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Obesity In Children And Adolescents: Prevention Strategies Assignment Sample


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Aims: In this research paper, childhood obesity needs to analyse understanding the UK population. Apart from this, proper healthcare recommendations are needed for those children and adolescents. 

Background: Childhood obesity is a very common issue in UK. Obesity increases the weight of young people; due to this reason, different types of diseases can be found in their body. Due to this reason, they need to follow some unrestricted guidelines to make a reliable environment. Additionally, healthcare recommendations or consultations are also important for them. Based on this case, a research paper is being created. 

Perspectives and methodology: This research paper is based on a secondary quantitative method, which brings accurate results and makes a clear structure in readers' minds. Quantifying data from secondary sources have been gathered in this study and RCTs have been used for examining collected data.

Method: Here, literature review is being conducted with the help of keywords. The PICO framework is used here to enhance the keyword strategy. Boolean operators are incorporated in PICO framework.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that this obesity in children and adolescents can increase their physical diseases. Due to this reason, proper health recommendations are needed for them to enhance physical ability. To maintain these research procedures, researchers need to cover primary methods, PICO framework, and other strategies to complete a successful research project.

Introduction - Obesity In Children And Adolescents: Prevention Strategies

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Obesity among children and adolescents has been seen from several years, which has become a major issue in the future. This paper aims to identify the status of the number of children and adolescents in the UK suffering from obesity and associated disorders. Reason for such disorders and the result will be identified in this paper. Different methodologies will be analysed to identify a proper method to collect data associated with the identification of a few prevention strategies that help to reduce or present obesity and other associated disorders. Budget required preparing this paper in an efficient way, whichwill be presented as well. 

The topic of obesity among children and adolescents who live in the UK is becoming an important matter for the citizens of the UK. This is because many children are suffering from this disorder, which makes negative impacts on the health of children and adolescents. Moreover, it is identified that the UK has one of the highest rates of obesity in children and adolescents (BUPA, 2021). Obesity in children occurs during the increase of weight and they have too much fat in their body (Brown et al. 2019). In this situation, children and adolescents need a healthy as well balanced diet to reduce fat from the body.


Figure 1: Children and young people harm by obesity

(Source: Public Health England, 2020)

Many research studies and newspapers show that the UK is one of the most affected countries by obesity and maximum children in the UK are suffering from this disorder. This figure represents that obesity harms children and young people in different ways such as emotionally and behaviourally, low self-esteem, bullying, stigmatisation, increased risks for becoming overweight, and many others (Public Health England, 2020). Therefore, it can be stated that obesity majorly affects the health mentality of children and adolescents. The report from The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) shows that the rate of obesity in the UK increases by 4.5% between 2019-2020 and 2020-2021. Moreover, it is identified that during lockdown outbreaks of coronavirus, obesity among children increases at a high range.

As per PICO, there are four components; such as Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes. All these factors are discussed below:


Figure 2: Population of the United Kingdom

(Source: WORLDOMETER, 2021)

Based on the research, it is stated that the total population of the UK stands for 67886011 people in the year 2020 (WORLDOMETER, 2021). Moreover, it is identified that around 14.4 million children and adolescents are suffering from obesity. Due to this reason, it can be stated that there is a need to identify causes of such disorder and the strategies to prevent it.

Figure 3: Number of obese people

(Source:UK PARLIAMENT, 2021)

Among the total population, around 6.7% of children and adolescents aged 4-5 years suffer from obesity. Around 99 children aged 4-5 years are suffering from obesity, 131 are suffering from overweight disorder while on the other hand, 10 to 11 year aged children also suffer from such disorders. Around 210 children and 141 children suffer from obesity and overweight disorders. Therefore, it can be stated that obesity and overweight disorders are mostly found in the children of the UK. Due to this reason, there is a need to identify strategies by which this can be mitigated.


