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Methods For Improving Quality Of Service (Qos) Of Backbone/Wired Networks

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Introduction: Methods For Improving Quality Of Service (Qos) Of Backbone/Wired Networks

A large set of indicators must be addressed by software teams at the time of creating a computer network. With reliability as well as the performance of a computer network to network connectivity as well as stability, the safety of a computer network, as well as data backup procedure, are all important considerations at the time of developing a wired computer network. A network's quality can be assessed, analyzed, as well as simulated to improve the effectiveness of a computer network. There are several ways, protocols, mechanisms as well as models to enhance the overall effectiveness of a wired computer network. In the following research, it is required to find the methods which are used to enhance the quality of service of the wired networks as well as backbone networks. It is required to critically evaluate the following way of improving including comparison as well as contrast.

Techniques for increasing QoS in wired networks

A backbone network which is also known as the core network is a component of a computerized network that links connections as well as provides a conduit for exchanging data across multiple subnetworks as well as LANs. A backbone network can connect disparate systems within an office, across many campuses on a complex, or large distances [2].

At the time of network architecture, there seem to be four key factors to consider to make a computer network that is secure, dependable as well as smoothly performs. Which include integrated security mechanisms, hardware as well as software standards, network robustness as well as redundancy [1]. A backbone system is often made up of several pieces of switches, bridges, cabling, gateways as well as routers. Individual nodes which are also known as access points do not link to the backbone directly, but rather through individual ISPs, LANs or bigger corporate infrastructures [3]. There are three layers in the design of backbone networks. Those three layers are as follows: access, core as well as distribution. To improve the performance of a backbone network, it is required to upgrade the faster devices in the networks. It is required to use the protocols of faster routing for large networks because static routing works effectively in smaller networks. It is required to use the gigabit Ethernet to improve the performance of a backbone network. The memory of the device has to increase to enhance the performance. Backbone networks mostly use the bus topology when all the nodes of a network are connected with a single wire. Optical fiber technology might be used to increase the reliability of a backbone computer network [4]. Quality of Service which is also known as QoS is a collection of network technologies that ensure a network's ability to reliably execute applications of high priority as well as traffic despite the constrained capacity of a network. QoS is overall network management as well as a control system that is developed to eliminate disturbance like loss of packet in the transmission system, delay as well as jitter. QoS also establishes limits as well as objectives for certain types of data that transit over networks of internet protocols as bandwidth traffic.

Communication technology advancements

According to Jha et al, 2021 communication technology advancements set the ground for the realization of the anticipated power grid which is also known as SG. This is a next-generation power grid with better capabilities of controlling as well as monitoring. The introduction of high-speed devices of the digital process called phase units of measurement PMUs, in particular, has boosted the grid's capabilities of monitoring [5]. The phase readings obtained by the PMUs are sent to a central monitoring station for processing and control.

According to Madanan et al, 2020, Wireless networks of communication are primarily divided into two types: wireless networks based on infrastructures as well as wireless networks which are without infrastructure. Wireless networks based on infrastructure use base stations, known as network nodes, to offer connectivity to devices through a wired backbone connection [6]. The function controllers are access points that are linked together to speed up coordinated functions.In which activities of the wireless LAN are coordinated as well as managed by a single base station, which also allows for resource allocation as well as dynamic scheduling. These kinds of backbone networks directly have the points of access, lowering the latency of the transmission and eliminating several paths of hop. Other characteristics of backbone networks include more centralized security control as well as scalability.

Quality of service improving methods

There are several techniques to enhance the quality of service of a backbone network. Those are as follows: traffic shaping, scheduling, reservation of the resources as well as admission control [7].

Traffic shaping is a strategy related to the quality of services that are implemented on the interfaces of a network to bring greater communication to pass at appropriate levels even though the link is over utilized.

Traffic shaping of a backbone network regulates the pace at which outgoing data packets are sent to accommodate the flow of traffic of the downstream device. When data traffic is transferred from a link of high speed to a link that is comparatively lower speed, or when a traffic surge happens, the interface which is incoming of the link of comparatively lower speed suffers from considerable loss of data. To avoid this issue, traffic shaping should be enabled on the device's outgoing interface at the time of connecting to the link whose speed is lesser.

The Protocol of Resource Reservation which is also known as RSVP is a protocol of transport layer that uses the integrated paradigm of services to allocate resources along with a network. RSVP protocol runs across an IPv6 network as well as an IPv4 network as well as enables reservations of resources that are initiated by the receiver for unicast as well as the multicast flow of data.

The admission control process is an important component of the delivery of quality of service in the backbone networks since it influences how much resources of the network are used and if the contractual features of quality of services are supplied [8]. CAC or call control admission is regarded as among the most vital parts of a solution of quality control since it must evaluate the circumstances of a backbone network as well as determine if a new data flow might be admitted without any QoS standard breaking.

Critical evaluation

Scheduling process

Wireless networking of bus topology is seen as a feasible economic paradigm as well as a potential solution for a backbone wired network [9]. This must offer similar or equivalent assurances of the quality of service as older wire line backbone networks. One important component in developing protocols for WMNs would be to make use of their unique properties, like the immobility of the mesh router as well as power usage of less restricted. With the architecture of cross-layer, the framework handles both scheduling as well as issues of the routing of quality of services. The architecture distributes the power of transmission of the WMN routers in such a way that the geographical recycling of the bandwidth of the backbone network is maximized. The scheduling process will be done using the simulations. Here, it is required to optimize the allocation of the power to satisfy the quality of services in the various flow of traffic. The scheduling process helps to achieve effective utilization of the bandwidth than the allocation of the power of the shortest hop. The data queue is entered in the scheduling. The data packets are specified by scheduled as well as unscheduled in presence of the bandwidth. Traffic shaping allows us to move forward when the traffic is less. Traffic shaping is used in the broadband connection.

