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Infection Prevention and Control: A Comprehensive Guide

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1. Introduction - Infection Prevention And Control

Infection prevention and control is a type of scientific approach and particular solution that is designed to prevent the health worker and patients from harm caused. In the current era where most of the countries are facing health related issues like “covid 19” pandemic and some other health related problems. In which, the control of infection and prevention is becoming more important in the recent time period. It has been addressed that the raise in the number of hospital infections acquired infection. As per the report of “WHO '' approx. 7 % of the people addicted in the healthcare facility will acquire at least 1 “HAI ''. It has been estimated that the first wave of the covid 19 in the UK hospital has acquired, as a result the percentage of infection has rapidly increased. In order to reduce the risk of infection in the hospital and other stores, the staff and healthcare sector people have advised to perform at least 10 standards that help to prevent and control infection. Also, this helps to minimize the spread of infection. “Hand hygiene, placement and infection assessment, safe management and care of the environment, safe management of equipment, safe management of Linen, personal protective equipment, respiratory and cough hygiene, safe management of blood and body fluids, safe disposal of waste, occupational safety”. It has been seen that most of the infections are commonly spread by the hand, in this case it can be reduced the risk of spread of infection by proper “Hand hygiene”. Also, WHO” has developed some guidelines to prevent it like, “all workers in the healthcare sector must take, through participating, the regular washing hands. On the other hand, WHO” has developed 5 outlines for the hand Hygiene which is “properly taken care of before touching the patient, after touching the patient, after touching the patient’s surroundings”. In the context of “safe management and care of the environment”, the environment for the patient and also for the health workers must be safe for the practice. Even in the area it has been seen that some dangerous microorganisms are living on the surface, doors, handles, tables and other places, that increase the risk of infection and it is not good for a safe environment.

The equipment in the healthcare sector plays a major and crucial role, it should be ensured by the healthcare sector that the equipment that comes with a robust service and the person who is active in the healthcare sector have proper and adequate knowledge of the safe usage of that equipment. Also, it has been observed that the equipment is a high source of cross infection and their major role in the spread of infection in the healthcare sector. In order to protect the equipment, the non-contact thermometers can help to reduce the risk of spreading the infection. Also, it is advisable to the healthcare sector that at the time of investing in the new equipment to ensure that the equipment is properly optimized for infection prevention control.

2. Main body

2.1 Evaluation of Infection from infectious agents and reservoirs

The Infectious agent is a type of organism that is able to produce the bacteria, fungi, parasites, and vitreous, and also the infectious diseases. Generally, there are four types of infectious agents that are considered, which are “bacteria, virus, fungi, and parachutes.” “Bacteria”' can be anywhere like a phone, laptop. Also, it is involved in some foods like cheese and yogurt. In the context of “bacteria ''it has some good bacteria that help to digest the food in the human body. On the other hand, there some harmful bacteria that affect the human body. As per the view of the author Septaria et al. (2022), It has been seen that the bacteria enter in the human body through the eyes, mouth, nose, and open wounds. once the bacteria enter in the human body it multiplies itself rapidly which is harmful for the human body. In some other cases, it has been seen that once the bacteria enter in the human body it tries to settle in the kidney, spine, brain, lounge and other tissues, through this it enters in the bloodstreams and spreads out the body and attacks multiple areas in the entire body. The virus is smaller than bacteria. Generally, it has been seen that the “bacteria '' is microscopic scale. As narrated by Khurana et al. (2021) On the other hand, “the virus” is nanoscopic. The range of the virus is in between the 25 nanometres, and up to 250 nanometres are considered as a smallpox virus. Viruses can infect the human body by entering the healthy cells. The seasonal guy is also known as a virus. There are some common viruses which are “common cold, nor virus, stomach flu, hepatitis”. In order to protect from the “viruses”, there are some antibacterial medicines available that help to protect from the bacteria. “Fungi” is a type of dead cell and there are two types of cells which are “yeast fungi'' and Mold fungi”. In the yeast fungi there are mostly 1500 types of species that have been found. Also, some fungi help to make the beer, bread grow and make the process of wine. Generally, the size of these cells is 3 to 5 micrometres. On The other than the “mould fungi” is multi cellular filaments. It is generally found in rotting plants and in animals. The “parasite” generally enters in the human body by the mouth, nose, and some other places.