A panel of numerous experts such as USPSTF, the Guideline, the Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and many others provide a guideline for losing weight. There is a need to maintain a balanced diet or low-calorie diet with the composition of macronutrients, aerobic physical activity for around 150 minutes per week, structured curriculum including set of goals, solving problems, monitoring weight on a weekly basis, and seeking regular feedback from the trained interventionist (Wadden, Tronieri and Butryn, 2020). Through this discussion, it can be stated that through these strategies, obesity and overweight disorders can be prevented.


Unrestricted lifestyle is the primary reason for such disorders regarding obesity and overweight. According to the research study of Hamer et al. (2020), smoking, physical inactivity, and consumption of alcohol are considered unrestricted lifestyles for adult people. On the other hand, eating junk food and physical inactivity are the reasons for obesity and overweight disorders. On the other hand, the research study of Chatterjee, Gerdes and Martinez (2020) represents that behavioural risks regarding inactivity in physics, improper diet and unhealthy habits can lead to the reason for obesity and overweight disorders. Therefore, it can be stated unrestricted lifestyle can lead to an overweight or obesity disorder.


The research study of Liu et al. (2017) represents that obesity and associated metabolic disorders increase among children and adolescents. The unrestricted lifestyle of children is the primary reason for these disorders. Due to this reason, it can be stated that there is a need to maintain physical activity, healthy habits, and a balanced diet. 

Research Question and Aims

Review aim

To prevent obesity from children and adolescents by maintaining healthy lifestyle 


  • To evaluate the reason for increasing obesity among children and adolescents
  • To determine a prevention strategy to mitigate this obesity issue from the UK
  • To understand the effect of obesity on UK population
  • To recommend modified healthcare strategies for children and adolescents

Obesity among children and adolescents

Obesity can be characterised as an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue resulted in chronic multifactorial disease. According to Larquéet al. (2019), the basic obesity can come from the maternal lifestyle. Proper food habits, physically active and mental strength helps to manage the health of a newborn baby. Apart from this, obesity in children and adolescents is now common issue in UK that is affecting all young people. Lack of healthy food habits, indoor games, excess food consumption and many more things are the reasons for those people to gain weight. It can be said that being overweight can cause different types of diseases. In this way, many young people are getting affected due to obesity issues. Based on these authors’ statements, childhood obesity is determining a different kind of disease that is creating barriers in their daily life. Due to this reason, healthy life is needed for them and maintains healthcare strategies to prevent this issue.

Perspective and Methodology

Research philosophy

Philosophy of research helps to develop a few assumptions and beliefs that helps to develop knowledge (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). With the help of an appropriate philosophy, this paper can develop knowledge regarding the causes of obesity or overweight disorder among children and adolescents. Different research philosophies include pragmatism, positivism, realism, and interpretivism. This paper selects positivism philosophy as it helps in delivering reliability to research based on quantitative approach.

Hence, it is helpful in analysing the effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing obesity disorder. On the other hand, interpretivism is not appropriate for this paper, as it work on qualitative approach, thus it is not effective for analysing quantifying data collected from secondary resources in systematic review. 

Research approaches

Different research designs are included in methods such as deductive, abductive, and inductive. Deductive approach is selected by this paper as it allows existing theory and develops questions based on such theories. With the help of a deductive approach, this paper will be able to collect data regarding modification strategies of lifestyle for presenting obesity disorder among children of the UK. On the other hand, an inductive approach requires development of new theories, which is not possible for this study due to insufficient time. Abductive is also an inappropriate method for this study as it comes up in conclusion within available evidence.

Research design

Explanatory, exploratory, and descriptive are the different designs of a research that helps to prepare an effective research study. Descriptive design of a research helps to analyse non-quantified issues and can integrate both qualitative and quantitative data collection (Surbhi, 2017). Therefore, it can be stated that this design can help in understanding appropriate reasons for increasing obesity among adolescent and children and its prevention strategies can be determined. The identification of such strategies like choosing healthier foods, increasing physical activities, avoiding unhealthy foods will be helpful in reducing the percentage of people suffering from obesity and being overweight. On the other hand, exploratory research design cannot be used for this study as it is a design used for quantitative research. In order to do systematic review this study will focus on quantifying data presented in different secondary resources and use Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) to understand the effectiveness of the obesity prevention strategies.

