Organizational theories aim to study the human behaviour in an organization who are working individually or in a group to achieve a goal set by the organization. The study of organizational theories encompasses analysing the organizational culture and employee behaviour as the theory consider the employees as a social group and studies the behaviour of them under different scenarios and provides a scientific grid map to help the organization manage the productivity and organizational culture in a methodical way. Different organization holds different views on handling situation and managing human resource depending on the organizational perspective and practices hence the study of Organizational theories has many classifications depending on the topic diversity such as classical organizational theory, Neo classical organizational theory. The mostly applied organizational theories practiced by corporates now a days is mirandized theory which are contingency theory and system theory. This study of theory includes study of bureaucracy, scientific management and division of labour.
Background: The classical theories of organisation
The classical theory of organization is the first approach to study the organizational theory. This approach started in the time of industrial revolution. This systematic study of organization was mostly concerned with the production output rather than employee's perspective. Rather making the process system oriented the theory focuses on the efficiency and productivity of the workers (Micheli, and et.al., 2019). According to critics this theory is based on the bureaucracysystem and concentrates more on the technological and structural aspect rather than studying the work environment. To understand the theory we must undergo six pillars which explains the theory in whole.
The study of organizational behaviour was started post 1920s The first approach was classical theory which was aimed to design the organization in a structure and hierarchy As the classical theory was inclined more to organizational goal achievement there were many reparations and studies done to re organize the theory frame which gave the new approaches like neoclassical theory which was concentrating on loosening the formal bureaucracy of organization and introducing more employee oriented methods. Weber's bureaucracy theory was introduced with hawthorn study. Weber's bureaucracysystem was introduced in 1920's it was more structure oriented the theory was believed to maintain written rules and regulations, optimising the work ability of worker maintaining a proper hierarchy and specialization of work and department to maximize the profit. Thus there were many reparation and studies which was concentrating on worker's environment and safety to prove other factors rather than bureaucracy rules helps in increasing the productivity hence hawthorn study was implemented which showed the importance of working conditions in productivity. Post that there was changes in the bureaucracy system and introduction of more employee friendly and process goal oriented programs and neo classical theory was introduced and modernization of industry took place post 1950s.
From classical theories to Modernism in Organisational theories
As discussed, there were many criticisms of weber's Bureaucratic law and many studies were conducted approaching the changes of classical theory which was only aimed to rules and structuration of organization the neo classical theory is the first change which took place in this theory it is a humanistic approach toward bureaucratic theory . According to neo classical theory more than maintaining hierarchy and rules employee satisfaction and motivation plays a great role in increasing productivity so the organization should focus on employee's goal setting and motivation.
The drastic change in the approach came in 1950's during the modernization of industry when the workforce was moving to urban territory and the organizations were looking for the optimum revenuegeneration. The western media played a great role in creating a worldwide vibe in favour of modernization. It was classified in to two waves the first wave was concentrating on introduction of modern technology in industry during 1950's and the second wave was in 1990's where it was focusing on skilled and trained workforce around the world (Lepskiy, 2018).
It has two classifications
Hence modernization in industry has a great effect on changing the global economy and it showed how an open and liberal system can contribute in the growth of business taking into mind the growth of its human resources.
Modernism in Organizational theories
Modernism can be termed as the section of certain theories of an organization that mainly concentrates on the rationality as well as order. It is also followed by the business with the ideology and enhancement in the organizational structure along with the designs. Further, the combination of the different insights including classical theories and social science that shows the behavior in the concept of modern theory. The modern theories can be described as the perception of the corporation that is a flexible entity, which adopts changes in the environment in a fast manner. However, the theory includes some of the approaches like a socio-technical approach, system approach as well as the contingency approach (Cohen, Bingham, and Hallen, 2019).
In a socio-technical approach, the company mainly includes the social and technical entity within its environment. It is important to know the enforcement that establishes the communication between the proper functioning and system. Further, based on the journal management the approach also gives clarity about the critical review about the effectiveness of the modern theories applied within the organization. However, there are certain changes in the productivity by using the method within the business as the reason behind it, it mainly allows a proper use, and more improvise on the effectiveness of the self-work. It mainly includes the leads towards the changes in management in the business. In this theory, the main aim is to improve in the work of people, which affect the operation of the technology and need to consider their value towards the development of work (Calabretta, Gemser, and Wijnberg, 2017). However, the socio-technical approach work is mainly based on teamwork among the employees as it proves to be effective for the business. The teamwork also enhances the better environment for the employees to manage the activities commercially. They also able to figure out the teamwork and in the groups with the colleagues, which helps to manage the work with proper activities. Moreover, the formalization and standardization allow the employees about the exhibition of the skills and knowledge for enhancing the quality. It makes changes in the organization, which employ people to a higher position, which can be reduced, and need to make a cost-effective approach for the business.
In the contingency approach, the businesses are connected with the surrounding as well as the environment, which need suitable relation with the companies for refining operation efficiency (Fjeldstad, and Snow, 2018). It is considered the perfect way of running the organization appropriately. The contingency approach allows the business to create a structure and plans regarding the production of information. In this, it gives a perception about the importance of using the method that covers the need for different factors of contingency such as the technology and eliminates the method for strategic choice of services. There is also debate on the contingency variables that include the structure of business which corresponds where the structure affect the contingency. Thus, it can affect as the gateway for bureaucracy as well as the undeniable for the business and different routes for the management of consistency.