Reservoirs are a type of infectious agent that without injuring itself infect the other individuals. Generally, six types of reservoirs are considered which are “dirty surface, people, weather animals, insects, and soil”. In the human reservoirs may not properly show the effect of illness. It has been seen that the diseases are transmitted because humans do one realize that they are infected, and they do not take proper precautions to prevent them self. In the animal body, some diseases are transmitted from one animal to another like humans. As narrated by Fernandes et al (2019), some infectious diseases that are transmitted in the natural process from animal to human are considered as “zoonosis”. On the other hand, plants, water, and soil are also considered as reservoirs for infectious agents. It has been observed that some infections are transmitted by the soil, water and animals. 

2.2 Portals of exit and periods of communicability

The respiratory route in the human body is a typical mode of transmission of infection. If a person who suffers from any infectious disease coughs or sneezes can able to spare on the other person. It has higher chance that the infection or bacteria can enter in the second human body by the nose, eyes surface and mouth. As expressed by the author Chan et al. (2020), Oral transmission of infection is also one of the most common ways to transmit infection in the human body to the human body. It occurs from the contaminated water, licking and chewing on the contaminated surface. Faces and saliva can be a way of contamination of the environment. The portal of exit can include “blood respiratory, and any existing from the urinary tracts”. The control of infection is a major and common issue which is arising in the current era. It has been seen that the most common portal of exit in the human body is the hand, mouth, nose, and some other places. On the other hand, human to human spread of infection is one of the most common ways to transmit. In the person-to-person contact, it has been seen that “aerosol particles, faucal oral spared, other body fluids, sexual activities” are most common way. It has been seen that it occurs from the contaminated water, licking and chewing on the contaminated surface. Faces and saliva can be a way of contamination of the environment. As narrated by Gallè et al. (2020), The proper understanding and knowledge of infection can help to avoid the spread of bacteria and infection. Good hygiene is a primary way to prevent the transmission of infection in the human to human and also by another way.

2.3 Modes of transmission

Inversion and growth of germs in the human body can be called “bacteria, virus, and fungi ''. The infection in the human body can begin from anywhere. An infection can be caused by health issues, fevers, and some other problems. There are some modes of transmission of infection in the human body as well as animal body's which is “direct contact, omits, aerosol, oral, and vector”. Direct transmission of infection in the human body occurs through the body-to-body contact. As per the view of the author Islam et al. (2020), this considers a most common and high risk of rupture of transmission of infection to patient and also personnel. “Remit transmission” is generally involved in the susceptible connect of human and animal. There are some examples of transmission in Finite transmission” like medical equipment’s, environmental surface, clothing's, and kennels”. Content from other to other is one of the most frequent modes of transmission of infection and it can be divided into indirect infection and direct infection. Generally, the transmission of infection if body to body and physical transmission of infection and bacteria are considered direct infection. On the other hand, the contact between the contaminated object and human body is considered an indirect mode of transmission of infection and bacteria. Oral transmission of infection is also one of the most common ways to transmit infection in the human body to the human body. It occurs from the contaminated water, licking and chewing on the contaminated surface. Feces and saliva can be a way of contamination of the environment. As stated by the author Oza et al. (2020), It has been seen that most of the infections are commonly spread by the hand, in this case it can be reduced the risk of spread of infection by proper “Hand hygiene”

2.4 portals of entry and related diseases

The portal of entry refers that the infection can able to enter the susceptible host. The portal of entry in the human body includes “upper respiratory tract, lounge, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal tract” and some other body parts. It is a site where the infection and bacteria enter the human body. It can enter the human body directly and also indirectly. In the direct transmission it can be entering the human body by the “air droplets, faecal oral spread, blood or body fluids, skin or mucous membrane content, and sexual content”. As expressed by the author Herbe? et al. (2020), direct transmission of infection in the human body occurs through the body-to-body contact. This considers a most common and high risk of rupture of transmission of infection to patient and also personnel. “Remit transmission” is generally involved in the susceptible connect of human and animal. On the other hand, the infection can also be transmitted by indirect means. There are some examples of indirect contact: “airborne transmission, contaminated objects, foods and drinking of water, animal to person contact, animal reservoir, insect bite, environmental reservoirs”. As opined by the author McLean (2020), it has been observed that some infectious diseases are able to long travel and remain suspended in the air for an extended period of time. The infection can also be transmitted by the contaminated foods and waters. Generally, it is transmitted by the improper handling of foods like meat. Improper maintenance of food is able to create such types of bacteria that affect the human body. Some diseases are transmitted through the animal to the human body. Generally, it happens when an infected animal scratches or bite the human or an infectious animal is closer to the human. Also, it has been seen that some time animal to animal transmission of diseases are transmitted to the human body. Most of the humans are faced with the “Zoonosis” diseases from the transmission of infection in animals to humans. 