Data collection method

There are two different methods to collect data for a research paper, such as Qualitative and Quantitative (Archibald et al. 2019). Qualitative methods include both primary and secondary methods for the collection of data. Secondary methods for collection of data include different journals, articles, newspapers, and books as well. These are the primary sources of collecting data regarding a few factors of this research topic such as strategies of lifestyle modification, causes of obesity among children and adolescents, comparison with unrestricted life, and so on.

On the other hand, quantitative methods for collection of data require conduction of surveys, which might not be possible for this paper because of the pandemic situation. In addition to this, the response from survey questionnaires might not be adequate and mislead the decision of this paper. Due to this reason, this study conducts secondary quantitative research for collecting data associated with identification of strategies to mitigate the proportion of children suffering from obesity disorder.

Data analysis technique

There are different types of techniques that help to analyse the collected data for effectively preparing this paper. In this regard, this paper uses thematic analysis for analysing data collected by this paper. Thematic analysis is an effective technique in which a research study becomes able to identify the appropriateness of data through different academic resources. Thematic analysis helps to gain familiarity with the data, facilitate independent analysis, and helps to examine the perspectives of different research studies (Scharp and Sanders, 2019). Therefore, it can be stated that through thematic analysis, this paper will be able to identify and analyse different perspectives of research papers regarding causes of obesity in the UK children and adolescents as well as effectiveness of life modification strategy will be identified by this paper. In addition to this, a paper that helps to present problems, causes, and strategies regarding children obesity in a systematic way also implements systematic review. Through this analysis, it can be stated that thematic analysis and systematic review are the essential and most effective techniques for this research paper.

Ethical consideration

Ethical consideration refers to a set of principles that guide design and practises of research study. Maintaining ethics in a research paper is an essential factor for the appropriateness of study. This paper ensures that all the data are collected for this paper are confidential. Moreover, this paper assures that this study is conducted by maintaining a few ethical codes. The knowledge and ideas used for the competition of this paper are not used for commercialisation. This paper maintains a data protection act for the year 2018 during collection of data. According to the data protection act, collected data is fair, lawful, and transparent (THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UK, 2018). Therefore, it can be stated that all the data associated with the identification of life modification strategies that help to mitigate obesity disorder among children are fair, lawful, and transparent as well.

Reliability and validity

This paper collects information from the journal articles that were published in the last five years. Through this way, this paper attempts to maintain validity of the research paper. In addition to this, authentication of this paper is maintained by development of authors’ reliability.


This paper has a few limitations regarding collection of data and authenticity of data as well. This paper identifies that information regarding obesity among children, adolescents are limited, and due to this reason, this study has issues regarding interpretation of authentic data. In addition to this, the research paper does not have sufficient time and budget for completing this study. Therefore, it can be stated that this paper can face issues with the authenticity of paper. In addition to this, this paper does not obtain theories regarding obesity of children and adolescents. Therefore, it can be stated that this paper faces limitations regarding collection of sufficient theories.

Methods: Literature Search Strategy

Childhood obesity is a major issue that can be found in UK. Apart from this, different data and information are collected from healthcare organisations. This research topic is going to evaluate by using RCT, proper studies based on the English language, and many relevant things are included. Here, proper healthcare strategies information is going to collect through the primary research method. All literature parts are going to discuss by maintaining the primary research method. Based on Gray, (2021) statement, a proper data collection method is important for any research to collect accurate results. On other hand, with the help of the PICO framework, Boolean operators are used to discussing the keywords of child and adolescent obesity.

