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Discrimination: Concepts, Types, and Legislation

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Introduction- Discrimination Through the Ages: A Historical Analysis of Race, Caste, Religion, and Workplace Inequality

The report deals with the concept and idea about the discrimination process based on "Race", "Sex", "Caste", "Religion" and between the lower and upper caste based on work done. The discrimination process proceeds in the earlier periods and followed generally between Men and Women. Women generally discriminated against in society; women blocked with the various types of work. The study sheds on the laws and legislation to build a barrier to the discontinuation of the discrimination process.

Concept of Discrimination

The Discrimination process indicates dishonesty and the illegal consequences, as well as immoral activities, practiced based on "Race", "Religion", "Sex", "Gender.” Discrimination hurts or creates a disaster in the mind of a person in the case of engaging in the process of Discrimination. Discrimination happens in the time or appears on the time the person is inadequate or impotent to enjoy the constitutional rights, Human in the term of individual and group rights, benefits, and treatment (amnesty.org, 2021). Discrimination is a situation that builds a person, group, society, as well as communities treated badly and dreadfully. Discrimination is built also with a difference, injustices, as well as unfairness (Zhao et al. 2020).

Moreover in this sequence communicative initiative is another factor that challenges the prejudice and discrimination in various situations. In this sequence its main aim and strategies to provide and develops the skills within the surroundings. However in the current situation it does not fulfill this condition in adequately inside the country. Furthermore in this sequence it is observed that a specific society is more developed than other society hence more in this conditions discrimination occurs in various situation while performing the tasks as well as in livelihood. Along with these conditions a specific society and regions are more developed and provides effective facilities inside the country. In contrast deficiency of interests in the community decreases the performance and cause of discrimination within the community in various situations.

Types of Discrimination

Age Discrimination

Discrimination with humans or communities based on age is known to be discrimination regarding age. The person with elder young is discriminated against in the workplace, family, as well as in society. Society cuts aging and builds an issue and practices in recruitment, employment as well in the salary. The mentioned discrimination can be demonstrated with the help of academic theory named “Disengagement Theory.” As per this theory, it is identified that the age discrimination phenomenon directly affects the overall social balances within a community that additionally impact the cultural elegances (Dahl and Waltzer, 2018). 

Race and Caste Discrimination

Caste discrimination is practiced in the workplace, the people born in the lower caste need to do jobs related to cleanliness, sanitation, as well as works related to hygiene. Caste discrimination also followed in the education sector and played a major in the education sector that can further be demonstrated with the help of “Critical Race Theory (CRT).” As per the CRT, it can be depicted that the children belonging to the lower caste in the school are kept away or far away from the proper education and they may sit in the different classrooms or places in the institutions (Dixson and Rousseau Anderson, 2018). The upper caste society hates people with the lower caste in the workplace in the current times. The administration may constitute various laws and policies to abort the caste discrimination in the workplace, society, or in the community (Bayefsky, 2017).

Sex Discrimination (Orientation)

Discrimination based on sex is practiced all over the world or worldwide. Sex or Gender discrimination to unfair rights, activities in between the male and female leads dissimilar treatments. Sex or gender discrimination is a major issue that argued or challenged with lots of time. Moreover, women are being married after acquiring less education or forced to do household jobs while depending on their partner economic perspectives (Lang and Kahn-Lang Spitzer, 2020). The concerned condition can be demonstrated with the help of academic theories while considering all the prejudices associated with the issues. As per the “Objective-Relations Theory,” it is identified that individuals needs to consider the engagement of their partners in every situations for the betterment of co-operation during the discrimination reduction procedures (Cohen and Torous, 2019).

Religion and gender Discrimination

Discrimination based on religion or faith and beliefs followed by the person or community. The discrimination in regards to religion particularly performed in the "Minorities" of the particular country. Religious as well as gender discrimination practiced in the work, education, in the family as well. As per the “Feminist Theory,” it is evaluated that an equal substances as well as scenario needs to be maintained within the community for ensuring its overall elegance (Frueh, 2018). In this regard, it can further be depicted that the discrimination creates unfair activity counter to an employee or workers in the workplace. 

Disability Discrimination

Discrimination with the individual or person in the education is normal in the earlier as well as in the modern societies. People with disabilities face a lot of difficulties and barriers in the healthcare field. There is a lack of proper services and facilities for people with disabilities. In this sequence, effective theoretical framework can be considered for demonstrating the prejudice related to this phenomenon. As per the “Social Theory of Disability,” it is identified that the mentioned discrimination rate needs to be reduced while changing the social structure as well as population mindfulness (Barton, 2018). While evaluating this criteria, the concerned discrimination can be mitigated from society. 


