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Circulation, Immunity And Homeostasis

Introduction - Circulation, Immunity And Homeostasis

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Heart, blood and lungs regulate the circulatory system of the human body to maintain the level of body’s homeostasis function in an organised way. The aim of this assignment, the structural and functional roles of blood and cardiovascular muscle will be briefed. Tissue is a unit that forms from a similar group of cells. In this assignment, different tissue structures and their role in homeostasis will be highlighted.

A) Epithelial tissue and nervous tissue structure and its functional role in homoeostasis

Based on the functional structure of epithelial tissue, it can be acknowledged that Squamous epithelial tissue is made of squamous cells which are located in the endothelium, epidermis and alveolar epithelium. As stated by Mazarei et al. (2022), epithelium tissues composed of thin and flat plates appear polygonal in structure. Depending on the structural composition of epithelial tissue, squamous cells consist of the cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. Based on arrangements, simple and stratified squamous epithelial tissues are present in the human body (Mayo.edu, 2022). In addition to that, simple squamous epithelial cells facilitate selective diffusion of material, which facilitates secretion, absorption and filtration (McMillan and Donald, 2018). Therefore to maintain homeostasis simple squamous epithelial tissue helps in excreting waste material from the body.

Figure 1: Structure of simple squamous epithelial tissue

(Source: Influenced from the views of Mazarei et al. 2022)

The figure of this tissue helps to indicate that the neuron is a particular nervous tissue that helps in the transition of signals from one neuron to another neuron. The neuron is the structural unit of the nervous system which consists of axons, dendrites, nerve endings, myelin sheath, nucleus, soma and Schwann cell. As mentioned by McMillan and Donald (2018), neurons dominate regulatory mechanisms that control also influence homeostasis in the body. For instance, several cell signalling is controlled by neurons such as K+ channels opening in response to ATP.

Figure 2: Nervous tissue structure

(Source: Influenced from the views of McMillan and Donald, 2018)

B) Structure of blood, heart and major blood vessels in transportation and metabolic exchange of the body

Connective fluid in the human body is blood which consists of red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells and plasma. The function of blood is to develop a connection between each cell and organ present in the human body and to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide with red blood cells (Bordoni et al. 2018). As blood is fluidic in nature, it circulates liberally throughout the body and enters inside every organ. Blood is also responsible for regulating body temperature through the vasodilation and vasoconstriction process. Hence, the fluidic nature of blood is relatable to controlling the homeostasis process of the body as well as trying to actively regulate all essential homeostasis composition at its normal level to stabilize the rate of metabolic exchange.

Figure 3: Structure of Blood

(Source: Influenced from the views of Bordoni et al. 2018)

Cardiac muscle cells are connected with intercalated disk and these muscles are highly branched in nature. This muscle covers the atria and ventricular chambers of the heart. As opined by Yamada, Namba and Fujii (2020), cardiac muscles are responsible for pumping the heart and hence facilitate the circulation of blood. Therefore, a complex structure of cardiac muscle provides the required force to pump the whole heart in a rhythmic way which also helps in the transport of oxygen reached blood to every organ and also collects carbon dioxide reached blood from the cell.

An arterial blood vessel is a thick muscular tube which consists of smooth tissue and transportsblood away from the heart. As stated by Lee et al. (2018), thick arterial blood vessels potentially accommodate a large amount of blood and the elastic nature of these vessels efficiently pumps blood throughout the blood equally. Veins are thin walled less muscular blood vessels which bring carbon dioxide to reach blood to the heart. Capillaries present in blood facilitate the absorption of oxygen and nutrients due to the presence of microscopic channels.

