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Organisational Behaviour

Introduction- Organisational Behaviour

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Organisational behaviour is becoming a popular concept in today’s business organisations in order to maintain their business operations quite in an effective manner. It is fundamentally considered to be the study of the way people interact within groups. In fact, the practices of the study of organisational behaviour are implemented primarily in endeavours to make the businesses functions more efficiently. In terms of organisational behaviour, it is basically interrelated within a range of disciplines such as anthropology, psychology and sociology. Moreover, the researchers of organisational behaviour are predominantly concerned with the fact of determining the presence of organisational commitment, and employee motivation as well as focusing on job alignment. 

The ultimate purpose of the report is to discuss the influence of culture, politics, and power on the behaviour of others in an organisational context along with estimating the way to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a goal. It will also discuss the establishment of an understanding of the way to collaborate effectively with others and apply thoughts and philosophies of organisational behaviour to a specified business situation. 

Analyse The Influence of Culture, Politics, And Power on the Behaviour of Others in an Organisational Context

Investigation of The Way an Organisations Politics, Power Impacts on Individual and Team Behaviour and Performance

Organisation Culture

In terms of organisational culture, it basically refers to the values and beliefs in a particular organisation. It will describe the organisation culture aspect of Primark in an effective manner. 

  • Power Culture: The power culture in the Primark basically indicates the dew amount of people having the power of authority (Adamson et al., 2021). In a relation to that, the authorised people are predisposed to take any decisions and they allocated tasks to their subordinates. The regulation made by authorised people assists to control team members and attaining goals. 
  • Task Culture: Primark has been utilising this specified organisational culture where the task will be allocated to the capabilities and limitations of the individuals. In that case, the power has been seen to be inevitably moved to the team members and they have every right to make decisions for accomplishing the task. 
  • Role Culture: It principally relays on the fact of strict guidelines which are implemented by the management of Primark. In terms of this culture, the employees have to work really hard to achieve the business objectives (Tyler and Vachhani, 2021). The application of this particular organisational culture supports fashion retail in successfully conducting its business operations.
  • Person Culture: Persona culture in Primark basically encompasses that all the employees are considered to be the core aspect and are treated in an equal manner. the application of this type of organisation culture helps Primark to effectively motivate its employees to get the potential outcome as much as possible.


In terms of organisational politics, it is basically considered as the self-serving behaviour of the staff of Primark. The utilisation of power and social network by the employees in order to enhance their productivity, performance and personal goals are considered the organisational politics (Adamson et al., 2021). In fact, fashion retail along with having optimistic organisational politics and non-partiality encourages the employees as an effective part of the team.

Furthermore, the organisational politic implemented by Primark helps the organisation to increase the association of the employee to operate more efficiently and dedicatedly. In case of having a negative organisation politics as well as a business professional showing partialities might result in a high rate of employee turnover and a reduction in workplace performance (Tyler and Vachhani, 2021). It has been observed that Primark puts an immense concentration on sustaining the organisation’s policy-relevant and equitable for all in terms of getting the potential outcome from it. 

Organisation Power

Power is the authority or rights which supervisors have in order to accomplish the work done by their subordinates (Janssens and Zanoni, 2021). These are several types of firm power which create an enormous impact on the employees of Primark as well as their individual performances.

  • Expert Power: Expertise is the key to accomplishing the work done in an effective manner. in fact, Primark has tended to consolidate in terms of the job training development and program where the superior consists of competent employees according to their specified knowledge and proficiency to complete their job done successfully.
  • Referent Power: It is a consequence of interpersonal relationships where individuals encourage another worker within Primark. It has to be shared by another person to complete work in an effective manner (Janssens and Zanoni, 2021). This will directly impact increasing the organisational performance as well as increasing the productivity rate. 
  • Coercive Power: In terms of coercive power, it is essentially derived from the capability of the individual to impact another staff member through threats and implement strict rules toward him. It has been observed that the implementation of coercive power in Primark gives support to the organisation to control and monitor all of its employees by making certain that they maintain the policies and values of the firm effectively. 

Critical Evaluation of the Way Culture, Politics and Power of an Organisation Can Impact Individual and Team Performance

It has been assessed in an extensive manner that the human resource managers of Primark put an immense effort in order to enhance the team performance which directly impacts the performance management system of the organisation. In terms of that, the HR manager of the fashion retail company selects candidates by analysing their expertise and proficiencies so that they will be able to operate effectively in the organisation (McCarthy, Soundararajan and Taylor, 2021). This resourceful initiation taken by the HR managers helps the manager to effectively function the business operations quite in an effective manner. In fact, the various organisational policies and practices implemented according to the measurement of the situation are considered extremely facilitating for sustaining efficiency. 

