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This section illustrates the difference between managers and leaders in performing the organizational activity in terms of roles and characteristics. It also showcases the effective theories and function of the leaders and managers in the context of Sainsbury plc. The main motive of this assignment is to illustrate the overall functioning of the management of the organization and providing a in depth knowledge about management and leadership with proper example.

LO1 Differentiate between the role of a leader and the function of a manager

P1: Distinguish between leader and manager in terms of roles and characteristics


The managers are the organizers of the organization who performs and manages the organizational activities to achieve the desired goals of the organization. Therefore, the managers analyse the performance of the organization and strategies unique methods and strategy to achieve the goals and accelerates the performance to gain more opportunity of growth. The managers play a essential character in performing the organizational activity and boosting the overall operations of the organization in the local and international region (Dudley et al 2020). Therefore, the managers ensure that all the resources and employees are working effectively and efficiently to support the growth segment of the company. In the positive aspects the managers distribute the work evenly in different departments to analyse he performance and also access the work in a timely manner. In the context of Sainsbury, the managers perform the organizational activity and leads the overall employee base with effective performance in the local and global context in terms of effective distribution.


Leaders are the employees appointed by the management of the organization to complete and assist the employees in accomplishing the tasks. Therefore, leaders play a vital role in accelerating the performance of the employees and motivating them to provide more effort in the organizational activities. Thus, the leader's binds up the employees and improves their skills and ability along with the existing talent to provide in the organizational activity. The leaders playa essential role in accomplishing the organizational; activity and rectifying the errors provided by the employees. Thus, leaders follow the leadership style to accelerates the growth functioning and creating a team orient working environment for better processing.

Difference betweenmanagers and leaders

The role of the managers and leaders both are essential for the organization in performing effectively. Thus, manager accomplishes the task and delivers its to the customer to gain a positive feedback form the viewpoint of the customer. Therefore, leaders modify the task in a proper and organized manner by communicating the vision and mission of the organization to the employees.



Performs the role of setting the objective in an organized manner.

Following the rules and objective executed by the manager

Communicating the policies of the organization to the leaders.

Executing the polices in a effective manner to influence the working environment.

Provides direction to the overall department

Provides direction to the team members or subordinates only.

Mainly focuses on the objective and desired goals of the organization.

Mainly focuses on the performance of the employees in accomplishing the organized task.

Contributes in organizing, planning, controlling the organizational activity properly.

Works only for motivating and inspiring the employees of the organization.

It is been analyzed from the above table that manger plays the role of major functioning of the organizational activity and accelerates the growth functions of the organization (Imron, Satria and Puspitaningtyas, 2019). The leaders execute the role of the manager to the employees and motivates them to complete the job accordingly in a very effective manner. Thus, both managers and leaders are very much essential in promoting the organizational activity and accelerating the growth opportunity of the company in different effective area.

LO2 Apply the role of a leader and the function of a manager in given contexts of Sainsbury plc 

P2 : Examine examples of how the role of a leader and the function of a manager apply in different situational contexts.

In the context of Sainsbury, the company performs all the role and function of an effective manager and leaders are required to be performed. Thus, the effective manager and leaders of the respective organization accelerates the growth functioning of the organization to distribute its brand name in another regional context (Bratton, 2020). Therefore, the following are the example theories used by the managers and leaders in proper functioning in the context of Sainsbury: -