C) Factors cause a rise in coronary heart disease

Figure 4: Narrowing of blood vessels due to fat infiltration

(Source: Influenced from the views of Fung et al. 2018)

Coronary heart disease is also known as a lifestyle disease which arises with increased intake of unhealthy foods such as junk foods, and high-calorie and high-fat containing food (Fung et al. 2018). Moreover, smoking is also associated with chances of coronary artery disease as smoking causes damage to the arterial blood vessels and calcium and fat deposited in the reputed part. This process causes narrowing of blood vessels and coronary artery diseases such as hypertension, myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis occur (Snaterse et al. 2018). Another risk factor of coronary disease is high-fat food consumption for a longer period as the diameter of arterial blood vessels occurs due to infiltration of fat. 

D) Function of immune system component and its major contributory role in immunity

Figure 5: The lymphatic system of the human body

(Source: Clevelandclinic.org, 2022)

The Lymphatic System (including lymphatic fluid)

“The Lymphatic System” is a part of the immune system which helps to “protect the human body from illness-causing invaders”, “maintaining body fluid levels”, “absorbing digestive tract fats and removing cellular waste”. As per the suggestion of Scholz et al. (2021), the main function of the “lymphatic fluid” is maintaining the fluid levels in the human body. Significance of role of the lymphatic system in the immune response

“The Lymphatic System” plays a significance to protect the immune systems. As per the words of Alexandre et al. (2018), the "Lymphatic System"  helps to fight "illness-causing germs’, “bacteria”, “viruses” and “fungi'' to defend the human body systems. In addition, it helps to provide a protection system to the human immune system.

Lymphoid Tissue (concerning lymphocytes)

“Lymphoid Tissue” plays a vital role to protect the human immune system. “Lymphoid Tissue”is made with thelymphocytes” and lymphocytes”  are made with the “lymphoblasts”.

Significance of role of the lymphoid tissue in the immune response

“Lymphoid Tissue” is crucial for the adaptation of the immunity and also supports the immune system's responses. “Lymphoid tissue” is found in the human lungs and helps to protect the lungs systems of the human body (Knapek, 2020).

Lymph Nodes

“Lymph Nodes' 'helps to filter the bad substances which are floating in the “lymphatic fluid” (Moulton, 2018). In addition, “Lymph Nodes” fight against infection in the human body.

Significance of role of thelymph node in the immune response

“Lymph Nodes” help to fight the infection which is harmful to the human immune system. Moreover, the “Lymph Nodes” help to reduce the cancer cell in the human body.

Thymus

"Thymus" helps to create the white cells in the human body These white cells are known as "T lymphocytes”.  And the “T lymphocytes” fight against the infection and the cancer cells (Knapek, 2020).

Significance of role of thethymus in the immune response

“Thymus” helps to serve with human body defense mechanisms and provide protection against the “pathogens”, “tumors”, “antigens” and “mediators of tissue damage”

Figure 6: The Spleen

(Source: Clevelandclinic.org, 2022)

Spleen

“Spleen” is the first organ that is situated in the upper portion of the adamant in the human body (Nevard, 2020). And it helps to "clearance of microorganisms and particulate antigens” from the blood in the human body.

Significance of role of the spleen in the immune response

“Spleen” works for the flitter of the blood and provides healthy blood which helps to build strong immune systems.

E) Distinguishing feature between passive, active, and acquired immunity

Features of these immunity systems can be distinguished depending on three different contexts, such:

  • Lifelong activeness

 “Passive immunity” is the temporary immune system it despairs in a few weeks whereas Active immunity” is the payment immune system which is last life longs (Alexandre et al. 2018). On the other hand Acquired immunity” in many cases stays for a lifetime and in many cases, it disappears in a few weeks.

  • Generation of immunological memory

“Passive immunity”  generally produces the “immunological memory” on the other hand Active immunity”  is generally not generated the “immunological memory” but in the cases of Acquired immunity” remembering the past activity and work according to that its means this immune system are positively involved with produce the "immunological memory”.

  • Activate time

As per the previous research, it can be found that “Passive immunity” takes time to take action. On the other hand Active immunity” reacts immediately when the human body is affected by the illness-causing germs’, “bacteria”, “viruses” and “fungi'' (Eckert et al. 2019). Moreover, the Acquired immunity” response is slower than the Active immunity”.

