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Infection/Health Control Workbook 

Introduction: Infection Control Workbook

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Health infection is a big problem in daily life; nowadays it expands dangers all over the world. Governments are some precautions for all the people who are disciplined in daily life. All patients and health workers have followed the to avoid infections. Because in the workplace, many micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and many parasites infect the public area. The dental health management groups are responsible for some protocols to avoid infection. Decontamination is two parts- technical and medical. Some decontamination methods are followed in hospitals like physical cleaning and chemical cleaning to avoid infections.

Task 1:

1.4 types of health and safety legislation

Health and Safety at Work etc Act (1974)

The UK government started a legislation act in 1974, known as Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act (Ghasemian et al. 2018). This act follows some protocols to avoid infection in the workplace, some protocol notices, and health and safety regulations that are followed this act.

Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations

This act begins for the care of human health and workplace environment is legislation to maintain all the protocols to avoid infections, begins July 2005. This act law follows to ensure the environment area becomes disinfected ( Engelbrecht et al. 2018).

2005 Ionising Radiation Regulations (IRR) 2017

Ionising Radiations Act in the UK government in 2017, is the rule for people who are self-employed and worked with ionizing radiation (Marme, 2018). This act aims to protect the people who work radiations.

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases, and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations

This legislation act controls injuries in the workplace, many injuries have happened in work areas like accidents, and many occupational diseases. It follows employers' work on their daily duties (World Health Organization, 2020). RIDDOR is not following the medical and dental treatment by a doctor or a dentist. 

2. Cross-infection





The standard precaution of HTM01-05 is to control cross-infection.    

Standard precautions are followed to control patient care. Hand hygiene and the use of masks and gloves for personal care, if precautions are maintained then some infections are avoided.


It is some decontamination to protect health so people are safe in the workplaces or other areas.

 WHO said those cleaning disinfection and sterilization are the main backbones of controlling infections or diseases. Always use warm water to control infection and reduce microorganisms in other processes to avoid infections.


Personal Protective Equipment is commonly known as PPE. Clothing, gloves, masks, and other personal things are protected by the rules of PPE. It is used in hospitals, doctor’s chambers, and pathology.

PPE is used for self-protection and also to save others to protect from the disease. This personal protection equipment helps to control the diseases ill people have. It is a direct link to the principles of standard infection because every person has the responsibility to protect their selves.     


Disinfection is a process to avoid infections and bacteria. It is used is especially used in bacteria spores areas.

This process destroys all types of microorganisms that destroy skin, so it is a very effective process to control viruses.

3. Reflection:

Description: Nowadays, many diseases are happening caused by many viruses.

Feelings: In this study, it is known that if people maintain health protocols then infections must be avoided.

Evaluation: The experience was good because the protocol was maintained to save people’s lives. However, it was not maintained properly by the people (Chou et al. 2020).

Analysis: It can be stated that the following protocols can be to avoid infections and safe life.

Conclusion: I think that all health precautions are followed and also said to maintain others.

Action plan: I would do something to control infections at my best.

Task 2:

1. Description of the reason for cross-infection and explanation

Cause of cross-infection: Cross-infection is very effective for people. Cross-infection can transfer germs very easily. It would happen in any situation. It can be also possible that with the help of blood, saliva, or the equipment of the surgery it will transfer. It is very difficult to take protection from every dental surgery or surgery or maintain all the guidance about not being transferred. Cross infection also transfers when a person has any dental issue and the nurse checks that person with equipment, and on the other side, the nurse checks the other person with the same equipment. It can also be a way to transfer germs from one person to another. In this case, the nurse has to maintain the process of surgery. Not only the saliva, blood, trauma, and inoculation are also responsible for cross-infection.       

Route of transmission:  Many microorganisms expand the viruses from one person to another. Some diseases occur in bacteria or many kinds of viruses that are carried person's nose, throat, and mouth. Transmission is the spreading of microbes that infect a person through many stages (Chang, et al. 2020). Transmission is disrupted if people maintain all preventions. Mainly transmission of microorganisms is divided into five main routes- direct contact, omits, aerosol, and, oral, vector-borne. These are the causes of transmission so if people follow all protocols to control life then the entire world is saved.