There are two ways of traffic shaping which are as follows: traffic shaping which is based on application. Another is traffic shaping based on routes [10]. Fingerprinting techniques are employed to identify the program connected with a packet of data, after which the policies of traffic shaping are implemented. When the uplink ports of a backbone network become overburdened with information being delivered out of access, traffic shaping becomes critical. Without the procedure of traffic shaping, any surplus traffic that can only be delivered from a connection would be lost or delayed. Traffic shaping is used to decrease the delay of data packets.

The Protocol of Resource Reservation is a TCP/IP protocol of the transport layer. RSVP provides quality of service for backbone wired networks. RSVP maintains network resources in reserve to ensure data dependability in a wired backbone network [11].

When reservation aggregation is utilized, the backbone wired network employs resource reservation techniques. The aggregation does not normally decrease the requirements of the resource for the assured flow of the quality of service, but that grouping of reservations with the requirements of the QoS which are heterogeneous generally results in accumulated sizes of the reservation that are greater than the total of the independent reservations. Several strategies will influence the size of the overall resource reservation. When a server of RSVP examines the protocols of local routing to retrieve routes, the procedure of resource reservation of the RSVP network begins. A sender transmits IGMP signals to enter a mesh network as well as RSVP signals to allocate resources all along the paths of delivery of the groups.

IntServ as well as RSVP, offers the benefits of the policy of the admission control per request. Quality of Service is a function of the switch as well as a router that optimizes traffic to make way for the most important packet of data [12]. As a result, network traffic which is important now performs better. QoS technology is helpful with telephone lines or in the local area networks with high local traffic volumes. Jitter is a problem in data transfers. Without QoS, outdated devices cannot transmit video as well as voice. Latency is particularly noticeable in the video as well as audio communications.


Packet key parts play an important part in the management of quality of services by, for example, comparing mobile station requested QoS characteristics to the profile of the subscriber as well as conducting authorization, admission control as well as translating operations. The 3GPP-defined UMTS model service bearer provides a framework for implementing relevant techniques related to the quality of services. Because QoS is an issue of end-to-end, appropriate techniques of QoS in the backbone are also required. It should be noted that if the majority of the backbone data is the voice of circuit-switched, differentiation in the QoS can only provide minimal improvements, necessitating moderate more provisioning to provide a decent experience to the end-user. As the proportion of the traffic of packet switching on the backbone grows, so the capacity develop by the differentiation in the quality of service.

 Reference list


[1] Ahmadi, A., Moradi, M., Cherifi, C., Cheutet, V. and Ouzrout, Y., 2018, December. Wireless connectivity of CPS for smart manufacturing: A survey. In 2018 12th International Conference on Software, Knowledge, Information Management & Applications (SKIMA) (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

[2] Ali, Z., Naz, F., Qurban, M., Yasir, M. and Jehangir, S., 2020. Analysis of VoIP over wired & wireless network with implementation of QoS CBWFQ & 802.11 e. International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, 12(1), pp.43-39.

[3] An, N., Kim, Y., Park, J., Kwon, D.H. and Lim, H., 2019. Slice management for quality of service differentiation in wireless network slicing. Sensors, 19(12), p.2745.

[4] Hailu, T.A. and Nedumaran, A., 2019. A survey on provisioning of quality of service (QoS) in MANET. International Journal of Research and Advanced Development, 3(2), pp.34-40.

[5] Hamdi, M.M., Mustafa, A.S., Mahd, H.F., Abood, M.S., Kumar, C. and Al-shareeda, M.A., 2020, November. Performance Analysis of QoS in MANET based on IEEE 802.11 b. In 2020 IEEE international conference for innovation in technology (INOCON) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

[6] Islam, N., Rahman, H. and Nasir, M.K., 2021. A Comprehensive Analysis of QoS in Wired and Wireless SDN Based on Mobile IP. International Journal of Computer Network & Information Security, 13(5).

[7] Jha, A.V., Ghazali, A.N., Appasani, B., Ravariu, C. and Srinivasulu, A., 2021. Reliability analysis of smart grid networks incorporating hardware failures and packet loss. Rev. Roum. Sci. Tech. El, 65, pp.245-252.

[8] Kanellopoulos, D.N. and Wheeb, A.H., 2020. Simulated Performance of TFRC, DCCP, SCTP, and UDP Protocols Over Wired Networks. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications and Networking (IJITN), 12(4), pp.88-103.

[9] Madanan, M., Sayed, B.T. and Dhanasekaran, B., Proposed Design of MANET and Mobility Pattern with Emphasis on the Ad Hoc Routing Protocols to Route Data Packets during Natural Disasters.

[10] Pradhan, B.D., 2020. Mobile Computing.

[11] Raj, J.S. and Joe, M.C.V., 2021. Wi-Fi Network Profiling and QoS Assessment for Real Time Video Streaming. IRO Journal on Sustainable Wireless Systems, 3(1), pp.21-30.

[12] Regitha, M.R. and Paul, V., 2018. Reducing the Frequent Switch Over between the Base Stations through Continuous Analysis of Signal Strength. Asian Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 7(1), pp.99-103.

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