It is indeed true that Primark encompasses an optimistic organisational culture and their business politics assist the employees in magnificently operating in the company. In fact, the fashion retail company utilise the power and social network as an effective form of motivational strategy through which they will be able to create a cooperative working atmosphere and can engage the employees productively (McCarthy, Soundararajan and Taylor, 2021). They also got expedited by the organisational politics and cultures in terms of underpinning the behaviour of the employees. In fact, the ultimate purpose of Primark is to generate an optimistic working atmosphere by their reinforcing its organisational culture as well as business politics by applying a range of strategic approaches.

Evaluate How to Motivate Individuals and Teams to Achieve a Goal

Assess The Way Content and Process Theories of Motivation Enable Effective Achievement of Goals

In terms of content theories, it is basically indicating to the set of theories of motivation to discover the factors which encourage the employees. On the other hand, process theories of motivation endeavour to explain the ultimate reason for the behaviours which has been initiated. The following context will describe the way Primark implement the motivational theories according to their organisational structure to improve their performance.

Content Theories:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has been developed by Abraham Maslow in 1963 and this particular theory of motivation is dependent on the fact of personal experience of Maslow himself. In this particular theory of motivation, he has identified five basic needs which play a crucial factor to motivate the employees in an extensive manner. The basic needs are psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation needs (Hopper, 2020).

The psychological is considered the vital needs for survival such as food and shelter. The safety needs encompass the security related to health & wellness and financial security. In terms of social needs, it refers to the need for emotional attachment and acceptance. The esteem needs become increasingly significant as it represents the need for gratitude and respect. The final need is self-actualisation which derives from the employees’ personal growth or self-awareness. 

The theory has become widely popular and the field of business has been extremely facilitated by the application of this particular theory of motivation. As per the consideration of this theory, employees will be stimulated and empowered by fulfilling their overall requirements (Hale et al., 2020). In fact, the theory has been presented at extreme levels of requirements to low levels of needs. The management of a business enterprise necessitates analysing the basic needs to satisfy each level of expectations.

Fig: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

(Source: Hale et al., 2020)

Herzberg Theory of Motivation:

The two-factor motivation theory also known as the Herzberg Theory of Motivation converse about the fact that there are discrete sets of mutually limited factors in the workplace for motivating the employees (Chiat and Panatik, 2019). Usually, these factors are considered to be the motivational aspect which is massively interrelated with the fact of job satisfaction and hygiene factor. As per the consideration of Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation, the absence of the hygienic factors might impact generating job satisfaction.

However, it is indeed true that the presence of these two factors does not create job satisfaction or motivate the employees. In terms of the hygienic factors, this has been considered quite accommodating for creating an optimistic atmosphere for the employees to effectively operate in the workplace (Kotni, and Karumuri, 2018). The application of the Herzberg two factor theory by Primark might be facilitating for the organisation in order to increase their employee engagement quite in an extensive manner.

Fig: Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation

(Source: Kotni and Karumuri, 2018)

Process Theories:

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:

Vroom’s expectancy theory undertakes that perception results from cognizant choices among substitutes whose aim is to capitalize on pleasure and diminish pain (Lloyd, and Mertens, 2018). Vroom comprehended that an employee’s performance is dependent on individual factors such as personality, knowledge, skills, experience and capacities. He utilises the variables such as expectancy, instrumentality and valence to describe this. In terms of expectancy, it basically aims to make anticipations depending on the facts of future outcomes and performance results. Therefore, it concentrates on the workers’ assumptions as well as comparing themselves within the cognitive working conditions (Rehman, Sehar and Afzal, 2019). In terms of valence, the management has to set some objectives for individuals to convey them in a given time.

Fig: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

(Source: Lloyd and Mertens, 2018)

Adam’s Equity Theory:

The consideration of Adam’s equity theory revolves around the equity between the contribution of the employees, abilities and hard work (Omar et al., 2018). According to the theory, defining this fair equilibrium is considered accommodating to attain a strong and prolific relationship with the employee along with having the general result being contented, encouraged employees. For this reason, an organisation requires to focus immensely on generating a balance of the output of the employees within the input quite in an extensive manner (Emeji, 2018). In other words, any time an individual pays their effort or applies psychological exertion to support an organisation in order to attain a goal can be measured as a contribution.

Fig: Adam’s Equity Theory

(Source: Emeji, 2018)

Acritical Evaluation of the Way to Influence the Behaviour of Others Through Effective Implementation of Motivational Theories and Models

 By analysing the overall content and process theories of motivation, it can be evaluated that the implementation of the motivational theories and principles plays an integral part to enhance the organisational performance of a particular organisation. Regarding this fact, it is indeed necessary for an organisation to apply the most suitable theories of motivation as per their organisational structure and culture (Hopper, 2020). In terms of encouraging the employees, Primark focuses on satisfying the individual needs of the staff quite in an extensive manner. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is considered exceedingly facilitating as it aims on satisfying the overall requirements of the employees. Primark looks forward to fulfilling each and every expectation of the employees as they are considered the core aspects of this organisation. The appliance of the motivational theories determines the employee engagement and that directly impacts obtaining a potential outcome.

