The overall project covers the study of the environmental changes affecting the overall business planning and growth for the Tesco. There are various changes which been discussed to be important for the Tesco's survival and growth under the study, with overall impact analysis for the defined changes for the business. The report also covers the stakeholder analysis and changes required based on the needs of the stakeholders and the ways they shall be contributing towards such changes for the business. Finally, the hurdles in applying such changes have been discussed with the complete understanding on the ways they can be planned and implemented successfully, followed by conclusion stating the overall understanding drawn through the study of the research.
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There are numerous trends which comes up as the part of environmental study which have made changes necessary for any business organization and they include the following to be specific:
-Social Change (Need for Learning): These days value of the organization is depicted based on its ability to learn. Learning is no more just a department but has become a crucial part of any working unit. The ways people are able to adapt to the learning environment defines the need and applicability of change in the business environment.
-Technological Changes (Need for AI): The application of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning has taken over the overall markets for business in almost every industry. The technology is helping people connect with each other on the business ground and as it is accessible by everyone in general the importance widens in all regards.
-Legal Changes (Need for Security of Data): These days there have been various laws which have been introduced to ensure security of data at Organizational and Personal level to make sure technological changes are not put to wrong uses. These trends have also majorly affected the need for change in the system, in regards to technical requirements.
Bologun & Hailey's Model: The model helps in recognizing the complexity in terms of changes and kinds of change design based on sensitivity of the project.
Company's Situation & Need for Change: The Company under consideration for change in working environment is Tesco. The Company has been through major level of cyber-attack, where the data for the customers was depicted to be stolen and as a precautionary measure it has to issue new cards to all the customers. Based on the case and as per the Bologun & Hailey Model following changes are applicable to the company:
-Technological Changes: Based on the need of the business and acceptability of Machine Learning, the company needs to opt for various technologies which can ensure the security of the data of the customer. As there is already an existing system, the change is just reconstruction of the existing system which includes transformation.
-Legal Changes: Based on the UK laws on data and cyber security the company has to take necessary measure by introducing changes in the accessibility rights for the data internally. This includes realignment of the system on an incremental basis and thus is covered under Evolution Block of the discussed model.
Following are the changes which the company may opt for, for ensuring the security of its system and data of the customers with the organization:
-Introducing Network Security: Tesco should plan taking help from cyber experts to bring changes in the security system, especially in terms of network security to encrypt the data against any outside attack.
-Implementing Multi-Factor Authentication: The Company should bring in changes in terms of administrative policies for controlling the access of data. The authentication system should be made to be ber to avoid any unwanted access to the data in the system.
-Changes in Policies: The Company should opt for changing the policies and punishments in terms of violation of the data security or access rights for employees internally, to increase the overall security of the data and system (Michelle, 2012). 
-The company may end up using its goodwill in the market and thus the overall revenue for the business shall suffer.
-There will major level loss of data, which can be used by the hackers to take up certain illegal activities like, tracing down the account details of the customers to withdraw money.
-The company may also end up being a part of certain legal suits, which shall also effect the overall position of the company (Palenberg , 2018). 
Force-Field Analysis: The tool is used for making of and communicating decisions in the business. The ideas focus on bringing equilibrium between different forces which are the drivers of change and the ones which resist changes.
There are various steps involved to use the tools which include defining the plan for change, identifying various force for such changes and finally identifying the forces that are against the changes, for assigning score and analysing the same for application (Swanson).
Following are the stakeholders that are involved in application of the changes in the system for the organization.
Employees: While changes are focused on implementing security system, there is a large amount of involvement of employees. Their reaction can be both positive and negative, which may differ based on the reluctance to change. There has to be a proper training system which shall be setup to implement such changes or the employees.
Management: Management is responsible to take final call on implementation of such changes and thus their involvement matters a lot during changes are planned. They are positive arrows in change, as they are highly concerned about the overall security in the system. Also, to make sure their reaction is well defined and supportive, they have to be guided on the technology and related impact of changes.
Customers: Customers are other positive node to the changes being prepared to be implemented on the technological front as they shall be assured of the security of their data, produced during transaction. Just to ensure implementation of such changes, the stakeholders have to be communicated in a proper manner, with details on the precautions which are expected to be taken by them. 
Though the changes which are being planned to be applied on the security front are well planned and covers every aspects in terms of security of data in the system, but due to ever changing needs for security and advancement in technology, raise the needs for bring changes in the changes being implemented on regular basis.
Also, considering the needs and expectations of customers and management as well, such changes shall be required on regular basis, to maintain the integrity of the system.
Training Environment: The Company has a well-defined training system to ensure that any changes in the system are properly communicated at each level, in order to ensure that everyone is in the position to accept such changes without any resistance against the same.
