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The life cycle of an employee refers to a model that is used to recognize and express diversified the most useful stages while an employee is going through engaging with the organization. The “employee life cycle model” (ELC) refers to a method used by the organization to visualize how the employees are committed to the organization and serve their roles. The ELC directs its significance at the essential phase that the worker encounters in the phase of interaction with the employer (Kraneis, 2022). Therefore, the application of the ELC can make an organization comfortable to select professionals for the procedure of increment in a specific period.
Figure 1: Stages of Employee Life Cycle
The following are the six phases of the ELC that can encounter benefits for organizations and employees:
Different five stages are followed as the standard guideline in different organizations to understand the preparation for recruitment. The following are the five stages that can satisfy an organization with the specified roles:
Job description: The description of the job refers to an essential document that is required to make the process of recruitment smooth. Job description refers to clarifying the duties and responsibilities that an employee will perform in an organization.
Profile description: The description of a specified job role refers to the duties that need to be accomplished by a specific person. It states the abilities of candidates with skills and qualifications that an organization is looking for (cpdonline.co.uk, 2022). For instance, Infosys has prepared a job description that clarifies the job role of a professional in different positions. The job role of a senior consultant is to face the clients and comprehend the demands and issues they are going through (infosys.com, 2022). A senior consultant will be required to facilitate the required resolution for employees.
Contract offer: Organisations often share contracts through some documentation that can guide an employee to understand the specified role that will be followed. This document is generally filled with specified job roles and remuneration that is provided by the HR division after an employee gets selected.
The following are the different external methods used by organizations in the recruiting process:
Placements: Companies often prefer to hunt for talents from a large crowd, like from different colleges and universities. Educational institutes that offer placements are associated with different organizations, where students are interviewed by professionals or executives from an organization to test their knowledge, and skills and review their educational background at the same time.
Organizations often place job advertisements when they face a vacancy available in a certain place for recruitment. Different online job portals are available to create an advertisement that attracts recruiters. The process of social recruitment is followed when candidates are hired using social platforms like Linkedin, different online forums, and other job portals.
Questionnaire: Organisations follow the questionnaire strategy where the candidates are given a specific form with preset questions to test their knowledge. Therefore, different organizations follow predefined mock tests to test the employee’s skills.
Recruitment via agencies: Many companies follow the outsourcing of employees where a hiring agency makes the process of recruitment for the organization (recruithire.com, 2022). This procedure assists the organization in getting some period to consolidate other compulsory matters.
Recruitment content is the most useful and creative copy that is issued by organizations while posting jobs. Therefore, organizations have the intention to attract employees make talent retention, and make advancement in the competitive edge in the same market. Recruitment content refers to a modified version of the job and profile description where the organization has the intention to mention different types of roles that need to be accomplished by an employee with the required skills (Mamun, 2022). Recruitment agencies are reliable to make the content more realistic which can impact the organisation's perception among job seekers. Thus, creative writing can make the candidates realize the workplace environment of an organization.
An organization has the intention to stand out from the crowd by following distinctive content that can also include the organizational objectives that clarify the job role in different positions. The content needs to include the work criteria where the qualifications of the employees are observable and it may contain the desired experience that an organization is seeking for a job role. Therefore, targeting the right audience is the best place to be matched in case of getting appropriate results for the submitted job. For example, the recruitment content of Twitter explains the job role in detail whereas Macdonald's keeps it very simple (blog.darwinbox.com, 2022). The content needs to contain the job grading and announcement of the appraisal system that is followed by the organization to attract job seekers. The announcement of the training period and different offerings for candidates can make the recruitment content stands out and reach the maximum number of candidate and thus the purpose can be fulfilled.