2.5 Suspectable hosts suffering from infection

Infection can affect any kind of human and age group of people. It has been observed that susceptible hosts are mostly old age people and the persons who already suffered from any other diseases. Also, some young children are suffering from the infection. In the old age of people where those have low levels of the immune system and good enzymes, those who fight with the infection do not work properly, as they mostly suffer. On the other hand, a person who already suffers from other diseases might have higher chances that it can affect them, as they also have low levels of immunity. As per the view of the author Bridget et al. (2020), Proper and frequent hade wash, covering mouth and nose while sneezing can help to reduce the risk of transmission of infection from one human to another human. It has been observed that most of the old people have faced physiologic changes that affect the immune system, as a result they faced more infectious diseases as compared to the other age of peoples. It has been observed that mostly the 65 plus age group of people has suffered from the infection. On the other hand, the new born babies to 3 years of age are also suffering from this infection.

2.6 infection control processes and techniques

In the current era the prevention of infection is becoming more important. Infection can affect any person by any way like directly or indirectly. There are some ways they can help to prevent and control infection. In order to reduce the risk of infection in the hospital and other stores, the staff and healthcare sector people have advised to perform at least 10 standards that help to prevent and control infection. As stated by the author Lee (2020), Also this helps to minimize the spread of infection. “Hand hygiene, placement and infection assessment, safe management and care of the environment, safe management of equipment, safe management of Linen, personal protective equipment, respiratory and cough hygiene, safe management of blood and body fluids, safe disposal of waste, occupational safety”. It has been identified that most of the infections are transmitted in the human body through the hand, as proper hygiene of the hand can reduce the risk of spreading the infection. Also, WHO '' has discussed the 5 outlines for hand hygiene which is maintaining the hygiene “before touching the patient, after touching the pertinent, after touching the patient’s surroundings' '. As opined by the author Avortri and Nabyonga-Orem (2021), the environment for the patient and also for the health worker must be safe and proper hygiene. Even in the area it has been seen that some dangerous microorganisms are living on the surface, doors, handles, tables and other places, that increase the risk of infection and it is not good for a safe environment. The equipment in the health sector is also a high source of transmission of infection of one human to another human. It can be advisable to the health sector that it can be used with the non-contact thermometers, as it can easily reduce the risk of transmission of infection and bacteria. It is advisable to the healthcare sector that at the time of investing in the new equipment to ensure that the equipment is properly optimized for infection prevention control. The (PPE) “personal protective equipment '' is able to reduce the risk of transmission of infection. The government mandates some rules such as: “stored close to the point of use in a clean area, disposed of, damaged or contaminated”. As opined by the author Ilesanmi et al. (2021), the practices of cough hygiene aim to mitigate the transmission of infection of one human to another human. Proper cover of nose and mouth with the disposable, ensure the wash of hands in timely can mitigate the risk of infection.

2.7 Controlling environment

The risk of transmission of infection in the environment can be controlled by the following steps which is: “clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces on a regular basis”. It can be advisable to the health sector that it can be used with the non-contact thermometers, as it can easily reduce the risk of transmission of infection and bacteria. It is advisable to the healthcare sector that at the time of investing in the new equipment to ensure that the equipment is properly optimized for infection prevention control. The practices of cough hygiene aim to mitigate the transmission of infection of one human to another human. Proper cover of nose and mouth with the disposable, ensure the wash of hands in timely can mitigate the risk of infection. As per the view of the author Houghton et al. (2020), The proper understanding and knowledge of infection can help to avoid the spread of bacteria and infection. Good hygiene is a primary way to prevent the transmission of infection in the human to human and also by another way.

3. Conclusion

The study is based on infection prevention and control. In the current era, health is the first priority of humans. It has been discussed how the infection, bacteria, parasites, and fungi are affecting human health. In the main body of the study yet has been discussed the infectious agents and reservoirs. “Bacteria”' can be anywhere like a phone, laptop. Also, it is involved in some foods. It has been seen that the bacteria are enter in the human body through the eyes, mouth, nose, and open wounds. Once the bacteria enter in the human body it multiplies itself rapidly which is harmful for the human body. It has been discussed the way that can help to prevent from the infection. It has been identified that most of the infections are transmitted in the human body through the hand, as proper hygiene of the hand can reduce the risk of spreading the infection. “Hand hygiene, placement and infection assessment, safe management and care of the environment, safe management of equipment, safe management of Linen, personal protective equipment, respiratory and cough hygiene, safe management of blood and body fluids, safe disposal of waste, occupational safety” is a key that mitigate the risk of transmission of infection.

Reference

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