2. Infectious or not                                                                               

1) pathogen- Infectious germ.

Explain- A pathogen is an infectious germ that is the oldest sense in any organism. A pathogen is one type of microorganism that occurs in many types of diseases. It is basically in five types- viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoa, and many types of worms (Chou et al. 2020). These are the main causes of health issues.

Example:  Many bacteria like Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytes.

Many fungi like yeasts, molds, mushrooms, and puffballs are an example of it.

2) Non-pathogen- Noninfectious

Explain- Non-pathogenic organisms are the term to describe bacteria. Most bacteria are not able to cause disease (Jordan, 2020).

Examples: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

3) Bacteria- Infectious.

  Explain- Bacteria cause many diseases, they enter the person's body to open skin like cuts or surgical wounds. People, who are infected by bacteria, need special care to avoid infections (Salem, 2019).

 Examples- Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli

4) Viruses- Infectious

Explain- Viruses are infectious because they cause common diseases like cold, flu, and warts, and recently COVID-19 has been the main cause of the virus (Engelbrecht et al. 2018).

. Viruses are small in size and can multiply when they enter one body to another.

 Examples- Rabies, Measles, Smallpox, and Chickenpox

4) Fungi- Infectious

 Explain- Fungal infections are different from other infectious diseases. It causes skin problems.

Examples- Yeasts, rusts, and mildews.

5) Spores- Non-infectious

Explain- In biology, the spore is the work of reproduction.

Examples are fungi spores zygospores and basidiospores.

6) Prion- Infectious

Explain- A prion disease is a disease of animals and humans.

Examples- Scrapie in sheep, mad cow disease in cows

Task 3

  1. Immunization is a fundamental component of all infection control programs. At the dental practice, dental nurses and staff immunization are essential. Their work is roaming around with blood or other bodily fluids which is why they are very close to diseases. These vaccines provide long-term immunity without taking repeated antibiotics (Houghton et al. 2020). In creating a healthy environment the doctors, nurses, and medical staff should be firstly vaccinated in the hospital. It is very normal that, in a dental surgery a nurse and a doctor have full responsibility for the surgery and organize those with very cleanliness but internal disease are also very effective to the patient. Clear out the disease is very important and that is why immunization from a medical staff or a nurse is very important to make sure not to spread the germ to others.               
  2. Various types of diseases are there, which require nurses and staff to take vaccinations to prevent them. Three diseases spread by air, Tetanus, Polio, and Diphtheria. Tetanus enters the body through cuts, wounds, or scratches (Chirico et al. 2021). In this disease, individuals can evoke illness. For these patients, it feels like tightening up their muscles and stiffness, breathing problems, and swallowing, sometimes for this, the patients lock their jaw and prevent an individual from opening their mouths. To maintain immunity power, from time to time booster dose is very important in their adulthood. Therefore dental nurses should maintain certain vaccination rules which are very important for their healthy life and patients' health.
  3. In every vaccination, there was a particular time scale. After that, people have to take the booster dose. Like tetanus and diphtheria, toxics require booster doses to maintain protective anti-bodies concentration. Many vaccines also create antibodies for their body and protect their body. Approximately 90-95% of recipients are taking a single dose for a long time, which is only taken once. Like measles, rubella, smallpox, and many more. A booster dose means creating an anti-body inside a human body (Islam et al. 2020). It is a positive virus or bacteria, which are mostly put into people's bodies, after destroying the negative virus, the patient will be good. In between this situation, the patient feels very weak. That is why before the changing period season nurses and staff should not be allowed to start clinical jobs.