Different methods of selection rely on the objectives of an organization that relies on the subject to test the eligibility of the candidates before enrolling them in a position in an organization. Thus, the number of posts available in the same section relies on the conduction of the recruitment process. Therefore, different methods are applied by organizations to recruit employees in an organization. HRM is reliable for the conduction of the first round of interaction with the employees and then selecting and shortlisting the employees. Organizations can use interviews, aptitude tests, presentations, and skill tests to determine the right candidate for a job role. The following are the best applicable factors that are employed by different companies to recruit:
Interviewing: The process of clarifying the skills of an employee is possible through the process of interviewing them where an interviewer from the organization’s end will ask several questions to the candidate to test their skills and abilities (Poto?nik et al. 2021). It can be either a structured or a non-structured process that is held by HRM and senior executives.
Aptitude tests: Organisations can use the method of testing some skills before calling a candidate for direct interaction. Aptitude tests can be done online and organizations can accomplish the process by setting up a group of members (bbc.co.uk, 2022). It can be a paper-based examination to shortlist the applicants when the number of positions is short.
Project work and discussion: Employees are offered to complete some projects to test their skills and abilities and problem-solving skills at the interview level in organizations like Google. Thus, the coding round is a part of the interview that gives an idea of how an employee will perform in the future. The onboarding team of Google creates a discussion with the employee who has passed in a project and lets the awareness of the benefits and compensation offered by Google Inc. (careers.google.com, 2022). The process of hiring like Google is simple and delivers opportunities for candidates.
DE-based methods: The differential evolution or the DE algorithm refers to an evolution procedure that is based on the available swarm intelligence to resolve optimization issues. Thus, the DE algorithm can be employed to mitigate the lack of local investigation and make the selection process distinctive (Rostami et al. 2021). Therefore, this algorithm is employed in additional applications of practice recognition and selection.
The HRM division is accountable for creating records of the candidates and employees associated with the organization in a systematic process and this needs to be done by following some legal ways. All organizations need to practice and maintain an effective system that can store HR records and comply with the relevant law. The data protection legislation in the UK declares that organizations need to adapt rapid techniques to expand the process of data collection (cipd.co.uk, 2022). The process of storing employees’ data needs to follow the Data Protection Act 2018 which also incorporates the General data protection legislation with the HR records. Thus, organizations can keep the employee data safe but if the data gets leaked or pirated, the organization is liable.
City, Pin Code
Subject: Appointment letter for trainee software developer
In consideration of the application for the position of trainee position of software developer that was held in our office on 20th September 2022. We are pleased to offer you the appointment as “Trainee software developer”. Kindly go through the terms and conditions.
The salary of the staff is confidential. Kindly do not reveal your salary to other employees.
(Name and Signature of Authorised person)
I have read the terms and conditions and confirm my acceptance
(Signature & Date)
Name of employee
Calverton Rd, Nottingham, UK
Subject: Non-appointment letter for trainee software developer
Thank you for showing your interest in our company and applying for the senior sales executive through the job portal. Thus, this letter is to let you know that you were not chosen to undergo the training session onsite for the applied position. You need to improve your communication skills to enter this position at ZKC Enterprise. This discussion has ended by clarifying the reasons for rejecting your application. We appreciate your application to this organization.
Again, thank you for applying here, I hope you will improve your skills and apply next year.
HR and Recruiter
Performance management is one of the crucial factors that is conducted depending on the communication-based aspect that affects the performance and flow of a particular project. As opined by Franco Santos and Otley, (2018), this communication-based assessment is carried out between the employees that are useful in reviewing the performance of employees and their contribution to the organizational output. Performance management is undertaken by organizations to enhance the performative output of employees and also maintain a competitive ambiance within the workplace.
The important purpose of managing performances is to generate a competitive ambiance in the workplace where the people involved and the respective team take ownership of their resultant output and accomplish the goals under designated corporate guidelines.
Core components of performance management
Some of the notable components of performance management are mentioned below:
This is the most important component when it comes to assessing the management of performances. In this course, employees manage the objectives and crucial performance areas that can be attained within the boundaries of the performance budget over the years ( Jayawarna and Dissanayake, 2019). The performance budget is founded after a mutual agreement between the reporting officer and employees.