As per the system approach, the business is considered das the system and the set of consistent subsystems, which are highly dependent on each other there is the various linking process in the organization, includes the targets as well as components (Clement, and Puranam, 2018). Further, the mechanisms in the business can be in a behavior pattern, formal or informal and understanding the opinion and environment. The business run on the basis of internal and external factors of the environment that decides the actual perception of people towards the business. This is considered as a basic important way to accomplish the adaptability of the employees towards the changes in the environment and take decisions based on the micro and macro environmental changes. The proper focus on the theoretical methods helps employees to manage relevant activities for achieving the objectives of the business. It also creates a unique and positive environment for dealing with changes and builds a strong relationship within the employee. Thus, the process of acceptance can be delayed and need to be flexible as per the procedure of decision making and adopting the practical ways to manage the system.
Rationality and Order of an Organization in Modernism
The rationality in the system can be termed as the process of management activities with the help of different types of approaches. Initially, it is essential to get proper registration of the facts and figures for the process. Further, the proper analysis of the problem is required before the final observation and different opinions of the organization are important (Singh, Klarner, and Hess, 2020). As per the varied opinions, the business is the least natural and rationally contrived with the units of the human association. In the context of an organization to perform a suitable range of activities, it is important to add certain coordination in the system. The system needs human effectiveness for the ideal motivation towards performance where it requires an appropriate awareness about the different types of requirements in the business. It helps in arranging meetings, which helps an individual to share ideas. However, the thought about the organizational ecology includes the enhancement of the relationship between the company and the environment that create a sub natural topic by using the contingency theory.
In the modernist system, the bureaucracy is a major topic, which takes place in the discussion. The company is designed as well as produced with the requirements based on the roles, which needed to be fulfilled by the professional people and assigned people based on that is known as the bureaucratic organization (Puranam, 2018). In this, it is important to detach the employees and the people who are not interested in work who abide by the rules of the business. However, the whole system of business must be managed in a disciplined manner and perfect behavior for obtaining the best output in the work. Somehow, bureaucracy can be considered a huge benefit for the business is considering the unorganized way of doing business like monarch rule. The summary of economic materialism can be disastrous as the bureaucracy is a system, which is developed for the ease at the workplace with the personnel learns for suitably controlling the system.
In this, the bureaucracy is considered as efficiency and mainly taking over the system, which is important for the job perspective and it, can be stepping stones for the change and improvement in the system. Based on the different theories the bureaucracy's employees make their activities at the workplace more effective, which is beneficial to the organization. The opinion in the context of bureaucracy mainly produces the above discussion about the use of bureaucracy as a source of solving issues in modern times (Lepskiy, 2018). As per the sociologist, there are different patterns of the bureaucracy and need to manage the level of learning and understanding that it fits in which kind of industry. There are three different patterns of bureaucracy, which are mainly described below:
Representative Bureaucracy- In this, the rules of the employees within the business need to agree on the activities, manage the success of the system and need to be satisfied.
Mock Bureaucracy-The rules in this organization consist of an informal agreement between the people.
Punishment centered Bureaucracy- This type of group helps to feed the rules to the other people and consent regarding the other group, which is triggered by the punishment as well as reward.
As per the different viewpoints, the movement towards the appropriate efficiency, which requires a separation on the individuals who perform as per the strategies who use the actions for, services (Miterev, Turner, and Mancini, 2017). There is an argument on the basic structure of the business that is changing proportionately where the organizational theory helps to change the environment. In the changing environment, there are different forms of bureaucracy are mainly updated and need to replace the old one (Stankevi?i?t?, and Savanevi?ien?, 2018). It is important to deal with the changes in the behavior of people to consider the further process of understanding the condition of the organization. In this, there are 2 different bureaucracy for this and there is one bureaucratic author wand other is management, which is considered as a major change for the business as well as public services. However, both are different things that occurred with the organization and need to meet the requirement based on the quality of employees. The public management can be termed as the process, which is followed by a process that is originated by social service and understand the modernism that applies to the rules of organizational as well as industry (Hong, and et.al., 2017). However, this is one of the strongest methods that have an impact on the design of the organization. However, the central bureaucratic states implying patterns in the business. As per the view of modernist, it is vital to show the efficiency towards the development of services to the public that discovers the actual meaning towards the activities. It creates a unique impact on the people and employees so that the bureaucracy provides better efficiency for the business. In the context of design, it is essential to take proper decisions, which are based on the logic and rationality so the people can appraise that. Thus, the process of the organization are complex and need proper elements to solve the issues (Micheli, and et.al., 2019).
This study provides an absolute discussion about the modernism and its effective measure in the 20thcentury, which is beneficial for the success of organization. The organizational theory and modernism was mainly created on the basis of ideologyand designs are based on 21st century. Further, the proper analysis regarding the modernist organization theories was carried out with initial aspect on the business with suitable rationality. However, the scientific approach helps to understand the modernist organization theorywere explained through the opinion of an individual. In addition to this, the discussion about the modernism approaches and its use to enhance the effectiveness of the design of organization which has impact on the environment. At last, it gives a proper understanding about the culture of organization and its approaches which are used to describe the professional aspect of the business. Thus, it can be concluded that the rationality and order of the business are coexist in the context of the modernism within the organizational theories.
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