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HUMAN CELL BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT SAMPLE

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HUMAN CELL BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT SAMPLE

STRUCTURE OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND THE FUNCTION OF ORGANELLES

TASK 1: Identify the organelles labelled on the diagram

A-Rough endoplasmic reticulum

B-Ribosomes

C-lysosomes

D-peroxisome

E-Chromatin

F- Nucleolus

G- Nucleus

H-centrosome

I- Golgi apparatus

J-Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

K- Cytoplasm

L-mitochondria

M- Cell/Plasma membrane

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TASK 2: Explaining the function and structure of organelles

In the macrophages the lysosomes are being produced from the fusion of the vesicles of the Golgi apparatus with the endosomes. The organelles in the cells are responsible for different specific functions and are having aunique structure which are explained below such as:

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

The rough endoplasmic reticulum are responsible for protein manufacturing for all the functions of the cell and these endoplasmic reticulum can be both smooth or rough and it is made up pf sheets which is extended across the cytoplasm(Csordas, et. al. 2018).

Ribosomes

They are the tiny particles which are widely present in the cells and they are responsible for protein synthesis which ensures the survival of the cell so it can be said that it is an important cytoplasmic organelle.

Lysosomes

The shape of lysosomes is quite irregular, and they are generally found in granular and spherical structure. Lysosomes are responsible for intracellular digestion in the cell and the large macromolecules are converted into the smaller molecules with the help of enzymes which are present in the lysosomes. Along with this they are having role in some cellular processes and in the autolysis of unwanted organelles in the cytoplasm(Delevoye, et. al. 2019).

Peroxisome

They are small vesicles which are responsible for oxidising some of the molecules for the metabolic activity which are present in the cells.

Chromatin

It is made up of DNA and histones and the shape of chromatin is that they look life beads on a string. The major function of chromatin is to act like an packaging element for DNA.

Nucleolus

These organelles are present in the nucleus and composes of RNA and proteins and the major role of nucleolus is to synthesis rRNA and ribosome biogenesis(Anselme, et. al. 2018).

Nucleus

It is an organelle in which some other organelles are present in the cell and they are responsible for controlling and regulating the activities of the cell.

Centrosome

They are made of up from the barrel-shaped clusters of the microtubules and are responsible for involving in the process of cell division.

Golgi apparatus

The structure of Golgi apparatus is pleomorphic, and they are found in three different forms which are vesicles, tubules and cisternae(Tao, et. al. 2020). The major function of the Golgi apparatus is to direct the lipids and proteins to reach their destinations and it can be said that they act as an traffic police for the cell and they are also have a role to plan in the sulfation of some molecules.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

These are the type of endoplasmic reticulum and are filled with liquids and also composes the tubules, vesicles and cisternae. The major function performed by smooth endoplasmic reticulum is thatproduce and move the lipids and they work at the time of liquid synthesis(Berankova, 2020).

Cytoplasm

It is a jelly like substance which is present between cell membrane and nucleus of the animal and plant cells. It is one of the essential and important component of the cell and is responsible for the controlling the different metabolic activities which are being occurred within the cell and is also the site for majority of the chemical reactions in the cell(Cohen, et. al. 2018).

Mitochondria

They are generally known as powerhouse of the cell and they are responsible for the production of energy rich molecules for the cells. Mitochondria is an sausage shaped organelle or the rod shaped organelles which are having double membrane.

Cell/Plasma membrane

It is the outermost payer of the cell which is a permeable membrane, and it is responsible for providing mechanical support to the cell and regulates the things which can enter or exit the cell through the channels(Shi, et. al. 2018).

TASK 3: Level of organisation of multicellular organisms

Organisms which are having different cells for performing different functions in the body are said to be multicellular organisms and these organisms are the most complex one. Or in other words it can be said that the organisms which are having one or more cells then those organisms are known as multicellular organisms. The organisms such as humans, animals, plants and fungi are multicellular organisms. In multicellular the different levels of organisation are cells, tissue, organs, organ systems and organisms(Khamo, et. al. 2017). Among these the cells are considered to be the building blocks of all the living organisms, the tissues are the group of cells, then organs is the group of tissues, then the organ system is the group of organs and organism are the living things.

The collection of the cells is referred as the tissues and they are responsible for performing one or multiple functions(Lukavenko, 2020).The are four types of tissues such as connective tissues, epithelial tissues, muscle tissues and nervous tissues. The classification of the tissues is based on their functions and structures. These tissues are explained below such as:

Connecting Tissues: these tissues are having an special ability to connect, separate and support all the other tissues of the body. These tissues are widely being found in blood, lymph, fat tissues, dense fibrous tissues and human body. Connective tissues are further categorised as cartilage, adipose, blood, hemapoetic, elastic, bone and fibrous. These tissues are having three main components which are the cells, fibers and the ground substance. The connective tissues are responsible for proving support and protection(Kovalko, et. al. 2019).

Epithelial Tissues:these types of tissues are thin and are mostly present at the exposed surfaces of the body. The cells of this tissue ate closely packed and bounded with one another with an specialized structure which is known as tight junctions. These tissues are responsible for doing multiple functions in the body such as protection, absorption, secretion, transcellular transport and sensing. Also they provide protection against radiation damage, invasion, chemical stress and abrasion. They generally cover the body surface and are responsible for forming the lining for most of the internal cavities of the body. These tissues are further divided on the basis of their specific structure.

