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Management and Operations Assignment Sample

Task 1


Management is defined as process of planning, organizing, controlling and managing entity's related operations to achieve targeted objectives. Main motive of applying managerial techniques is to improve decision formulating process of managers. Managers are responsible for managing entity's operations on the other hand leaders are liable for formulating effective policies in business. Managers aims at implanting decisions which can lead to increase in satisfaction level of employees.

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Overview of DHL Limited

DHL is one of the leading courier company of UK. It is listed in London stock exchange. It is treated as world's biggest logistics company. As per its annual report 1.3 billion parcels are delivered by company on daily basis. Company is facing high competition in the market. FedEx, Royal mail and UPS are some of the major competitors of concern company. In the previous year's several types of management techniques are adopted by DHL's managers for improving is business operation. Positive shift was seen in entity's revenue in current year as compared to previous years (Carley, et.al 2017).

Difference between role of leader and manager's functions

Leaders is responsible for leading entity's function. It is different from managers. Behavior of employees is influenced by the leader. Lower level managers are dependent on decisions which are formulated b leaders . They can only be able to work effectively if effective decisions are implemented by leaders (Alvarez, 2016).

Characteristics of leader

Motivational skills - Leader should be able to motivate his employees towards its work. Motivation can be positive of negative. Effective leaders generate positive motivation among employees on the other hand negative motivation may results in declining performance level of employees.

Ability to delegate - Transfer of responsibility or authority from superior to subordinate is termed as delegation. Work is assigned by leader to various employees which are working in different departments of organization (Business tools,2019). 

Characteristics of managers

Planning - Effective and forward looking plans are needed in business. Planning  is an process which covers formulating and implementing plans in business. Effective planning has favorable impact on entity's profitability level.

Reports - Accurate data is needed by upper level managers for developing alternative strategies. It is the duty of manager to provide timely information to upper level managers on timely basis (Bradley, 2016).

Leadership Vs Management





Leadership refers to management capacity to achieve its desired goals. 

Planning, controlling ad directing are included in the Management.

Emphasis on

Main motive of leadership is to influence people towards their goals (Alvarez, 2016).

Activities are effectively managed with the application of managerial techniques..

Main focus

Main focus is to implement new and innovative changes.

To bring efficiency in entity's functions.


Guidelines and principles are formulated under leadership approach

Policies that can improve productivity are developed by applying management principles.


Leadership  functions are performed by leaders.

Management related functions are implemented by managers.


Analyzing Role of Management and Leadership

Solutions to various kinds of entity's problems can be developed by implementing management and leadership approaches These approaches provides an idea of how critical problems of entity can be solved. Contingency theory, chos theory, situational leadership , system leadership are list of commonly applied leadership theory in business (Carley, et.al 2017).

Positive environment can be created with the use of system theory on the other hand situational leadership  theory helps in developing potential among entity's members. Management theories are subdivided into classical and modern management theories. Classic management theory can also be termed as traditional theories as these are based on traditional approaches. While modern approaches are based on pre-defined principles. Businesses which are operating on large scale and advisable to use modern management theories as compared to traditional theories. Productivity level of entity can be improved with the use of modern management theory.

DHL Limited Key operations

Various kinds of activities are performed in DHL limited. Activities can be performed in right manner if there is proper coordination between department's employees. Various management theories can be applied in DHL ltd for performing activities in most suitable manner. DHL limited managers can use contingency theory to improve moral of its employees. Bonus, incentives and promotions can be provided to employees with the application of management theories..

Various approaches to leadership

Management by objective-It is defined as theory which believes that there is positive relationship between management approaches and desired objectives of entity. Mangers of DHL limited are advisable to set standards so that actual performance can be compared with predetermined standard.

Classical theory of management- This theory is based on the assumption that if managers are planning to improve productivity level of its employees then they are required to formulate effective policies on time to time basis. This theory believes in combining efforts of employees towards targeted objectives (Alvarez, 2016).

Behavioral theory - As per this theory skills and abilities of employees should be considered by managers. DHL is using this theory so that company should be careful while selecting the employees for the company and also by getting know that the selected employees are having the appropriate skills as required.