Figure 2: Performance appraisal process
Performance reviewing and appraisal
Organizations around the world conduct appraisals twice a year. It considers the aspects of mid-year and annual reviews that are held at the end of the fiscal year. The appraisee gives a self-completed evaluation on a self-assessment form and denotes their overall accomplishments in a quantitative notion (researchgate, 2022). The assessor then gives the final verdict after a thorough analysis tallying the self-assessment form with the accomplishments attained by the employee. The entirety of the review process needs active engagement from the employees and the appraiser needs to determine the primary reasons for performance gaps and how these gaps might be closed down.
It is necessary to include an effective performance process. It helps in motivating employees and enhancing their performative output (Etalong and Chikeleze, 2022). The employees are rewarded and it enhances their self-esteem and success of the employees.
Plans for performance improvement and potential assessment
This stage includes the formulation of new goals and deadlines that are necessary for attaining the goals defined for the employees The employees are informed regarding their section of improvement and they are expected to act on it. This strategy helps both the appraiser and the appraisee to understand the section that needs to be addressed for future endeavors (Skrynkovskyy et al. 2018). Staff mobility is enabled by the groundwork laid by potential appraisals. It is attained through the mapping of competence and other procedures of assessment and it enhances employee retention as well.
These performance review processes are conducted on a quarterly and annual basis. In this scenario, the initiative lies on the shoulders of the superiors to lay down guidelines for an employee to improvise and progress (Kami?ski, 2021). These stages of the performance review process help in yielding better results.
There are certain factors involved in the course of managing the performances of individuals. In most cases, the performances are evaluated depending on certain factors. Most of the management and the assessors are well versed regarding the course of reviewing performance and conducting the process after thorough analysis and consideration of certain factors involved.
Some of the notable modern aspects that need to be considered are mentioned as follows:
Some of the notable methods of performance review involve the following sections:
The course of the performance reviewing process begins with the employee. One needs to be well-versed in their strengths and weaknesses. This self-analysis is carried out relying on the criteria laid down by the guidelines of the organization. Generally, the self-evaluation process is carried out through a proper discussion between employees and the management body. There might be issues in employee performance as one might rate oneself too highly or lowly. The difference between the evaluation of the assessor and the assessee can be insightful.
It is one of the most effective and carried out processes in the modern performance evaluation process. The 360-degree feedback process is carried out to witness a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of employees (Kumar, 2021). This is carried out by considering reviews from all internal and external sources. In this course of the evaluation, the employee and the manager complete the assessment of the work performance, skill sets, and behavioral attributes of the employees. Besides the one-on-one sessions, reviews from peers and reports are considered that might include the non-direct supervisors with whom the employees have worked. Additionally, this format of reviewing process might include the character, management skills, and leadership attributes of an employee.
Management by objectives
The aspect of management of objectives (MBO) is an appraisal method that is one of the widely practiced modern methods of performance reviewing. It considers the goals-setting processes of the employees (Shrestha, 2022). The process assists the managers and employees in coming to a common ground of competition of objectives within a discussed period of the deadline. This is more effective than subjective evaluation, As this process makes it easier to note the successes and failures of employees and provides the employees with an unbiased and clear result that weighs in on employee retention in an organization.
The rating scale or the grading process is probably the most commonly utilized performance reviewing criteria. The process depends on a set of employer-developed criteria that includes behaviors, competencies, pace, and quality of work. It helps in judging the employees. A well-defined five-point and 10-point scaling system is considered that rates their quality of work. It is necessary to define the properly set expectations.
To attain a healthy reward system, an organization must reward their employees with popper benefits that are associated with financial aid as well as consider their work-life balance. For example, consideration of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in the work culture would consider providing the employees with fringe benefits that provide them with financial bonuses and appraisals (Hopper, 2020). Also, rewarding the employees with rewards and promotions through an annual reviewing system helps them grow progressively with the organization's goals and vision.
The relationship between performance and reward systems for employees ought to be clear and concise. Especially in modern times when the employee attrition rate has increased significantly. The most common reason behind this scenario behind this situation is the relationship between the employee and the manager of an organization.