  • Behavioral leadership theory- The leadership theory displays the behavioral context of the leader in performing the organizational activity properly. Thus, a good behavioral leader will understand the working capacity of the employees and organize a strategic approach to boost the overall operation of the organization. For example- The good behavioral analyse the performance and weak area of the employees and communicates with them to mitigate the issues and motivates them.
  • Behavioral management theory- The behavioral approach is also been utilized by the management of the organization to analyse the operation of the organization and achieve the growth function in effective area (Odrowaz-Coates, 2020). Thus, good behavior results in effective control over the operational area of the organization and accelerating the growth access in in proper manner.
  • Classical theory of management- The classical theory mainly promotes the particular task is effective decision making and distributing it among the team members. Therefore, the classical theory also analyses the role of the management in identifying the path of organizational growth.
  • Classical theory in leadership- In the context of leadership the leaders analyse the efficiency of the employees and their effective performance in the organizational activity (Imron, Satria and Puspitaningtyas, 2019). Thus it is a traditional approach to motivate the employees and capture their attention to the organizational activity an displaying them the importance of organizational mission and vision.
  • Contingency theory of management- The contingency theory is been used by the managers in analyzing the efficiency and providing solution in the required area. Therefore, primary functioning of the contingency theory is been based on the technical practice used for effective growth of the organization.
  • Contingency theory in leadership- The leaders uses this theory to analyse the issues and lack in performance of the employees performing the organizational activity. Therefore, it also assist in providing solution for the organization in relate boosting the perform along with the development of activities properly for achieving the growth access and career development opportunity.

P3 :  Apply different theories and models of approach, including situational leadership, systems leadership and contingency.

  • Situational leadership- The model is been based on the idea and performance of the manager and the processing of the organization in capable of adapting the different leadership style in performing the organizational activity (Kozachuk, and Conley, 2020). In the context of Sainsbury if the organization faces any problems in the market operating area or internal employee dispute the situational leadership analyses the main area of issues and strategies different measure to mitigate it. Thus, this theory is very much beneficial in mitigating the major or minor issues through effective solution (Wuryani et al. 2020). The situational leadership works according to the situation to mitigate the obstacle and accelerates the operation with a continuous process (Al-Khamaiseh et al. 2020). For example- If there is a rise in conflict between the team members according to the situation the role of the leader is to work according to the situation to solve the conflict and access the continuation of organizational activity. Thus, the effective decision after analyzing the major issues mitigates the problem and accelerate the team-oriented performance.
  • System leadership- The system leadership qualities means the leader only focuses o the final result other than the overall operation. Therefore, the theory is highlighting the final result extracted from the activities performed to achieving the organizational goal. Therefore, the leaders only analyse the result and matches with the desired result to gain the opportunity in the effective area. Thus, the Sainsbury uses this theory while opening new stores in the outside region to analyse the end result and accessing the growth it that region.
  • Contingent leadership- Thus theory is been used to determine the type of leadership style in terms of the situation in a positive or negative manner. Thus, the founds the solution or access the potential growth of the organization in every area to support the context and promote the organization in effective area. This type of strategy is been mainly used to analyse a proper path of achieving the organizational goals and accelerating the performance effectively.
  • Chaos theory- The chaos theory is totally based on the actions and performance in the market area (Argyris, 2020). Thus, the theory accelerates the slowed area and access the growth function in boosting the marketing operation and undergoing the projects (Jozmaleki, Dabbagh and Behnia, 2020).
  • Management by objectives- The management by objective is an effective model that aims to develop the productivity and performance of the organization by illustrating the goals of the organization. Thus, the manager performs this theory by setting the objectives, Monitoring the performance, Evaluating effective strategy for modification and Providing rewards after fulfilling.


It is been concluded from this section that both leadership and managers play a essential role in highlighting the effective area for development. Thus, the motive of both the departments is to strategies effective measures and analyse the performance after wards. In the context of Sainsbury, the organization performs all the major activity in accessing the growth ability in different effective area. Thus the theories highlights the major information about the importance of management function and leadership style in evolving the skills and performance of the organization.

Section 2


In this report, a demonstration of the key operations followed by Sainsbury Plc is determined along with its impact on the decision-making process of the management. Furthermore, all aspects of operational activities are determined to align with the objectives of the organisation.

LO3 Demonstrate an appreciation of the role leaders and managers play in the operations function of an organisation

P4 Explain the key approaches to operations management and the role that leaders and managers play

The key approaches towards operation management in Sainsbury Plc along with the obligations of leaders and managers are

Total quality management: It is one of the most commonly used strategies among large organisations in order to enhance the process of production effectively. This approach is implemented to determine the actual requirement of the customers and further develops the product and services accordingly (Simi?, 2020). The cost of incorporating this approach is quite less. The primary purpose of this strategy is to satisfy the customers, along with the suppliers. The organisation by implementing TQM in their business process can enhance the performance and growth of the company. In this, the role of the leader is to involve and influence the employees towards the process of production along with utilising the various function carried out in the business. Furthermore, the leaders focus on their department to develop a well-structured plan through its commitment and performance. The role of the manager is to maintain a balance between both internal forces as well as external forces such as customers. Further, their role is too convincing the suppliers with various perquisites of business partners in order to receive enhanced service from their end.