The legislation builds with two words Legislation that means building law or settling any law. The people, groups, and communities may use legislation as a tool and technique to control, guide, as well as prevent the exercise. The building of legislation by the authorities is freedom as well as freeing the persons in the group and communities to remove the conflict between them. The legislation may affect the behavior of the individual and groups and recover society from the disputes. The government and constitution have few laws to govern the state or country. The legislation was done in various fields such as criminal, domestic, local, expense, finance, or commerce. The legislation deals with the financial or economic as well as financing for the betterment of the citizens in the country or state. The political leaders using various discussions in the parliament of that state or country (Settimo et al. 2020) passed the rules and laws. Government and many social organizations are working on the manner in order to offer a specific identity to the gays and lesbians in the country. However, the citizen of the country cannot give importance to them in this case any rule and bill cannot help them. All over the world, many social organizations are taking steps to minimize these discriminations. As a citizen of the country, people also need to help gays and lesbians and give those equal rights and respect.

Needs of Legislation

The legislation is passed for the welfare of the individual or group to enjoy the rights given to the citizens of that country or state. The legislation or laws formed to give a few rights such as employment, laws related to health, laws related to education, and to enjoy a better life in the society without any dispute. Laws provide for the person or group and give few permits to achieve the goal (Williams et al. 2019). The laws are useful in terms of communal innovation, modification, and development of the people belonging to the country or state. Social legislation is useful also to preserve and conserve as well as advocate the rights of the people of the country or state (Webber et al. 2018).

Objectives of Legislation

The major objectives of legislation or laws in any country are for elimination of inequality, variations, and disproportion based on all kinds of discriminations. The legislation is also important because of the arrangement of communal preservations (youtube.com, 2021). The major aim of the legislation is to transform or reconstruct the society for the advancement of civil as well as commercial and fiscal conditions of the country or state. Legislation of the country or state gives the citizens balanced civil rights, freedom, as well as opportunities in terms of employment. Legislation is needed to maintain, preserve, or protect the democracy of the state or country. The “disability discrimination act 1992” makes the discrimination disability law illegal and promotes the right to equality, right to equal opportunity and, right to equal access for the disabled people (humanrights.gov.au, 2021).

  • “Human Rights Act (1998)”

The "Humans Rights Act" was approved and authorized in the United Kingdom (UK) in the year 1998. The act gives the power of the citizens to safeguard from UK tribunal and law enforcement man and to behave uniformly decently greatness and concerning everybody. Every citizen or resident of the UK as well as people belonging from other countries, children, women, hostages, as well as law builders may use the law. Institutions or any companies that belong are situated in the UK (libertyhumanrights.org.uk, 2021) also use the act.

  • Functions of “Human Rights Act (1988)”

The act consists of various laws or articles to maintain or talk about the civil rights of the citizens. The act cares for life using the law and rules that are written in the act. According to Article 2, the authorities need to examine the doubtful demise of life in the custodianship. The rights provide power to the citizens or protect that may happen in a disgraceful way. The law protects the country's citizens in counter to slavery as well as bound laborers. The law gives citizens effective choice and freedom to the citizens of the UK. The right provides power to the individuals with no amendment before being convicted. "Article 8" of the act allows a citizen to live independently as well as the person may live in a family beyond the public officials. "Article 14" of the act illustrates the preservation and conservation from discrimination by the public agency. According to "Article 10,” citizens can express their views, and contest protection against the Governments, authorities (legislation.gov.uk, 2021).

  • “Race Relation Act (1968)”

In the context of this mentioned act, the movement associated with “Black Live Matter (BLM)” can be considered for the betterment of the entire society within the concerned country. The act came in existence in October 1968, and provides power to the citizens or forbidden discrimination regarding "race,” and "religion". The act also stopped the discrimination in regards to habitations and wages. The laws also talk for the next genesis of immigration born in the country and give rights to hold the education of immigrant’s children, jobs as well as housing (parliament.uk, 2021).

  • “Equality Act (2010)”

The mentioned act illustrates the equality phenomenon across the community that further demonstrates the necessity of broadcasting the social balance agenda over the country. The "Equality Act" came into existence in "October 2010" to protect the citizens from discrimination in various forms, including molestations, provocation, and deception. The act preserves or conserves the citizens in regards to age, defect, gender-specific, racism, beliefs, and wedding-related. The act also gives equal rights to the customers and consumers, services related to health care, rights related to the employers and workers in the workplace, and services related to the public (legislation.gov.uk, 2021).

Community initiatives

In Australia, CPHR program has been organized for empowering the “Australian Muslim Community” across the country base. As per the Governmental data, it is identified that the Commission has considered organizing two projects named “Isma and Unlocking Doors” in 2007 for empowering the mentioned groups of the country (humanrights.gov.au, 2022). The mentioned considerations not only help in reducing the discrimination rates in the country but also helps in changing the mindfulness of the Australian population positively.


The report concludes that discrimination is a major issue in the world. Discrimination is of different types such as based on color, race, beliefs, gender-specific, age, and disabled. Discrimination is a major issue that stops the growth of people, communities, and groups. The women in society mostly suffer from discrimination in every field. The women received low wages in comparison to the male worked in the equivalent company or job place. In order to eradicate or abolish the Parliament of UK passed various acts and laws such as "Human Rights Act (1998)", "Equality Act (2010)", "and Race Relation Act (1968)". The act provides the guarantee for individual's life preservation and development to establish peace in the country.


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