F) Define homeostasis and examples of 2 homeostatic system

“Homeostasis” defines the self-regulation process of the human body, which helps to maintain body stability with the external changes. The adjustment process of the body with the physiological system is known as “Homeostasis” (Eckert et al. 2019).

  • Body temperature control system, when a human works in the hot summer under 40oC then the human body realizes sweat for maintaining the body temperature and this procedure is done by the homeostatic mechanisms.
  • “Homeostatic mechanisms” help maintain the “blood glucose regulation”. The regulation of the blood glucose helps to maintain the balance in the hormones such as “insulin”, “glucagon”, “somatostatin”, and “amylin”.

Conclusion 

After gathering all of the information which is mentioned above it can be said that the immune system is an important part of the human body. With the help of immune systems, the human body fights against “illness-causing germs’, “bacteria”, “viruses” and “fungi''.

Reference list

Alexandre, Y.O. and Mueller, S.N., 2018. Stromal cell networks coordinate immune response generation and maintenance. Immunological reviews, 283(1), pp.77-85.

Bordoni, B., Marelli, F., Morabito, B. and Castagna, R., 2018. A new concept of biotensegrity incorporating liquid tissues: blood and lymph. Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine23, p.2515690X18792838.
Cakala-Jakimowicz, M., Kolodziej-Wojnar, P. and Puzianowska-Kuznicka, M., 2021. Aging-Related Cellular, Structural and Functional Changes in the Lymph Nodes: A Significant Component of Immunosenescence? An Overview. Cells, 10(11), p.3148.
Clevelandclinic.org, 2022. Lymphatic System. Available at:https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/21199-lymphatic-system. [Accessed on: 05.05.2022]
Eckert, N., Permanyer, M., Yu, K., Werth, K. and Förster, R., 2019. Chemokines and other mediators in the development and functional organization of lymph nodes. Immunological reviews, 289(1), pp.62-83.

Fung, T.T., Isanaka, S., Hu, F.B. and Willett, W.C., 2018. International food group–based diet quality and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The American journal of clinical nutrition107(1), pp.120-129.
Knapek, K.J., Georges, H.M., Van Campen, H., Bishop, J.V., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H., Smirnova, N.P. and Hansen, T.R., 2020. Fetal lymphoid organ immune responses to transient and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Viruses, 12, p.816.

Lee, J.H., Kim, E.D., Jun, E.J., Yoo, H.S. and Lee, J.W., 2018. Analysis of trends and prospects regarding stents for human blood vessels. Biomaterials research22(1), pp.1-10.

Mazarei, M., Åström, J., Westerholm, J. and Karttunen, M., 2022. Epithelial Tissue Growth Dynamics: Universal or Not?. arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.15883.

McMillan and Donald B. (2018). An Atlas of Comparative Vertebrate Histology || Epithelial Tissues. 45–74.
Moulton, V.R., 2018. Sex hormones in acquired immunity and autoimmune disease. Frontiers in immunology, 9, p.2279.
Nevard, C.H.F., Gaunt, M. and Ockleford, C.D., 2020. The transfer of passive and active immunity. In The immunology of the fetus (pp. 193-214). CRC Press.

Scholz, E.M. and Kashuba, A.D., 2021. The lymph node reservoir: physiology, HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 109(4), pp.918-927.

Snaterse, M., Deckers, J.W., Lenzen, M.J., Jorstad, H.T., De Bacquer, D., Peters, R.J.G., Jennings, C., Kotseva, K., op Reimer, W.S. and EUROASPIRE Investigators, 2018. Smoking cessation in European patients with coronary heart disease. Results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey: A registry from the European Society of Cardiology. International journal of cardiology258, pp.1-6.

Yamada, Y., Namba, K. and Fujii, T., 2020. Cardiac muscle thin filament structures reveal calcium regulatory mechanism. Nature communications11(1), pp.1-9.

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