Patients who have dental issues face many other consequences. HIV is a critical issue to deal with. If the patient has a dental issue then HIV very much affects their health. If a normal person has HIV then the person has a mouth problem from HIV, although if a dental patient has a dental issue then the issue will increase for HIV. The relationship between HIV and oral health science has not been explored completely but slightly it is clear that HIV patients have oral disorders (Harrington, 2020). Patients with oral problems who also have HIV then they might experience white lesions on both sides of the tongue, Kaposi’s sarcoma (cancer in mouth), loosening of teeth, revealing a bright red line on the tongue, and many more. For precaution, medical says HAART or ARV therapy controls HIV only when drug therapies are used constantly, monitored, and appropriately prescribed.    

Infectious Diseases

How it spreads

Action taken to stop the infection from spreading

Hepatitis B

Those Who already have dental issues spread the virus very fast. Infected blood, possibly saliva can make it spread. Fecal-oral transmission has also spread the germs. It is also spread through dental surgery. 

Hepatitis B can be prevented by taking medicines, and vaccines. It can be more effective to be under a doctor and check-up regularly. 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV spreads through saliva, blood transfer, sharing needles, syringes, and drug injection equipment. In dental issues basically, it spreads through saliva or blood. In addition, it spreads through dental surgery by using the same equipment and sharing the same syringes.        

In HIV, there are many steps to stop spreading it. Prevent others from using the same needle, Do not use the same blade to shave (Kochlamazashvili et al. 2018). The HIV transfer through the saliva and blood. In the stream of dental medical issues, it is mainly affected by using the same equipment and also using the same needle to give anesthesia to the patient.  Taking medicine and being in monitoring also helps not to spread HIV.  

Herpes simplex type 1

It is a very common disease in the mouth area. Herpes has its saliva through which herpes spreads.    

Herpes is a very effective and very contagious infection. It can happen frequently. For dental practice, it is very important to take precautions about airborne germs. So that the nurses and the other patients are not affected by that.    

Task 4

Chemical 1: Benzene

Evaluate use: Benzene is a liquid that makes a sweet smell and is highly flammable. It is used for product manufacturing. This chemical makes a product with a unique and complex structure.

Effective against- It damages blood levels of antibodies and it is the main cause of the loss of white blood cells. As a result, many people suffer from anemia, and most children have suffered from this problem.

Chemical 2: Dioxins and PCBs

Evaluate use: It is used in product manufacturing processes like smelting, chlorine bleaching of paper pulp, and pesticides.

Effective against- This chemical is bad for the immune system; it damages the reproductive system and causes many hormonal diseases.

Chemical 3: Radionuclides

Evaluate use: It is used in major ways- radiation that is used to detect cancer and much-unexpected trauma.

Effective against- It affects human health including skin damage, cataracts, and death

Chemical 4: Perchlorate

Evaluate use: It is used for industries and is found in manufacturing rockets road flares and fireworks. It was also found in water and foods in the United States.

Effective against- It affects harmful diseases and also pollutes the environment. Day by day many human diseases occur from this chemical.




Clinical sterilization

Using moist heat is one of the common methods (Kochlamazashvili et al. 2018). There are also many other methods they are dry heat, radiation, ethylene oxide gas, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, and many more.  

It is used to clean the surface on which the surgery will happen. It kills the microorganisms on the surface. On the other hand, it also prevents disease transmission. 

Industrial sterilization

In industrial sterilization, there are many methods to sterilize. Examples are steam sterilization, flash sterilization, low-temperature sterilization, peracetic acid sterilization, and the bioburden of surgical devices.

Industrial sterilization is mainly used in the production of medical equipment and chemical testing facilities and also used in the chemical lab after the use of lab equipment.


In this method, chemical disinfectants and alcohol are the most used method. Besides, chlorine and chlorine compounds, hydrogen peroxide, regulatory framework, and ultraviolet radiation are also used in this method. 

Disinfected means to clean a surface or clean other things in which the surgery will happen (Butt, 2019). It inanimate the killing or irreversible inactivation of pathogens in an extended order.


