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The epidermis is the external layer of the skin which provides a barrier to water for the skin and also creates the skin tone. As per the view of Chen et al. (2019), the main component of the epidermis is keratinocytes and below the epidermis, a basement membrane is present which is called dermo-epidermal junction. Below the dermis, the layer of hypodermis is present which largely consists of fat.
Like the structure acting as a barrier to the skin, this protects the body from external harm such as pathogens, chemicals and ultraviolet radiation on the other hand as the epidermis cell consists of melanocytes it gives skin colour which is called melanin. This also has a primary function in maintaining homeostasis as it consists of stomata which enable gaseous exchange. Lastly, the particularisation structure of these reduces transportation charges and maintains balance in the body. Moreover, the nerves that end in the epidermis contain impulses to our brain for which we can experience cold, pleasure, heat, pain, pressure, and itch.
The neuron group is organised into nerves and this bundle is called fascicles. Each fascicle is surrounded and held by a perineurium. As stated by Swirski and Nahrendorf (2018), the perineurium is composed of collagen fibres that are flattened cells and basement membranes and this is also concentrically laminated. Inside the fascicles, blood vessels and Neurons are held by endoneurium which is connective tissue. Veins and Arteries are present inside the fascicles. Gases and nutrients are supplied to the fascicles of neurons.
The essential capacity of nerves is to lead an electrochemical motivation and pass on data (Steffens et al. 2022). These motivations are conveyed by the singular neurons that make up the nerve. These driving forces head out starting with one neuron and then onto the next by crossing a neurotransmitter. The messages are changed over from electrical to compound and afterwards back to electrical. The tactile nerves convey data from the receptor to the focal sensory system where the data gets handled. The motor nerves, then again, convey data from the focal sensory system to the muscles.
The biconcave shape of the RBC (red blood corpuscles) amplifies the surface region to build proficiency in retaining oxygen. Its shape allows it to press through restricted vessels and can enter even the slenderest body-vessels. As opined by Yvan-Charvet and Ng (2019), red platelets do not have any nucleus, which again increases the oxygen limit. It upholds cell metabolism by shipping integrated macromolecules and by-products. The inward shape gives a huge surface region; the membrane, a run of the mill bilayer, is malleable and somewhat strong permitting it to crease on itself and fit through the little vessels. Furthermore, the red cell's layer helps enter the oxygen section into the cell.
Blood gets pumped by the circulatory system, specifically the cardiovascular system to the lungs in search of oxygen. Then the oxygenated blood is sent to all body parts through arteries. through arteries (Bennett and Molofsky, 2019). The organ is partitioned into a several chambers that take in and circulate oxygenated or non-oxygenated blood. Veins joined these chambers and conduits that functioned with a similar capacity. With each of its parts cooperating towards a equal objective, the heart effortlessly pumps blood.
Major blood vessels
Blood is shipped in veins, vessels, and arteries. The heart pumps the blood into the arteries which also return to the veins of the heart. The vessels interface the two sorts of veins and particles are interchanged between the cells and blood across their dividers (Von Ah Morano et al. 2020). The structure of arteries has thick elastic walls and thick muscular walls that help in the accommodation of blood and its pumping. On the other hand, the veins consist of thin walls as it has less muscular tissue and this structure helps to reduce blood pressure.
Smoking builds the arrangement of plaque in vessels. CHD (coronary heart disease) occurs when blood conveying arteries to the heart muscle is restricted by plaque or hindered by clusters. Synthetics in tobacco smoke make the blood thicken and shape clusters inside arteries and veins. Smoking increases pulse fixes significant arteries and causes a sporadic heart cadence that makes the working of the heart more difficult. Smoking additionally raises circulatory strain, which expands the stroke risk (Stewart et al. 2020). The artery lines are damaged through smoking which includes the coronary arteries also. The occurrence of fatty materials can be seen which is encouraged by this damage inside the arteries. This leads a person to face the challenge of a stroke or heart attack. Exposure to tobacco use enhances the risk of developing different heart diseases as a form of lack of oxygen supply, vasoconstriction, and inflammation. The level of low-density lipoprotein and reduction of high-density lipoprotein led to damage to the arteries.
Diet plays an important role in the development of coronary heart disease and the risk factors related to food include high blood pressure, a diet high in saturated fats, obesity, and uncontrolled diabetes. The major reason for nowadays to development of heart disease among youth is the consumption of trans foods that leads to the development of difficult heart conditions such as atherosclerosis (Gebhardt et al. 2018). Blood pressure is also enhanced by the unlimited consumption of salt. Besides an effective diet, lack of physical activity also plays a major role in developing coronary heart disease.
The main function of The Lymphatic System (including lymphatic fluid) is to protect the body from invaders, maintain the fluid level inside the body, absorb fats from the digestive tract, and remove wastes from cells.
