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Chemical Reaction And Inherent Safety Design

Imtroduction-Chemical Reaction And Inherent Safety Design

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Part 1

Question 1

Isomerization is a process of chemical change where molecularity of the samples becomes same but structure, properties and characterization are different. Isomerization in the field of organic chemistry suggests producing huge quantity of components having same molecular formula but gaining different components. Chemicals are used in several essential industries related to gas, glass, textile, dye and others. In this case, isomerization of n-butane has been discussed in this report to its core. The catalytic isomerization related to the n-butane to isobutane is an essential reaction for enhancing the isobutene demand in the process of synthetic rubber production as well as in “alkylation of isoparaffin”. In the context of the chemical application, the study of building blocks of matter as well as molecules in chemistry is an important fundamental to human life. For instance, in the metallic industries, the chemicals are used for the processing of food products and for preservation. Apart from that, chemicals are used for color to increase the appeal of different metallic products. In this dimension, the flavoring agent, Esters are the essential chemical molecules that are created when carboxylic acid as well as alcohol gets combined chemically. Olefin chemistry justifies this type of isomerization because chain components are converted to different molecular structured products to feed the huge organics field of chemistry.

Question 2

In n-butane isomerization, reaction pathway is associated with the successive phases of the level of molecules that mainly take place in the process of chemical reaction. In addition, molecular bonds are created or these are broken in each step of the reaction process. The chemical reagent refers to a substance that is applied to detect in the process of chemical reaction, measuring as well as examining some other substances (Ahmad, 2017). Exothermic reaction is associated with the essential process of energy releasing in the form of light or in the form of heat. Isomerization of n-butane to isobutene follows the trend of exothermic and this is why energy release is an essential criterion in this case. Catalysis, olefin and acid medium, are involved with energy efficient as well as environment friendly industries. The reaction path has been described by taking acid catalysts to produce carbonium ion and then conjugation reaction. At first, n-butane has been taken in the olefin catalyst medium to produce butane. Then, butane has been acidified to produce carbonium ion and then hydrogenation takes place in the isomerization process. In this dimension, catalysis assists in enabling the process of chemical reaction to take place in a very low temperature by resisting the formation of all the harmful wastages with high stability and high selectivity catalyst materials. The reactions are provided to understand the equation of the reaction properly.

These are the stepwise processes to prepare isobutene from n-butane. Isomerization process has been described by considering reagents, catalysts, products and byproducts in the above equations.

Question 3

Conventional reactors are involved with identifying the issues related to “moderating heat generation” through fuel feed distribution or by applying different types of heat exchangers. In this dimension, USAB technology is a crucial technology that is applied in crucial fundamentals related to treating the wastewater because of the less requirement and waste of energy (Grigore, 2017). The main advantage of this conventional reactor technology is that it assists potentiality to industries in creating energy rather than considering the consumption of huge amounts of water by treating the problem of wastewater effectively. Thermodynamics involved in this case has been depicted in the below figure. The plot justified the reversibility of the reaction (meet point) with assistance of adequate reaction potential.

Question 4

In the context of n-butane isomerization, a chemical reaction is related to the enclosed volume where the chemical reaction process occurs. In the context of chemical engineering, it can be said that the process vessel is applied for conducting the process of a chemical reaction that is an effective unit operation in the process of chemical analysis of n-butane to isobutane. The chemical reactor design associated with the multifunction of chemical engineering (Moreau, 2018). Separation of the major product and byproducts has been carried forward by maintain the conditions of the reaction regarding temperature, pressure, catalyst use, etc. In this aspect, reaction process is required to proceed with greater efficiency for the desired result of the product as well as in producing greater yield. It helps to reduce the generation of byproducts in the reaction media. Removing of the byproducts would help to maintain the reaction irreversible and thus it would help to increase the yield of the major product.

Question 5

Separation mixture is associated with purifying various substances. In addition, substances that are generally seen do not remain in the pure form where they remain a mixture of different substances. In this dimension, at the present time there are different types of separation mixtures used for purifying a substance. In the daily life of human beings and in industrial operation, this process is crucial in gaining useful components and to avoid all the unwanted substances or materials. There are some separations mixtures are as follows:

  • Threshing
  • Sieving
  • Evaporation
  • Separating funnel
  • Distillation
  • Magnetic separation
  • Crystallization
  • Chromatography separation

Question 6

A chemical product such as n-butane is generally made with the combination of essential processes that consists of separation, purification and synthesis. In this dimension, separation or purification methods in the “traditional engineering methods” consist of crystallization, stripping, adsorption, distillation, absorption and others. In addition, the crystallization is associated with the separation technique that is mainly used for the process of industrial laboratories. Crystallization is mainly applied for some essential functions such as solidification, crystal production, concentration and others. Apart from that, distillation is a purification technique of isolating some unwanted components from the mixture of different substances on the basis of differences in the points of boiling. Furthermore, stripping and the absorption process of separation is involved with the transformation of different components of “ a gas phase to a liquid phase” where the gas phase remains soluble. Extraction is another type of traditional separation or purification technique that is known as “liquid-liquid extraction where the phase involves extracting solutes from other liquid phases”.