It is indeed true that the contribution of an individual in an organisation plays an integral role to foster the organisational performance of a business firm following the principles of Vroom’s expectancy theory. Regarding this fact, Primark requires to focus immensely on providing appropriate motivation as well as encouraging them to get the best outcome possible (Lloyd, and Mertens, 2018). The knowledge, expertise and competencies of employees also determine the achievement of organisational output. In terms of that Primark, the strategic approaches should be implemented in order to encourage the employees and that will directly impact reinforcing the organisational outcome in an extensive manner.

Demonstrate an Understanding of How to Cooperate Effectively with Others

It is quite obvious that teamwork means where people work together with full energy and comfort and bring a necessary solution for the given task in order to make an effective and productive team the organisation must take care of a few factors which will be discussed in the following sections (Maia, and Sacardo, 2022). In addition to that, if the concerned company manages to establish an effective team who are well trained and efficient enough to perform a task without creating any fuss, the company will surely achieve excellent organisational success. Here are some of the most effective ways through which an organisation can create an effective team and accomplish their complete involvement in the business’ functionality.

Description of The Practices Which Make an Effective Team as Opposed to an Effective Team

Create A Good Bond with The Team

It is very essential for the concerning team to establish good terms with its employees. As it is quite obvious that the organisation must understand and acknowledge the weakness and the strong zones of its employees and what kind of talk or behaviour motivates them and fires a spark that leads them to work more diligently and that lets them give their 100 % at work (Eder and Meyer, 2022). As a result, the employees perform well and it also encourages the other team members to work well in order to find themselves useful for the growth of the company (Orlando et al., 2022).

It is also important for the concerned organisation to assess what is the most productive way to handle tasks in terms of business functionality and it is only possible if the company finds the complete involvement of the team members in the workplace. It is quite a certain fact that people grow grudges while working together due to various reasons and this conflict between people shows the dedication and involvement of certain people who are not ready to accept any fuss in order to give an appreciated completion to the task. Moreover, performing the role of mediator and turning the negative impact into an opportunity for the employees will enhance the trust among the workforce and will empower the functionality of the employees.

Communicate with the employees

As it is through communication one’s problem can reach the other and it is very important for people who work in a team or collaboratively to communicate with each other quite frankly from the business or professional perspective. However, if an organisation finds its employees having good taking terms and welcoming a complete discussion before initiating any activity is before time in terms of competing for the task then those who entrants’ grudges among them and prefer to be reserved with each other. In addition to that, skilful communication makes the team understand different aspects of the business and which helps them to improve the performance of both personnel and professionals and it also improves the knack of healthy listening and analysing the matter.

Hence communication is an important aspect that needs to be seriously focused upon in order to establish an effective team for the concerning organisation. Moreover, it is through the way the communication that has been undertaken by the organisation upon the level of trust and relationships are established and owing to that creating a “safe working environment” and this will establish a healthy environment for the team or the people to work and it also led a healthy climate and beneficial procedure of performing work (Orlando et al., 2022).

Analyse Relevant Group and Team Development Theories in Context of Giving Support to The Development of a Co-Operation

It is generally believed that the theories of team development play a great role in the enhancement of organisational cooperation. There are a few theories which are conducive to the organisation’s success.

Belbin’s Team Role Theory

This theory is a great help for team development in an organisation and in addition to that, it also states that if an employee adequately understands his role within the organisation, it leads them to recognise the flames and the strength which ultimately helps them to work upon the area of lack. According to this theory, there are different segments of the employee’s role with respect to their competencies.

People-Oriented roles

  • Resources Investigator

It is very important for an organisation to have one in the team who can guide it through the further steps towards the progression. This member helps the entire team keep the motion in the changing atmosphere.

  • Teamwork

The main role of the team workers is to kill the conflicts that arise among the team members. They try to establish harmony and cooperation among the team members and resolve the unnecessary conflicts that arise among them over a trivial matter.

  • Coordinator

They are well recognised as the guide of the team who mainly assign and delegate tasks and roles to each team member with respect to their efficiency and their expertise.

(Sources: Aranzabal, Epelde, and Artetxe, 2022)

Thought-Oriented roles

  • Plant

This is supposed to be done by the perspicacious and intellectual innovators and their main role is to come up with effective ideas and solutions for the organisational development. These people are supposedly introverts who prefer to work solitarily and do not want to be open in front of everybody and handling the criticism becomes tough for them.