Based on Araujo et al. (2020) statement, PICO framework is helping to measure keywords to enhance the quality factor of specific research sessions. PICO stands for population, intervention, comparative intervention, and outcome. These components are helping to focus on key targets that are incorporated in this research session. Boolean operators are used to understanding individual demonstrations. Here, ‘AND’ operator is helping to find out different research key terms that are relevant to childhood obesity. Usually, AND terms are used to manage individual terms are situated in the heading session. On other hand, ‘OR’ is used to find out relevant synonyms; these terms are conducted in the bottom section. This research will be made in the English language, so that everybody can read this research paper and understand the actual situation based on this research topic.

PICO framework





Column phrase combined with

Children and adolescents in UK


Lifestyle modification strategies


Unrestricted lifestyle


Obesity and associated disorders






1. Childhood obesity in UK

2. Healthcare strategy for children and adolescents*

3. Lifestyle maintenance for mitigating obesity in UK*

4. 2 OR 3

5. Healthcare routine*

6. Food habit maintenance for children and adolescents*

7. 5 OR 6

8. Reason to increase obesity in UK*

9. Relevant diseases that occur for obesity*

10. 8 OR 9

Table 1: PICO framework

Inclusion and exclusion

In this literature search strategy, different key factors are needed to maintain representing the new research statements. In this section, some rules and guides are incorporated that help to enhance the quality of research. Here, inclusion and exclusion criteria are included that create the easiest way to differentiate each term regarding the obesity issue. Additionally, duplicity factors are being avoided to maintain authenticity. According to Mapeset al. (2020), some crucial terms are needed to manage to progress the research study. Based on this case, obesity relevant things are needed to include. On other hand, irrelevant research factors are needed to exclude. In this way, proper research guidelines can be maintained. 

In the PICO framework, different keywords have been used to understand the key factor of this research study. Children and adolescent obesity are effectively decreasing the healthy lifestyle of young people. Due to this reason, proper healthcare strategies are needed to maintain irregular lifestyles. While this research study is progressing, primary qualitative research is needed to follow to collect several data and information to demonstrate comparative discussion. As a result, the secondary data collection method will be excluded as that is not enough for this research study. However, medical aspects of healthcare research need primary qualitative data to know the current situation. Due to this reason, primary qualitative is used to discuss briefly children and adolescent obesity in the UK.

Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria


Children and adolescents of UK are included

Olders and adults are excluded.

Population rather than UK are excluded in this study.


Healthy food habits, physically active, healthcare management strategy, proper sleep-cycle strategy are included.

The medication system will not be allowed for children and adolescents in UK.

Comparative interventions

Unrestricted habits, such as watching TV, playing video games, being physically active and other unrestricted habits are needed to consume.

Strict food habits, medication and other relevant restricted rules will be excluded


Weight-inclusive strategy, a biased system for children, healthy sleep routine, physically active and other positive outcomes can get.

Unhealthy food consumption, excessive indoor games, and many more things are excluded.

Types of studies

? The study language will be English to understand

? RCT must be include

? The primary data collection method is used

? Avoid secondary method

? Cohort

? Review documents and case studies

Table 2: Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Screening process

It is also important to avoid unusual facts that researchers can include in their research study. Apart from this, an ineffective process, adequate information inclusion and other appropriate factors are needed to incorporate to manage this research study. In this section, only eligible inclusion terms can be included.

Methods: Quality Assessment

From this research study, a proper quality research paper is needed to understand obesity in children and adolescents. In this section, all researchers need to manage their responsibilities to maintain their performance. However, from this PICO framework, they have to collect more data and information by using keywords. On other hand, different types of synonyms need to gather to evaluate this research topic for better results. Based on this fact, proper observation, quality performance, accurate results, collaboration and many essential tasks are needed to maintain achieve goals. Quality assessment is helping to analyse each task of researchers; regarding this case, they are maintaining their performance. Additionally, primary data collection is very effective for children and adolescent obesity due to getting directly outcomes. In this way, all sectional parts, consistency, transparency, reporting and detection can be managed.