  1. Oral and dental health may be more important to be in a healthy environment. Taking medicine, vaccines, and healthy medication can better the lives of many people. In this study, it is discussed how nurses and staff need to maintain their health and take so many precautions to give a patient good health. If patients who have an oral issue do not take any steps or consult with doctors can be very problematic after some years. There is also mention of many other diseases if dental patients have then what are the consequences? The consequences are also discussed in this study. After that, it is discussed how to stop spreading that disease. It is very clear that if patients want to have a good healthy life then they have to be very clean and also the medical and hospitals should be clean. This cleaning matter discussed how much cleaning matter is in there. There are three cleaning matters which the study goes through. In this study, it is very clear that first cleans the inside of a human and also cleans the surroundings.

Reflective Account

In this project, we learned how we can get healthier day by day by taking care of ourselves. Some critical diseases can be prevented by taking some precautions. It is also healthier to clean the medical-oriented places, and also be conscious about taking injections. Taking vaccines for nurses and staff is also healthier for patients.

This workbook wakes up us through the study of many diseases and their precautions. It is very helpful to know that the medical staff and nurses are also very cautious about their patients that are why they always take booster doses not to give germs to other people. It is also a step that is not to spread the diseases. 

The study talks about sterilization. Three types of Sterilization are there in the study industrial, clinical, and disinfected. There we do not know how the staff and nurses prepare the surgery room cause at that time we cannot see the situation. In addition, some types of industrial sterilization are problematic in this study because they are very highly expensive. 

In this study, I got some unique ideas about new viruses and bacteria and also learned how many small viruses are affected, people are suffering from many diseases that are mainly caused by viruses. I have too much knowledge that will help my future career to be strong and I also give people to be careful about their health.  


Ai, Z., Hashimoto, K. and Melikov, A.K., 2019. Influence of pulmonary ventilation rate and breathing cycle period on the risk of cross?infection. Indoor Air, 29(6), pp.993-1004.

Butt, F., Thakkar, H., Munguti, J. and Waigayu, E., 2019. Infection control measures among dental health care workers. Annals of African Surgery, 16(1).

Chirico, F. and Magnavita, N., 2021. The crucial role of occupational health surveillance for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workplace health & safety, 69(1), pp.5-6.

Harrington, C., Ross, L., Chapman, S., Halifax, E., Spurlock, B. and Bakerjian, D., 2020. Nurse staffing and coronavirus infections in California nursing homes. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 21(3), pp.174-186.

Houghton, C., Meskell, P., Delaney, H., Smalle, M., Glenton, C., Booth, A., Chan, X.H.S., Devane, D. and Biesty, L.M., 2020. Barriers and facilitators to healthcare workers’ adherence with infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases: a rapid qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).

Islam, M.S., Rahman, K.M., Sun, Y., Qureshi, M.O., Abdi, I., Chughtai, A.A. and Seale, H., 2020. Current knowledge of COVID-19 and infection prevention and control strategies in healthcare settings: A global analysis. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 41(10), pp.1196-1206.

Kochlamazashvili, M., Kamkamidze, G., McNutt, L.A., DeHovitz, J., Chubinishvili, O. and Butsashvili, M., 2018. Knowledge, attitudes and practice survey on blood-borne diseases among dental health care workers in Georgia. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 12(10), pp.864-870.

Navaratnam, V., Forrester, D.L., Eg, K.P. and Chang, A.B., 2019. Pediatric and adult bronchiectasis: Monitoring, cross?infection, role of multidisciplinary teams and self?management plans. Respirology, 24(2), pp.115-126.

Shrivastava, R., Mishra, N., Shrivastava, R. and Sharma, R., 2020. Epidemiology of dental health: A guidance to manage dental problems in novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak in India. Int J Oral Health Dent, 6, pp.122-5.

World Health Organization, 2018. Improving infection prevention and control at the health facility: interim practical manual supporting implementation of the WHO guidelines on core components of infection prevention and control programs (No. WHO/HIS/SDS/2018.10). World Health Organization.

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