  • Monitor Evaluator

They are well recognized as the strategists of an organisation. These people are supposed to take favourable, crucial and ultimate decisions for the well-being of the organisational growth after doing careful consideration of the current situation. However, preconceived ideas and any sport of bias are not given anyway. Nevertheless, the decision-making process might take longer as it is done after the evaluation of all the aspects of the organisational functionality.

  • Specialist

As the name suggests these people are the ones who have a wide range of knowledge over almost all the business-related aspects. These people are the ones who contribute grandly to the decision-making processes and their understanding of things comes out to be a great help for the organisational success. However, it also fosters teamwork.

(Source: Nylund, 2022)

Tuckman’s Model of Team Development

This theory was founded in the year 1965 by an eminent personality well recognized as Bruce Tuckman. According to this theory, there are five major stages which help the organisation to experience good and effective functioning of the employees.

Forming Stage

This is the initial stage where all the team members come into contact with each other for the first time. Every member at this stage introduces himself to each other and they exchange their point of view on certain aspects which allows them to establish a sort of harmony among them (Srivastava and Pinto, 2022). The exchange of ideas acquainting them about the strength and weaknesses of their fellow members which greatly helps them in terms of executing any project collaboratively.

Storming Stage

At this stage, each team member is asked to take active participation in the decision-making process wherein they are supposed to place their own understanding, and pounds and solution that they think will be helpful for the timely solution. This process basically includes “Brainstorming”. It develops critical thinking and creativity among the team members (Srivastava and Pinto, 2022).

Norming Stage

At this stage, all the roles are predetermined and assigned to each team member as per the competencies and the efficiencies of the team member. In addition to that, it is also seen that people also prefer private spaces for doing work (Robb, 2022). However, the regular check of the work will essentially help the organisation to do the assigned tasks efficiently.

Performing Stage

At this stage, after getting the specific task they perform it as per their capacity and it also allows the team to work collaboratively and help each other if one gets striving in the process this also strengthened the emotional bonding among the team members (Srivastava and Pinto, 2022).

Adjourning Stage

This is considered the last stage of the theory, at this stage, the task or the project finishes smoothly and the team members are all set for the departure, which obviously hits them emotionally (Robb, 2022).

Apply Concepts and Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour to A Given Business Situation

Organisational behaviour is one of the important aspects that help in improving the performance and hence the profitability of the concerned organisation. Organisational behaviour mainly includes the individual or the combined activity that takes place within an organisation. Furthermore, organisational behaviour mainly keeps account of the way people behave in certain situations within the organisation. There are several theories through which an organisation can regulate and control the behaviour of the employees.

Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory

The main aspect of the theory is that it states that merely encouraging and motivating the employees are not sufficient to control their employee behaviour and it is not sufficient enough to maximise the productivity and the profitability of the company. In addition to that, the theory also states that subdividing the job into parts will also appear easy and it will also lead them to establish healthy communication among themselves. Furthermore, when there is a lack of effective communication between the employees and the management it leads the organisation to face a major loss in terms of productivity and profitability (Azar and Azizi, 2022).

As per the understanding of the concerning theory, the employees are supposed to be rewarded at par with the par that they contribute towards the organisational growth. As a result, this ultimately gives inner spark and develops the energy among them which helps the organisation in experiencing the highest possible organisational benefits. However, when it comes to managing or running the business Taylor suggests few duties and fundamental roles for the CEOs. This role basically incorporates the right allocation of the work to their employees or the working staff by the evaluation of their efficiencies and also guides them through after the evaluation of the expertise and competencies.

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

This theory came into play in the year 1960 by a well–known personality Douglas McGregor. The theory suggests two different faces of an employee. One of them is known as theory X, considered positive and the other is popularly known as theory Y, considerably the negative (Wangdi and Tobgay, 2022). The concerning theory is also considered one of the impactful motivational theories, which is usually adopted by the manager in an organisation to motivate their employees, however, the theory has two aspects both of which are drastically different from each other. According to the first category it claims that higher management takes their employees negatively and theoretically they are asked to do much work even if their competencies and comfort are not given importance.

On the other hand, in the second category, the management gives autonomy to the employees and considers their competencies and according to that they draw expectations from them which ultimately improves the productivity of the employees and they get motivated to find the management truly concerned about their wellbeing (Wangdi and Tobgay, 2022). Moreover, theory Y managers are very much focused on encouraging and sense of comradeship and harmony among the employees which are considered conducive to organisational development.


In summing, it can be driven from the above discussion that teamwork is an important aspect of any business organisation. As it gives the opportunity to qualify the services and do the assigned task efficiently. Through the b study, certain actions have also been mentioned which will help the organisation to establish harmony among the employees and motivate them to tear the team work apart. The fact of its significance is better substantiated through different modes of the team role. Furthermore, a few theories are also highlighted within this report over the concept of management theory which helps will help the organisation adjust and control the4 organisational behaviour.

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