Here, Fox et al. (2020) explained that a research study could get accurate by maintaining its reliability and validity. These components are managing the accuracy and maintaining all measurements of data, so that readers can get reliable results regarding children and adolescent obesity in the UK. Based on this fact, all outcomes or results must be accurate by maintaining reliability and validity. To make this research study, researchers need to enhance the competencies to create a biased report based on obesity. Psychometric properties are needed to manage for children and adolescents due to using primary method. Here, all young people are included in the research session, so that researchers can get information regarding their daily life. Proper recommendations can take with the help of health organisations. In this way, the quality assessment program will complete successfully.

Additionally, proper methodological components are needed to be utilised to increase this research study. According to Pandey, and Pandey, (2021), all responsibilities are needed to maintain while researchers are using the primary data collection method. In this way, they can enhance their performance and they can get accurate and direct results from participants. Psychological facts, daily routines, spelling routines, recommendations of health experts and many more things can get to know with the help of primary qualitative method. Here, different types of questions will be asked to gather knowledge and information regarding obesity in UK population. Apart from this, all inclusion terms must be maintained to enhance the quality of performance. On other hand, all exclusion parts are needed to avoid achieving positive outcomes based on this research topic. In this way, this research topic can be accurate and have fewer conflicts.

Data extraction tool

According to Gokhaleet al. (2020), a data extraction tool is used for research design, where the interview process, questionnaires, and other research procedures are included. Based on this fact, data extraction tool provide the ability to maintain all research data and help to normalise it. This tool helps to provide better facilities for a research study. Apart from this, study period, research eligibility, outcome measurements, and other relevant things are incorporated in this tool. It is a complex process, where research inclusion, exclusion, potentiality, database size, variables, and many more things are included. In this way, a data extraction tool can manage all terms.

Data enhancement patterns can relate to this tool; here, all essential parts of research, data collection methods, resources, and other research functions are involved. Each part of the research is helping to evolve several data and information. In this way, data extraction tool is enhancing the accurate data and information from the research source. In this way, this tool is maintaining its significance. Adequate skills and knowledge is required to grasp the ability of research study. Here, general information, participation review, interview, questionnaires, and other data are analysed to understand the literature regarding obesity in children and adolescents. Moreover, sample size, age, gender, and other characteristics of participants are included to represent the accuracy of this research topic.

Under the intervention, all types of variables and comparative interventions are indicating personal and professional background of participants. With the help of the PICO framework, population, intervention, co-intervention, and outcomes of this research topic can be evaluated. These four components are helping to extract data. In the outcome section, researchers can measure the primary techniques, statistical process, data assessment, positive and negative outcomes measurement. These factors effectively increase the value of this data extraction tool. Based on Raubenheimer, (2021) statement, data extraction tool is effectively managing the data-caching problems. Multiple variables can be aggregated to avoid the error. This tool is working logically and physically while it includes in the research session.

Figure 4: PRISMA model


It is estimated that the time required to complete this research paper is around the sixth week.

Estimated started date: 2/1/2022

Estimated end date: 20/4/2022

Start and End date









Identification of research title

Collection of appropriate resources

Interpretation of data

Identification of limitation

Analysis of approaches

Selection of designs

Interpretation of data collection method

Identification ethics

Identification of method limitation

Table 3: Timetable

Budget and likely funding sources

The required budget for preparing and completing this paper is presented below:


Amount ($)

Identification of research title


Collection of appropriate resources


Interpretation of data


Identification of limitation


Analysis of approaches


Selection of designs


Interpretation of data collection method


Identification ethics


Identification of method limitation


Total Cost


Table 4: Determination of budget

This table represents around $16890 will be required to complete this project in an effective way as per the expectations. Different sources of funding are collected from Glasgow Caledonian University and this paper collects the remaining budget.