Question 7

Crystallization is applied in the conditions of production of crustal, concentration, purification and in others. catalytic isomerization In addition, in the process of crystallization technique the heat remains lower than the technique of vaporization therefore the application of this technique is essential as a procedure of separation. This is an essential technique where solutes can be gained from slouching with minimizing the solubility by heating, evaporation, heating and chemical reaction of n-butane to isobutane. In this process the chemical components separation can be found from a mixture of the same kind of compound by the procedure of melt crystallization. In addition, this is an operation where the mixture gets cooled to solidify the remaining differential ties. Add to that, melt crystallization is a crucial technique of separating the components of “para-xylene from ortho and meta-xylene”. 

Question 8

Some essential separating mixture methods can be associated with the positive environmental impacts. In addition, in the context of the technique of separating mixture, filtering is an effective technique that assists in gaining positive environmental consequences and in complying with the green concept in industry for establishing an environmentally friendly operation. In the present time, a global environmental impact is related to increasing the toxic substance in the air where this filter technique can be useful. In this dimension, waste filter and air filter are two effective types of filter that assist in purifying the water and air by minimizing the toxic substance.

Part 2

Question 9

Safety and hazard maintenance have been followed in case of chemical separations and productions. In the context of industries, chemical hazard is a major area that needs to be considered for minimizing the risk for public health as well as for the environmental impact. In addition, an efficiency using n-butane in the process of production, purifying materials, and making appealing color there can be a risk regarding chemical hazard (Kang et al. 2021). In addition, improper usage and control chemicals can result in enhancing the toxic substances in air as well as water that can impact on the environment and on public health. Therefore, the usage and storage of chemicals is needed to be effectively managed for creating a health and safe process.

Question 10

In the context of chemical use, the conventional flow sheet is associated with the entire step by step process of implementing strategies for optimum use of chemicals and to gain a positive outcome by minimizing chemical hazards. In this dimension, there are three feathers in the continental flow sheet such as process flow sheet are easy methods to communicate objectives, monitoring and correcting the system and required performance and efficiency in each phase of task. In addition, these all are the effective features that can assist in understanding the map to meet objectives by n-butane use, reviewing the process can help in mitigating the paths of chemical hazard and checking the efficiency of performance, an optimum outcome can be gained. Therefore, in the context of arising hazards from the usage of chemical, this flow sheet can assist in substituting the process such as:


  • replacing the “large batch reactor by the “smaller continuous reactor”
  • Improving the process of management for minimizing the hazards related to inventory or from storage of chemicals.


  • Application of effective and modern technique of purification on behalf of traditional methods
  • Replacing the use of non-renewable energy with the renewable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy

Question 11

The inherent design of conventional flow sheets consists of three essential features such as simplifying the process, limiting the inputs used and monitoring compilation. This essential feature can assist in making strategies for moderating and simplifying the process of gaining the desired outcome.


  • Reducing the pressure as well as temperature
  • Usage of vacuum for minimizing the temperature of boiling points


  • Selecting some equipments by examining the reliability
  • Developing an effective alarming system for providing instant information regarding hazards

Question 12

The purpose of change in the feature or the procedures of flow sheet is needed for increasing several risks in the process and improper efficiency in different levels of taste. In addition, application of a method with the flow sheet can be the cause of increasing hazards in the workplace, environmental impacts, and impact on the public wealth (Sbirlea et al. 2021). In addition, a flow sheet uses the use of required material or resources for meeting the desired objective but for building health and safe operation, change in the process is required. The features of the flow sheet needed to be associated with the concept of green for minimizing the chemical and other hazards.




Ciriminna, R., Meneguzzo, F., Delisi, R. and Pagliaro, M., 2017. Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product. Chemistry Central Journal11(1), pp.1-9.

Grigore, M.E., 2017. Methods of recycling, properties and applications of recycled thermoplastic polymers. Recycling2(4), p.24.

Kang, S.H., Inherent and Passive Safety Design Features of PGSFR.

Moreau, A.A., 2018. Architecting an electro-chemical separation platform: from the business case to the first commercial product (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

Pagliaro, M., Albanese, L., Scurria, A., Zabini, F., Meneguzzo, F. and Ciriminna, R., 2021. Tannin: a new insight into a key product for the bioeconomy in forest regions. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining.

Sbirlea, C., Isopescu, D.N., Ungureanu, D. and Maxineasa, S.G., 2021, July. Bio product used in the self-sealing process of microcracks in hydrotechnical concretes. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 1141, No. 1, p. 012026). IOP Publishing.

SOVI?, A. and URBANCL, D., 2020, May. ENHANCED INHERENT SAFETY ASSESSMENT DURING HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK SYNTHESIS. In 2nd International Conference on Technologies & Business Models for Circular Economy.

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