Impact of Porosity on Composite Material Properties
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Introduction
The assignment is done to evaluate the porosity of a composite model with the use of 3D inversion techniques. The model is built using the ANSYS software and the effect of pores on the composite body is being evaluated with the help of inverse techniques of MATLAB. The thickness of the model is varied according to the requirement of the model. Different scenarios are used to evaluate the effect on the solid body. The pores are also introduced in the later part of research in the layer of epoxy of the composite structure. The structure is kept submerged in water and a transducer is also introduced in the water to provide electrical impulses of a certain frequency the composite structure is made to resonate on the frequency to evaluate several state properties of the compost structure such as transmission, reflection and absorption.
Discussion
Analysis
The composite model is being modelled in MATLAB software, and the one-ply model is being kept in water with a transducer. The transducer applies electrical frequency in the water, and the evaluation of the material is done with the inclusion of pores in the model. The thickness of the model is varied with the increase in the number of plies. The one-ply model is being kept in the model first, the thickness of the carbon fiber is 0.125 mm. And that of epoxy is 0.001 which is not accountable in this case. The resonance is achieved when the natural impedance of the composite body matches the frequency of the transducer. The porosity of the material is being evaluated with the evaluation of the absorption, transmission, and reflection curves, of the one-ply and the 3-ply model when the pore is introduced in the epoxy layer. The evaluation of the curves is being done in MATLAB software. The frequency that is being applied by the transducer on the model through the water is 3MHz when the model is submerged in the water.
The body is first made of 1 ply and no pore is introduced in the layers of the body then the body is submerged and the influence of the transducer is observed on the body when a certain frequency impulse is applied on the structure when the structure is submerged in water. The curve of the absorption, reflection and transmission are being obtained which explains the effects of the presence of pores on the body and the state properties of the body.
Figure 1: Transmission Results
The curve of transmission of the model with 1 ply and no pores is generated in the MATLAB software. The dip around the frequency of 3.5 MHz, which indicates the attenuation of the wave that is incident on the model when the model is dipped in the water and a transducer is being provided in the water to apply a wave of impulse. The value of the coefficient of transmission reaches the maximum value when the frequency reaches the maximum frequency and after the frequency again rises which indicates the transition from high attenuation to the region of low attenuation region.
Figure 2: Reflection curve
The curve of reflection is obtained from the MATLAB software and the analysis of the body that is made of 1 ply and no pore is being made submerged in water along with a transducer which executes a particular frequency of electrical impulse in the system. The frequency of the wave that is being generated from the system is analysed to evaluate the reflection of the system in the submerged system. The sharp peak around the frequency of 3.5 MHz, is obtained and it signifies the resonant frequency of the composite model. The mismatch of impedance of the model and the surrounding medium has caused for this rise of the peak in the curve. The coefficient of reflection at this particular frequency is very close to 1, which indicates a strong reflection of the incident wave.
Figure 3: Absorption Results
The absorption coefficient of the model which is made of 1 play and has no pore in it is gets a peak around the resonant frequency. The model is made of 1 ply and the model is being submerged in water and a transducer is being introduced in the body which provides an incident impulse and the resonance of the body is identified to achieve the coefficient of absorption. The peak of the model that is obtained at the resonant frequency denotes that maximum energy is being dissipated at the resonant frequency by the composite model when an impulse is being applied to the model of the body that is being kept submerged. The coefficient of absorption of the model is close to zero at low and high frequencies which indicates that the energy dissipated is low at these particular frequencies.
After that, the body is made thick with the help of 3 plies but no pores are introduced in the body. The effect of the incident impulse on the state properties of the body with 3 plies are evaluated with the help of the graphs that are being obtained from MATLAB. The change of the curves of transmission, absorption and reflection of the 3 ply no pore model is evaluated and the difference of the curves also evaluates the effect of the thickness of the model on the changes that are being inflicted by the effect of incident impulse on the state properties of the model.
Figure 4: Transmission Results
The number of peaks notes are more because of the increase of the number of plies, the plot is used to evaluate the energy transmission of the system in the model which is made of 3 plies and is submerged in water with a transducer introduced in the water which applies incident impulse on the model.