Figure 3: Employee attrition rate 2013- 2021
The attrition rate of employees has almost doubled since 2013. The attrition rate has increased up to 14% in 2021 (Statista, 2021). There are additional factors that come into play in this situation that affect the course of the performative output of the employees and their motivation in the workplace. An effective rewards system is needed to be linked with the performance-developed system. A financial reward system with benefits impacts the motivation level of the employees and helps them stay dedicated to the organization.
Two primary reasons for fair treatment of the employees include the following reasons.
Learning and development in the workplace refer to providing training to the employees before placing them in a position in the workplace by specialists in the organizations. Thus, it is a systematic procedure that can enhance the skills of the employees along with the competency and knowledge on a specific matter that is essential to obey the job role (Bîrc? and Matveiciuc, 2021). The implication of a learning and development strategy helps the organization to compile the worker’s capability of workers and allocate them tasks wisely. Thus, it does not waste the time and energy of the managers and leaders. Organizations have the intention to make better proficiency and effective employment that can let them lead during globalization (Nisar et al. 2019). Employees who are trained can only be sent to other locations or promoted to higher designations. The following are the several benefits of conducting training sessions for employees and organizations:
Identification of different types of learning and development needs can make an organization knowledgeable with the capability of future demands. The learning needs of an individual can arise for those who have the impulse to add skills or become eligible for new skills to work in a specific job position for a company. Most of the workers find themselves in standings where they are anticipated to carry out distinct functions, of which they have no skillfulness or understanding to do so. This is a circumstance, where the need for learning arises, and the workers believe in taking a new arrangement of apprenticeship to acquire the proficiency and skills demanded to conclude those parts. According to the s Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, self-actualization is a process when the need for learning requirements can arise for both the organization and the employee (Hopper, 2020). Therefore, the principle of the learning requirement refers to providing knowledge.
Face-to-face learning and development can be regarded as one of the best options to select by organizations where a specialist needs to be appointed to share the relevant method of learning. The following are the common aspects that are considered by organizations often managing the skills of employees:
Additionally, organizations sometimes facilitate coaching and mentoring to the employees for the development of the employee’s productivity and management becomes aware of the employee’s capability to work in the designated position.
Learning and development methods are to be effectively included in the course of development and progress of the individuals. This course of designing is carried out depending on the course of progress and the benefit of the individuals. It is necessary to do so, and thus this process is carried out considering the requirements and preferences of individuals. The course of learning and development is conducted through certain stages and the course is carried out depending on multiple factors that influence the performative output of the employees (Garavan et al. 2020). This course of the program is developed and ranges from self-evaluation to formal review sessions every year after thorough evaluation and consideration of the performative output of the employee. Hence these are conducted based on thorough discussions between employees and management that deal with projects and philosophies of the organisation. These training and learning methods aligned with the strengths and weaknesses of employees enhance their outcomes. Furthermore, feeds are provided based on performances and this is necessary that be followed by developmental sessions facilitated by the organizations. It is at this stage that the employees are informed by the management regarding their areas of improvement and the employees are also informed whether they are performing at desired levels of performance. The employees are provided with honest feedback and also identify the individual's training and requirements for development. This factor considers the approach of the employees towards the work culture and process involved. Learning and development also involve the assessment of professional and certain personal factors of the employees and their attitude that yield them respective reviews accordingly. This evaluation can also be considered depending on a yes-or-no questionnaire format that weights certain values. The motivation of employees however is also dependent on certain factors that rely on the ambience of the workplace and the associated factors like clarity, fringe benefits, and other hygienic factors that persist in an organisation.
The two notable methods of the evolution of learning and development are mentioned as follows:
Group discussion: It is one of the major sources of benefit for the organization's productive output. It also improves an employee’s performative output when they discuss the course of progress among their peers and pour out strategies aligned with strengths and weaknesses. These sessions facilitated by the management body improve the productivity of employees and in turn, help in deriving desired results. Group discussions are necessary to consider when it comes to building an effective bridge of communication between employees and propagating clarity for the employees (Gibson et al. 2020). These sessions help enhance the team management skills of the potential employees further bringing forth their leadership skills and polishing their communication skills.
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