Six Sigma is a procedure which emphasis on the efforts of the team for completing a particular task along with enhancement of the performance. The approach of sig sigma is to monitor the various functions in order to eliminate the defects that come across in the product and services. By implementing this approach, the organisation gets additional support to achieve its goal of expansion of customer along with a high satisfaction level by eliminating the problems that are occurring while working in the business (Webb, 2020). In this, the role of the manager is to showcase strategies or ways to the management to save the cost through extensive review and setting of a goal. Further, they provide support to analyse the employees and derive outcome based on it. The role of the leader is to invest its commitment in the six sigma approach through training and utilisation of the available resources (Offstein, Dufresne and Childers 2020). Moreover, it communicates the impact and value of sig sigma to its respondents and influences them towards the outline of the approach.

Lean production: In this approach, it states to use the best method for the particular task in order to ascertain the desired results. However, it cannot be denied the outcome can be affected due to different factors. The primary objective of this approach is to use the available resources as per their capability and potentiality by reducing the wastage as much as possible (Korkmaz, 2020). It is a systematic process which uses the best method by removing the wastes from the process of manufacturing. Furthermore, implementation of this procedure ensures the enhancement of quality along with the motivation of the workforce as it involves every aspect of the business. The role of the leader is to monitor and make the employees adapt and understand their obligations towards the lean production to derive desired results. Further, it motivates employees to increase the productivity level along will eliminating the identified waste. The role of the manager is to determine the effective impact of product and services along with monitoring that no useful things are being removed. Further, they develop reports about the progression of the project.

P5 Explain the importance and value of operations management in achieving business objectives.

Operation management is an essential element of the business organisation for its future growth in the market. Some of them are

Process of transforming input into output: This function showcases the opportunity to the organisation to ascertain the demand of the customer for the product and services through operational management. Furthermore, this assumption will support the business to utilise the final product and services intelligently. In addition to that, the outcome will also determine the potential customer base and acceptability of the products in the market.

Distribution and monitoring of network systems: it is one of the vital factors of the operation management to understand, maintain, communicate and control the process of production within the business. It also ensures that appropriate distribution network of merchandise is accomplished to achieve the objective and goal of the business. The fulfilment of this function depicts the intentions of future resources that can be utilised properly.

Designing procedure: It is the fundamental strategy of operation management. Its role is to specify the appropriate process of production of the products in the organisation by fulfilling the requirements of the customer along with assuring profit margin in order to maintain its position in the market (Liu, Zhang and Zhang, 2020). The main criteria are to design the desired product by taking into account the expectation of the customers.

Logistics management: Logistics and inventory play a crucial role because, without them, the organisation cannot transform goods from one place to another within a stipulated time. Inventory process is very important for the huge production and safety purposes of the products. If the logistics and inventory are not maintained properly, then it can lead to decreases in the production which will lead to non-fulfilment of the demand of the customers. The organisation should put the main emphasis on the enhancement of logistics and inventory management to save time and energy at the same time.

Capacity management: The identification of the capability for the improvement of the production process is known as capacity management in the domain of operation management. This element act as a framework which ensures that the good produced within the capacity of the production so that the manufacturing process is carried on swiftly. Furthermore, the excess goods without the proper check of the capacity will lead to a lack of quality and will affect the reputation of the organisation in the market.

LO4 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between leadership and management in a contemporary business environment

P6 Assess the factors within the business environment that impact operational management and decision-making by leaders and managers

Culture: Culture defines the core of the organization based on which the company works and will further operate in future. The business environment is encircled with the culture were the workings of the business takes places and it is the responsibility of the organization to design products which a fulfilling the wants of the community. It plays a pivotal role in operation management as the culture defines the workforce culture which has an impact on the production and profit margin. Further, the decisions of the management also include the criteria of culture in it.