Lymphoid Tissue (with reference to lymphocytes)
Lymphoid Tissue (with reference to lymphocytes) plays an important role in adapting immunity (Rapa et al. 2021). Lymphocyte development is nurtured by PLT (Primary lymphoid tissues). On the other hand, lymphocyte maturation, activation, and survival are supported by SLO (secondary lymphoid organs)
The lymphatic fluid substances are filtered through the Lymph Nodes. It contains lymphocytes which are effective for fighting disease and infections. Redundancy of body fluid is removed with the help of lymph nodes (Chen et al. 2019). It also produces different immune cells such as monocytes, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Fatty acids are absorbed here and it also transports fat to the circulatory system.
T lymphocytes are produced through the thymus which plays an important role in developing the immune system of the body. This enabled human beings to fight against infection.
The germs in the blood are invaded by Spleen which contains infection-fighting agents in the white blood cells. Different blood cells such as platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells are controlled by the spleen (Swirski and Nahrendorf, 2018). Filtration of blood is done by this agent and it also helps in removing the damaged or old blood cells.
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Active immunity is an inbuilt immunity system which is generated by the antibodies of the host in order to direct response to the antigen (Steffens et al. 2022). This will help to produce immunological memory. The antibody and other specialist lymphocytes are produced when antigens enter the body. This has no side effects. But this needs time to create any effect.
Passive immunity is developed among persons when they acquire antibodies for a particular disease rather than the production of antibodies in their own body. In this context, the placenta of the mother plays an important role in developing passive immunity in the child.
This immunity is developed when a person comes into contact with other or external microorganisms or substances (Yvan-Charvet and Ng, 2019). This is developed at the time of acquiring antibodies from external sources.
All living things maintain some activities in their daily life that could provide them physically a stable condition. This physically stable condition is known as Homeostasis. The homeostatic control mechanism goes under three interrelated components: a receptor, effector, and integrating centre (Bennett and Molofsky, 20149). The receptor receives the changes in the body and passes the information to the integrating centre and the effector works on the order received by the integrating centre.
Blood glucose homeostasis
The balance of insulin and glucagon in terms to maintain blood glucose is called blood glucose homeostasis (Von Ah Morano et al. 2020).
Figure 2: Blood glucose homeostasis
(Source: Influenced by Von Ah Morano et al. 2020)
However, when blood sugar increases the level, the receptor senses the changes and in successor, the pancreas (integrating centre) starts releasing insulin till the blood sugar level comes to a stable condition. Even when blood glucose level decreases the pancreas starts releasing glucagon till it comes to homeostasis.
Core body temperature homeostasis
The body temperature between 36-37.5 degrees C is under homeostasis conditions. Moreover, when the body becomes too hot, the hypothalamus senses the problem and orders our sweat glands to release sweat from our body which could help to cool down the excessive temperature (Stewart et al. 2020). However, at the same time, the decreasing temperature of our body also senses the hypothalamus and it signals your muscles. The muscles then shake our bodies and create heat.
Bennett, F.C. and Molofsky, A.V., 2019. The immune system and psychiatric disease: a basic science perspective. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 197(3), pp.294-307.
Chen, M.L., Takeda, K. and Sundrud, M.S., 2019. Emerging roles of bile acids in mucosal immunity and inflammation. Mucosal immunology, 12(4), pp.851-861.
Gebhardt, T., Palendira, U., Tscharke, D.C. and Bedoui, S., 2018. Tissue?resident memory T cells in tissue homeostasis, persistent infection, and cancer surveillance. Immunological reviews, 283(1), pp.54-76.
Rapa, S.F., Prisco, F., Popolo, A., Iovane, V., Autore, G., Di Iorio, B.R., Dal Piaz, F., Paciello, O., Nishijima, F. and Marzocco, S., 2021. Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Indoxyl Sulfate in Mice: Impairment of Intestinal Homeostasis and Immune Response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(3), p.1135.
Steffens, S., Nahrendorf, M. and Madonna, R., 2022. Immune cells in cardiac homeostasis and disease: emerging insights from novel technologies. European heart journal, 43(16), pp.1533-1541.
Stewart, B.J., Ferdinand, J.R. and Clatworthy, M.R., 2020. Using single-cell technologies to map the human immune system—implications for nephrology. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 16(2), pp.112-128.
Swirski, F.K. and Nahrendorf, M., 2018. Cardioimmunology: the immune system in cardiac homeostasis and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 18(12), pp.733-744.
Von Ah Morano, A.E., Dorneles, G.P., Peres, A. and Lira, F.S., 2020. The role of glucose homeostasis on immune function in response to exercise: The impact of low or higher energetic conditions. Journal of cellular physiology, 235(4), pp.3169-3188.
Yvan-Charvet, L. and Ng, L.G., 2019. Granulopoiesis and neutrophil homeostasis: a metabolic, daily balancing act. Trends in immunology, 40(7), pp.598-612.
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