Figure 5: Absorption Results
The curve is used to represent the absorption of energy in a model that is made of 3 plies and is submerged in water. The absorption is not changed by the number of plies in the system which denotes that the absorption is still close to zero in the low and high frequencies and this denotes that the absorption of energy by the body is low.
The curve evaluates the reflection of energy in the body that is made of 3 ply and has no pore in it. The curve shows 9 peaks in the curve and the peak is obtained at resonant frequencies where the impedance of the model matches the impedance of the surrounding medium.
The curve obtained represents the transmission of the frequency of the wave in resonance with the 1ply model. The model is kept in water and the transducer is used to apply the frequency of 3MHZ. The fading of the waves represents the effect of the incident impulse on the 1-ply model when a pore is introduced in the epoxy layer of the body. The fading of the frequency occurs because of the pore that is introduced and therefore it is evaluated that the presence of pore in the composite body affects the structural performance of the body. The transmission is low in the figure which represents that fewer transmissions are brought down due to the effect of the pores which are introduced using the Waterman technique. The bubble is air-filled and the specifications are used while the induction of the bubble is in the 1-ply epoxy model.
The above figure is the curve of absorption of the 1-ply model when the model is submerged in water and a transducer is placed in the submerged model providing a frequency of 3MHz in water. The model has pores that are introduced in the epoxy layer and the PSO method is used to evaluate the effect of the pores in the absorption of the composite model, to evaluate the attenuation of the frequency because of the pores. Pores in a composite body can also absorb energy from incident waves, leading to attenuation or absorption of the transmitted waves. The absorption of waves by pores depends on the material properties of the pores, such as their dielectric or acoustic properties, as well as the frequency or wavelength of the incident waves. Pores with higher absorption properties or resonant frequencies that match the incident waves can result in increased attenuation or absorption of the transmitted waves. The absorption stated in the figure is high which refers that more absorption is due to the presence of pores in the epoxy layer of the 1-ply model and the rise of absorption indicates the attenuation of the frequency generated.
Pores in a composite body can scatter and reflect incident waves, causing changes in the direction, intensity, or phase of the transmitted waves. The scattering and reflection of waves by pores depend on the size and shape of the pores relative to the wavelength of the incident waves. Pores that are larger or comparable in size to the wavelength of the incident waves are more likely to cause significant scattering and reflection, resulting in reduced transmission through the composite body. The attenuation of the emitted frequency curve of transmission is because of the pores which are being introduced in the epoxy layer. The curve obtained states high reflection which causes a decrease in transmission of the body when kept in the submerged system with a transducer. After the 1ply model is analysed by keeping in a submerged water system with a transducer in it, providing an incidence impedance of 3MHz, the thickness of the model is increased with the number of plies. The curves obtained in this section are discrete since the number of plies used in this model is 3, and the number of peaks is 9.
The transmission is less when the curve on the transmission is obtained from the MATLAB software. The curve of transmission shows attenuation or damping of the frequency impedance that is generated from the 3-ply model when an incident impulse is being applied by the transducer in the submerged system in water. The number of layers used in making the model damps the generated frequency by the body which is evaluated in the MATLAB software.
The curve of absorption of the composite structure is showing high absorption there are a number of peaks as each of the plies generates 3 peaks. The high absorption leads to high attenuation of the frequency that is generated and obtained. The absorption is high in the curve that is being generated in MATLAB, and the absorption is pores than in the case of 1 ply and no pores in them.
The curve of the reflection of the 3-ply and porous composite structure is built using MATLAB. The codes are used to evaluate the effect of the pore that is being filled with air and is being introduced in the epoxy layer of the composite structure. The reflection is increased because of the presence of pores. The pores are not repetitive and do not overlap. The reflection is increased which refers that the curve of frequency is attenuated because of the presence of the pores. The reflection of the structure is obtained with MATLAB where the curves are used to denote the effect of pores on the composite structure.
