The acid test ratio is 0.17 and 0.18% in both financial years.

Efficiency ratio

Inventory turnover ratio



Net Earnings

£ 6,795

£ 6,973

 Shareholders' Equity

£ 15,475

£ 15,266

Return on Equity



Asset turnover ratio



Net sale

£ 28,684.0

£ 29,102.0

Average total asset

£ 67,597

£ 67,659



Table 5: Efficiency ratio

Efficiency ratio indicates the percentage of total expenses and total revenue in a financial year. The efficiency ratio of Unilever Plc is calculated by the inventory turnover and asset turnover ratio which is almost 0.42 and 0.43%.

Investment ratio

 Price earning



Gross Profit

£ 22878

£ 22,040.0

Net Sale

£ 28,684.0

£ 29,102.0




 Earnings per share



Gross Profit

£ 22878

£ 22,040.0

Outstanding shares

£ 22,578.0

£ 23,645.0

Gross Profit Margin



Table 6: Investment ratio

Investment ratio is essential and identifies the relationship between the amount of money and profit which is made by the company. The company's total profitability and revenue are compared by the ratio analysis methods which is necessary to identify the financial health of Unilever Plc.

Conclusion and recommendation

Based on the above discussion it can be concluded that the profitability ratio represents the financial viability of Unilever Plc in various terms. Ratio analysis describes companies' efficiency level which is necessary to discover the financial health of the business. Total profitability which is generated by the company is compared by the ratio analysis methods. Financial ratios are compared to the line terms data of the business after considering the financial statements of Unilever Plc.

Reference list

Albanese, C., Crépey, S., Hoskinson, R. and Saadeddine, B., 2021. XVA analysis from the balance sheet. Quantitative Finance21(1), pp.99-123.

Alexander, D., Fiondella, C., Maffei, M. and Spanò, R., 2019. Reporting comprehensive income: The incoherencies of the IASB system and the possible contribution of Economia Aziendale. Accounting in Europe16(3), pp.340-359.

Huo, T., Ren, H., Zhang, X., Cai, W., Feng, W., Zhou, N. and Wang, X., 2018. China's energy consumption in the building sector: A Statistical Yearbook-Energy Balance Sheet based splitting method. Journal of cleaner production185, pp.665-679.

Kabir, H. and Rahman, A., 2018. How Does the IASB Use the Conceptual Framework in Developing IFRSs? An Examination of the Development of IFRS 16 Leases. Journal of Financial Reporting3(1), pp.93-116.

Masiello, B., Moscariello, N. and Fera, P., 2018. Political marketing strategies to foster the sustainability of private transnational organisations: the case of the IASB. Sustainability10(8), p.2652.

Mostafa, K.G., Montemagno, C. and Qureshi, A.J., 2018. Strength to cost ratio analysis of FDM Nylon 12 3D Printed Parts. Procedia Manufacturing26, pp.753-762.

Roška, V., Kuva?i?, D. and Merkaš, Z., 2019. ANALYSIS OF PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT OF THE LISTED COMPANIES IN CROATIA. EMAN 2019–Economics & Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, p.63.

Subalakshmi, S., Grahalakshmi, S. and Manikandan, M., 2018. Financial Ratio Analysis of SBI [2009-2016]. ICTACT Journal on Management Studies4(01), pp.2395-1664.

Van Mourik, C. and Katsuo Asami, Y., 2018. Articulation, profit or loss and OCI in the IASB conceptual framework: Different shades of clean (or dirty) surplus. Accounting in Europe15(2), pp.167-192.

Zavadskas, E.K., Stevi?, Ž., Tanackov, I. and Prentkovskis, O., 2018. A novel multicriteria approach–rough step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis method (R-SWARA) and its application in logistics. Studies in Informatics and Control27(1), pp.97-106.16

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