Dissemination of result

Dissemination result is denoting the interest of participants; they are able to provide accurate answers regarding childhood obesity. Apart from this, it is clear that this research study is needed to be more accurate by applying more questions. Those questions must be asked to health workers, children, adolescents, and their families. In this way, researchers can get their answers and maintain the research program to achieve goals. All findings need to be re-analyse to avoid errors. On other hand, they have to include some peer review, journals, and other case studies to know the previous situation in UK.

Reference list


Gray, D.E., 2021. Doing research in the real world.Sage.


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Archibald, M.M., Ambagtsheer, R.C., Casey, M.G. and Lawless, M., 2019. Using zoom videoconferencing for qualitative data collection: perceptions and experiences of researchers and participants. International Journal of Qualitative Methods18, p.1609406919874596.

Brown, T., Moore, T.H., Hooper, L., Gao, Y., Zayegh, A., Ijaz, S., Elwenspoek, M., Foxen, S.C., Magee, L., O'Malley, C. and Waters, E., 2019. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (7).

Chatterjee, A., Gerdes, M.W. and Martinez, S.G., 2020. Identification of risk factors associated with obesity and overweight—A machine learning overview. Sensors20(9), p.2734.

Fox, K.R., Harris, J.A., Wang, S.B., Millner, A.J., Deming, C.A. and Nock, M.K., 2020. Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview—Revised: Development, reliability, and validity. Psychological assessment32(7), p.677.

Gokhale, K.M., Chandan, J.S., Toulis, K., Gkoutos, G., Tino, P. and Nirantharakumar, K., 2021. Data extraction for epidemiological research (DExtER): a novel tool for automated clinical epidemiology studies. European journal of epidemiology36(2), pp.165-178.

Hamer, M., Kivimäki, M., Gale, C.R. and Batty, G.D., 2020.Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK. Brain, behavior, and immunity87, pp.184-187.

Larqué, E., Labayen, I., Flodmark, C.E., Lissau, I., Czernin, S., Moreno, L.A., Pietrobelli, A. and Widhalm, K., 2019. From conception to infancy—early risk factors for childhood obesity. Nature Reviews Endocrinology15(8), pp.456-478.

Liu, P.J., Ma, F., Lou, H.P. and Zhu, Y.N., 2017. Normal-weight central obesity is associated with metabolic disorders in Chinese postmenopausal women. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition26(4), pp.692-697.

Mapes, B.M., Foster, C.S., Kusnoor, S.V., Epelbaum, M.I., AuYoung, M., Jenkins, G., Lopez-Class, M., Richardson-Heron, D., Elmi, A., Surkan, K. and Cronin, R.M., 2020. Diversity and inclusion for the All of Us research program: A scoping review. PloS one15(7), p.e0234962.

Melnikovas, A., 2018. Towards an explicit research methodology: Adapting research onion model for futures studies. Journal of Futures Studies23(2), pp.29-44.

Pandey, P. and Pandey, M.M., 2021. Research Methodology Tools and Techniques.

Raubenheimer, J.E., 2021. Google Trends Extraction Tool for Google Trends Extended for Health data. Software Impacts8, p.100060.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P.H.I.L.I.P. and Thornhill, A.D.R.I.A.N., 2007.Research methods. Business Students 4th edition Pearson Education Limited, England.

Scharp, K.M. and Sanders, M.L., 2019. What is a theme? Teaching thematic analysis in qualitative communication research methods. Communication Teacher33(2), pp.117-121.

Wadden, T.A., Tronieri, J.S. and Butryn, M.L., 2020. Lifestyle modification approaches for the treatment of obesity in adults. American Psychologist75(2), p.235.


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Surbhi, S., 2017.Exploratory and descriptive design [online]. Key differences. [Viewed 16 December 2021] Available from: https://keydifferences.com/difference-between-exploratory-and-descriptive-research.html

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