Muscle Tissues:the muscle tissues are being made up of cells which are known as muscle fibers and this is a soft tissues which is responsible for composing muscles in the animal bodies and develop the ability the muscles to contract. These tissues are considered to be the most important tissue for the huma body as it allow the human being to make movement in their body. The muscle tissues are further divided into three types which are cardiac muscles, smooth muscles and the skeletal muscles(Coletti, et. al. 2016).

Nervous Tissues:these tissues are the most important types of tissues and are being found in the nerves, spinal cord and the brain. The major functions of these tissues is to guide the body for his everyday activities and supporting several complex processes of the nervous system.

TRANSPORT ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE

TASK 1

If the person become dehydrated the levels of sodium in the blood stream will increase. Explains the effect this could have on cells such as red blood cell, found in the blood.

Ans: Due to insufficient among of water intake in the body the individual might face the issue of higher level of sodium in the blood stream. If the level of sodium is high in the blood than it is estimated that the red blood cells will loss the water through the process of osmosis and later on will shrink(Goodheadand MacMillan, 2017). It is an phenomenon that when the red blood cells are placed in a solution with lower water concentration as compared to their contents or if the level of sodium is high in the water than the red blood cells loses water.

TASK 2

Sodium ions cross the membrane via facilitated diffusion. Explain how sodium loss can cross the membrane by both passive and active transport. In your answer make links to the structure and function of the cell membrane.

Ans: The sodium ions cross the membrane when they move from higher concentration to lower concentration and this phenomenon is known as diffusion. But it is being found that the sodium loss can cross the membrane by both active and passive transport. If the cell is using the energy for the transportation of nay of the substance that it is called active transport and in the case of sodium ions the pumping of ions against their gradients require an additional amount of energy from the outside source and this is known as sodium ions transport with active transport. In contrast to this at the time of nervous impulse when the sodium ions enters into the cell than at that time the energy which is required for the movement is originated from the ion gradient itself and in this case no external energy is required so it is an passive transport(Inomata, et. al. 2019).

In both the active and passive transport the cell membrane had an important role to play as the transportation of the substances inside and outside of the cell is being done through the membrane only. Both the major components of the cell membrane especially the lipids and proteins has an important role to play in transportation. In the active transport the proteins are positioned in such a way that one part of them is inside the cell and the another one is outside the cell. There are thousands of proteins which are embedded in the cell's liquid bilayer and they are crossing the bilayer than only the movement of different ions and molecules occurs in an out of the cell. It can be said that cell membrane and its structure is having an important role in both active and passive transport as it is an selectively permeable membrane and allow limited material to move by the help of diffusion which is an passive transport(Golan, 2020).

REFERENCES

Anselme, K., Wakhloo, N.T., Rougerie, P. and Pieuchot, L., 2018. Role of the nucleus as a sensor of cell environment topography. Advanced healthcare materials7(8), p.1701154.

Berankova, P., 2020. Membraneless organelles in eukaryotic cells.

Cohen, S., Valm, A.M. and Lippincott-Schwartz, J., 2018. Interacting organelles. Current opinion in cell biology53, pp.84-91.

Coletti, D., Daou, N., Hassani, M., Li, Z. and Parlakian, A., 2016. Serum response factor in muscle tissues: from development to ageing. European journal of translational myology26(2).

Csordas, G., Weaver, D. and Hajnoczky, G., 2018. Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contactology: structure and signaling functions. Trends in cell biology28(7), pp.523-540.

Delevoye, C., Marks, M.S. and Raposo, G., 2019. Lysosome-related organelles as functional adaptations of the endolysosomal system. Current opinion in cell biology59, pp.147-158.

Golan, D.E., 2020. Red blood cell membrane protein and lipid diffusion. In Red Blood Cell Membranes (pp. 367-400). CRC Press.

Goodhead, L.K. and MacMillan, F.M., 2017. Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood cells. Advances in physiology education41(2), pp.298-305.

Inomata, K., Kigawa, T. and Shirakawa, M., 2019. In-cell NMR in Eukaryotic Cells-I (Introduction from Outside of Cells). In In-cell NMR Spectroscopy (pp. 27-44).

Khamo, J.S., Krishnamurthy, V.V., Sharum, S.R., Mondal, P. and Zhang, K., 2017. Applications of optobiology in intact cells and multicellular organisms. Journal of Molecular Biology429(20), pp.2999-3017.

Kovalko, N.Y., Kalinina, M.V., Suslov, D.N., Galibin, O.V., Yukina, G.Y., Arsentyev, M.Y. and Shilova, O.A., 2019. Effect of t-ZrO 2-Based Ceramic Samples on the Condition of Muscular and Connecting Tissues in Experimental Animals with Intramuscular Introduction. Inorganic Materials: Applied Research10(5), pp.1109-1114.

Lukavenko, I.M., 2020. Features of Ultrasonic Waves Influence on Different Types Biological Tissues.

Shi, Y., Cai, M., Zhou, L. and Wang, H., 2018, January. The structure and function of cell membranes studied by atomic force microscopy. In Seminars in cell & developmental biology (Vol. 73, pp. 31-44). Academic Press.

Tao, Y., Yang, Y., Zhou, R. and Gong, T., 2020. Golgi apparatus: an emerging platform for innate immunity. Trends in Cell Biology.

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