Capability of Management: The Management in Tesco is highly compatible to understand the level of acceptance of such security changes and thus analysis the technologies which are fit best into the system. It also helps the management to be prepared for any future repercussions in case any of changes fail to get executed.
Employee Flexibility: The employees are flexible in terms of acceptance of new system and training which makes it simple to execute the security system changes in the company. 
There are three steps to change which includes Unfreezing, Changing and Refreezing as per the above model. The process entails developing a perception stating that a proper change is needed and then taking steps towards developing desired level of behaviour and then finally establishing this new behaviour as the norm. Based on the discussion on the steps, following are the timescale for the required changes:
Understanding the areas where security concerns exists
Introducing various security measures
Training People on the new systems
Analysing the compatibility of the system
Marking the change in Business Plan to make it integral part of business.
3 Days. 
1. Precise change that is needed and the main obstacles
Data Security system: The most important change which is expected to happen in Tesco post the cybercrime, which led to leakage of internal data is ensuring changes in the data security system. The only obstacle which can be seen in such implementation is in terms of changing technological needs and also acceptance of such changes by the internal stakeholders.
System Accessibility: To avoid any internal leakages and ensure internal security, the system accessibility and ownership has to be reworked to limit the access to the system by employees. Their main be restrain in this case, as people may fear losing authority in the system.
Encrypting Customer's Data: This is a really necessary change, as the data which was depicted to be lost during the previous crime was the customer's personal data with the company and thus it is necessary that company introduce a system to encrypt all that data and keep it secured from any external threat (Jalagat, 2016).
The most practical model which is being planned to be used is Lewin's Change Model, which considers three important steps including Unfreezing, Changing and Refreezing. This helps in allowing the system to stay flexible towards change and remove unnecessary reluctance in terms of execution of change in the system. 
Kotter's Eight Stage Model shall be used for managing the change in the system which shall be including following steps:
-Creating Sense of Urgency for the change in the system.
-Building or establishing a proper guiding coalition.
-Forming a systematic strategic initiative and vision.
-Enlisting a defined volunteer Army or employee force.
-Establishment of the reactions through removal of all Barriers.
-Generating various short term wins through such changes
-Sustaining the acceleration in the system.
-Finally, instituting the change into the system
Based on the study it can be drawn following are the cultural and structural changes which may be required to implement security changes:
-Learning Culture: Tesco based on the case study has a great need to establish learning culture which shall help the employees in identifying risk before-hand and thus taking strict action in the specified time. Also, learning will help the employees accept the technological changes quickly.
-Change in Data Accessibility: The access to the data should be limited to ensure that it cannot be misused by anyone. Also, it will help in avoiding any confidential data leakage.
-Establishment of Security Department: There has to be a structural change as there is a need for security department, to keep an eye on all such activities and take actions as and when needed in the system.
As can be understood from the study done above, changes are the integral part of any system and thus are required to be made as and when needed. The Company should be practicing flexible change environment which can help it focus on the overall growth while meeting the needs of the business environment and opting for all the required changes. This will also help the company function smoothly while ensuring the strength of its internal system to the maximum extend while maintaining integrity of the business in the market to mark reputation of the business.
Anthony, C. (2014). Leading Change and the Challenges of Managing a Learning Organisation in Hong Kong. United Kingdom: University of Bristol.
Doccy, J. (2019). Stakeholders' implication in the change process. University of Liverpool.
Jalagat, R. (2016). The Impact of Change and Change Management in Achieving Corporate Goals and Objectives: Organizational Perspective. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 5(11).
Michelle, L. (2012). Organizational identity and capability development in internationalization: Transference, splicing and enhanced imitation in Tesco's US market entry. Journal of Economic Geography 12(5), 1021-1054.
Millar, T. P. ( 2015). BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:. Review of Business & Finance Studies Vol. 6, No. 3,, 91-103.
Palenberg , M. (2018). Outcomes and Impacts of Development Interventions: Toward Conceptual Clarity. SAGE Publishing.
Stephen, o. a. ( 2017 ). Case Closed: lessons learned from the study. The University of Gloucestershire.
Swanson, D. J. (n.d.). Sharpening the Focus of Force Field Analysis. Journal of Change Management 14(1), 2014.
 Millar, T. P. ( 2015). BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:. Review of Business & Finance Studies Vol. 6, No. 3,, 91-103.
 Anthony, C. (2014). Leading Change and the Challenges of Managing a Learning Organisation in Hong Kong. United Kingdom: University of Bristol.
 Michelle, L. (2012). Organizational identity and capability development in internationalization: Transference, splicing and enhanced imitation in Tesco's US market entry. Journal of Economic Geography 12(5), 1021-1054.
 Palenberg , M. (2018). Outcomes and Impacts of Development Interventions: Toward Conceptual Clarity. SAGE Publishing.
 Doccy, J. (2019). Stakeholders' implication in the change process. University of Liverpool.
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