Contingency theory- manager of the company is looking upon the factors that are responsible for increasing the cost of the company and accordingly applied the management theory so that the manager is able to implement the changes in the operational activities as well as in the overall organization. the overall motive of this theory is to find out the reason of increasing the cost and then accordingly change the policies of the company and finally implement these changes so that the company can be able to reduce the cost as well as increase the revenue of the company (Pearson, 2017).

Effectiveness of Leadership Styles

Leadership styles are defined as approaches of formulating and implementing plans. There are several types of leadership styles which can be used in business.  Autocratic, Authoritative, Pacesetting, Democratic and Affiliative are some of the common types of leadership styles (Carley, et.al 2017).

Autocratic leadership styles

It focuses on making differentiation between  followers and authoritarian leaders. Professional relationship is created in autocratic leadership style (Alvarez, 2016).

Theories of Operational Management

Six sigma -It is considered as one of the commonly applied technique in product improvement. Six sigma approach aims to reduce defects in the products which are produced in the company.  This approach aims to manufacture products that are 99.99 % defects free. Measurement and improvement are two key elements of six sigma approaches This techniques is further classified into two parts i.e DMAIC and DMADV. DMADV aims to add new activities in the existing business processes on the other hand DMAIC focuses on improving existing business processes.

DMAIC has been divided into 

  • Defining entity's problem
  • Measuring and analysing existing business process
  • Accurate analysis of data
  • Improving entity's process by analysing results
  • Implementing necessary measures for improving entity's processes.

Role of managers and leaders in six sigma approaches

Six sigma is an technique of operational managers. It is the duty of leader to communicate six sigma approaches to various levels of organization. Managers are responsible for developing effective six-sigma approach in business (I six sigma,2018).


Lean production -it is treated as widely used theory of production management. This theory is applied for eliminating wastages from entity's manufacturing system. If wastage are removed from the item then it will leads to improve quality of products. It is mainly applied in automobile industry(Bradley, 2016).

Role of leaders and managers in lean production technique

  • Productivity level of employees can be improved as lean management theory provides accurate direction to entity's employees.
  • Eliminating wastages by lowering down unnecessary processes
  • Accurate analysis of effectiveness of products
  • Reporting product level information to upper level managers.

Total quality management - Quality and prices are directly linked with each other. If products are of better quality then these can be sold at higher prices in the market. TQM approach focuses on continuous improvement Product quality can be enhanced by implementing effective internal policies. There might be variations in TQM  technique from department to department (Ross, 2017).

Continuous improvement program -Panning, performing checking and validating are four key elements of continuous improvement programs. Regular improvement improves value of products in the market. It begins with identification of opportunity and ends till successful implementation of plan (Bradley, 2016).


In the following part, the discussion of the management and leadership within an organizational setting was done. The comparative analysis of leaders and managers was done. Various approaches like DMAIC, Six sigma, etc.,wereanalysed and role of the manager was elucidated.



  • Alvarez, J.L. ed., 2016. The diffusion and consumption of business knowledge. Springer.
  • Bradley, G., 2016. Benefit Realisation Management: A practical guide to achieving benefits through change. Routledge.
  • Business tools,2019 Contingency theory (online) Business tools Available at:https://www.business.com/contingency-management-theory/ Available at: 04/08/2020
  • Carley, M. and Christie, I., 2017. Managing sustainable development. Routledge.
  • Crane, A., Matten, D., Glozer, S. and Spence, L., 2019. Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press.
  • I six sigma,2018 what is six sigma (online) I six sigma Available at:https://www.isixsigma.com/new-to-six-sigma/what-six-sigma/  Accessed on:04/08/2020
  • llen, T.T., 2019. Design for Six Sigma. In Introduction to Engineering Statistics and Lean Six Sigma(pp. 543-550). Springer, London.
  • Ross, J.E., 2017. Total quality management: Text, cases, and readings. Routledge.
  • Simplicable,2017 Types of Business objectives(online) Simplicable Available at:https://simplicable.com/new/business-objectives Accessed on :04/08/2020
  • Wu, C.H. and Parker, S.K., 2017. The role of leader support in facilitating proactive work behavior: A perspective from attachment theory. Journal of Management43(4), pp.1025-1049
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