Ethics: It is the ethical responsibility of the organization to follow and implement all the corporate social responsibility in order to run the business activities in the society. Furthermore, the organization should make sure that the decision are made keeping in, mind the obligations towards the investors and customers at large. The ethics plays a role alleging with the vision and mission of the organisation along with the compliance of the leader and the manager.

CSR: CSR is an obligation that organization has to maintain in order to operate its business in the society. Further, CSR ensures development and sustainability of the business by incorporating social, economic, legal and philanthropic responsibilities towards the communities. The guidelines of the CSR policy help the organization to understand the ethical nature and expectations of the society towards then company. Practicing and adopting small goal based on the guidelines of the CSR supports the company to increase the overall aspects of the business in the society.

Stockholders: They are the individual who invest their money in the business to support them for future growth for return on investment (JAYARAJ, 2020). These bodies purchase a share of the company listed in the stock market and plays a role in the decisions making powers of the organisation. Furthermore, stockholders can be creditors, customers, government and other community members.

Developing and sustaining entrepreneurship: The managers and leaders play an extensive role in sutaininment and development of the organisation in the market. Furthermore, the theory of entrepreneurship is based on the risk oriented for the growth of the business and also enhances the entrepreneurship skills for future development in the organisation.


It can be concluded that operational management is an important element for running the business smoothly in every aspects. In addition to that, it enhances the credibility, capability and growth of the business and further involves in maintaining sustainability and obligations towards the society. Furthermore, it determines the role of the manager and leaders towards the operational activities carried out in the business for the future growth and development. 

Reference list

Al-Khamaiseh, Z., Halim, B.B.A., Afthanorhan, A. and Alqahtani, A.H. 2020., EXPLORING AND DEVELOPING ITEMS MEASURING SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP II (SLII). Development3, p.D4.

Argyris, C., 2020. Complexity, Chaos Theory and How Organizations Learn Michael Cody.

Bratton, J., 2020. TRAIT, BEHAVIOUR AND CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP. Organizational Leadership, p.125.

Dudley, P.A., Pratt, M.J., Gilbert, C., Abbey, J., Lang, J. and Bruckdorfer, H., 2020. Cross-school 'close-to-practice'action research, system leadership and local civic partnership re-engineering an inner-city learning community. London Review of Education.

Imron, A., Satria, R. and Puspitaningtyas, I., 2019, December. Implementation of Situational Leadership in Educational Organizations. In the 4th International Conference on Education and Management (COEMA 2019). Atlantis Press.


Jozmaleki, M., Dabbagh, R. and Behnia, S., 2020. Chaos theory and prediction of Future prices in the Oil Products. Chaos8(34).

Korkmaz, O., 2020. The Mediating Role of the Leader-Member Exchange in the Relationship between the Pelz Effect and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Business25(3), pp.291-312.

Kozachuk, L.A. and Conley, A.H., 2020. Development-oriented situational supervision: a leadership approach to supervision in counselor education. Journal of Counselor Leadership and Advocacy, pp.1-12.

Liu, X., Zhang, X. and Zhang, X., 2020. Faultlines and Team Creativity: The Moderating Role of Leaders' Cognitive Reappraisal. Small Group Research, p.1046496420978298.

Odrowaz-Coates, A., 2020. Chaos Theory and the Neoliberal English-Based Dimension of the Polish Higher Education Reforms 2018/2019. Education as Change24(1), pp.01-19.

Offstein, E.H., Dufresne, R.L. and Childers Jr, J.S., 2020. Executive coaching explained: the beginnings of a cont

Simi?, I., 2020. Are managers and leaders one and the same?. Ekonomika66(3), pp.1-13.

Webb, D.M., 2020. Running theaters: Best practices for leaders and managers. Simon and Schuster.

Wuryani, E., Rodlib, A., Sutarsib, S., Dewib, N. and Arifb, D., Analysis of decision support system on situational leadership styles on work motivation and employee performance. Management Science Letters11(2), pp.365-372.

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