Simulation
The composite structures depend on the design and the quality of their structure. The presence of pores can have several adverse effects on the solid body with respect to transmission, absorption and reflection. MATLAB is used to analytically analyse the pore radius, the thickness, porosity and pore radius are being evaluated with the help of techniques to optimize the structure. The technique used in PSO can be expanded as Particle Swamp Optimization. The PSO is a technique where the optimal values of the particular values are obtained with experiments done on the system (Yang et al. 2022). The optimization is being done in this case with the help of PSO strategies in the software of MATLAB. PSO is one of the most powerful algorithms for the evaluation of essential parameters that can be obtained from the composite structure. The structure is made of an epoxy layer, a composite layer and a layer of composite fibers.
The epoxy layer is introduced with air pores and then the structure is evaluated and the effect of the electric transmissions are evaluated. With the help of the PSO, the conditions of the body are simulated and the parameters are obtained. The values of obtained values are presented in the form of a table. The parameters such as the thickness of the material, the thickness of each layer, the radius of the pore and the density of the pore that is being introduced in the epoxy layer are being evaluated (Zheng et al. 2023). The model of PSO is done on a 3D model of the body and therefore it is one of the techniques of 3D inversion techniques which is used in Matlab to evaluate values of essential parameters and then information on several conditions are being fed in Matlab and with the help of that conditions are being run on the model to evaluate the parameters in MATLAB. The parameters that are being fed in MATLAB regarding the 3D modelling and PSO evaluation of the model are the number of dimensions of the model, and the ranges of the conditions which include the lower bound values and the upper bound values which evaluate the essential parameters of the model.
The parameters of the algorithm of the PSO evaluation of the body that is essential for the completion of the problem are the number of pores in the epoxy layer, the maximum number of iterations, the inertia of each of the pores, the cognition of the pore, and the influence of the pore on the composite structure. It is stated that the pores that are introduced in the epoxy layer are not repetitive and are not overlapping. The inertia of the pores is negligible since the pores are being filled with air and the influence of the pore on the composite structure is obtained using the algorithms where it is observed that the presence of pores affects some material properties of the body (Zhang et al. 2023). The properties of the composite structure that are being affected by the presence of pores in the epoxy layer of the structure are the transmission of the body, a reflection of the body and the absorption of the body which are obtained in the form of curves and the coefficients of reflection, absorption, and transmission. The frequency that is being applied on the body is from 0to20MHz, which is being applied on the body to evaluate the effect of the electric impulse of a particular frequency on the porous body whose thickness is varied with the help of adding layers. The thickness of the layers that are obtained is provided in the form of a table.
Longitudinal Velocity
Sheer Velocity
Density
Attenuation
Thickness
Composite
2959
1870
1522
0
125
Epoxy resin
2903
1319
1270
0.15
10
Table 1: Parameters of the thickness of the composite structure
The simulation of the conditions of the body is being done to evaluate the essential parameter of the body when the body is being submerged in water and is evaluated with the help of strategies of PSO. Since the pores are filled with air the properties of air are also required to be kept in mind. The density of air is 1.29 gm per liter and this figure is not required of the effect of air in the system. The data are being taken which is used to simulate the model of the composite model with non-repetitive and non-overlapping pores are being fed in the system which is used to simulate the model using PSO strategies where a number of operations are being performed on the model to evaluate the essential parameters of the system. The system is made independently and imported in MATLAB and then analysed for the values of parameters such as the density of the pore, and the radius of the pore. The mapping of the pore is done with the help of MATLAB codes and inversion strategies of the 3D body. Such a technique which can be used to evaluate the parameter is PSO, where the solid body is accepted and then the solid body is analysed for the effect of porosity in the epoxy layer of the composite structure. The thickness, porosity and pore radius of the system is being evaluated using the inverse technique of SMO and the values are stated in the form of a table.
Thickness
Porosity
Pore Radius
130 units
23%
0.236 units
Table 2: Table of Results
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Conclusion
The assignment is done to evaluate the effect of porosity on the composite model. The model is made of plies and the number of plies are being varied in each step for the evaluation of the porosity in the state properties of the model. The model is submerged in the water and the transducer is immersed to evaluate the porosity and to map pores in the composite model. The effect of energy on the properties such as transmission, reflection and absorption are evaluated in the assignment. The simulation is being done with the help of inverse optimization techniques such as SMO which is used to evaluate the value of certain essential parameters of the model.
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