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Talent management is one of the management techniques in business that companies believe to be able to change to preserve highly skilled workers and boost the company's sustainability efficiency in a competitive business setting (Khilji and Schuler, 2017). It is the way to recruit the right talent efficiently, train them for potential high positions, analyse and monitor their performance, and collectively prevent them from disappearing from the company. Each organisation's performance relies on employee performance. When workers have distinct competencies which cannot be replicated by rivals, their organisations are immediately granted a modest advantage. The companies are thus skilled in developing effective talent management programmes and processes for the management of this distinctive human capital.
1.2 Research Topic
Keeping the importance of talent management in mind and the need of boosting organisational performance in the global competitive market, the current research has focused on establishing the importance of the role of talent management that it plays on leveraging the organisation's performance if optimised properly. Appropriate execution of the strategies of talent management faces a bunch of challenges, which will be covered in brief by this research, along with some steps for mitigation. Alongside, the paper will also discuss the role of leadership bodies of organisations in serving, attracting engaging and retaining talented candidates in their workforce.
1.3 Research Aim and Objectives
The research aims to analyse and establish the important role of talent management in organisational performance.
1.4 Rationale for the Research
Talent management is meant to improve employees' ability to create large changes. The transition of talent in companies does not necessarily mean that. The key challenge is that talent is in the most suitable position (Sadeli, 2015). Talent management and organisational success research will lead to increasing the value of both principles in organisations. The report would describe the key obstacles facing organisations, and how they can be mitigated, in implementing talent management strategies. Technological developments in the 21st century are a major predictor of human progress.
1.5 Research Questions
Q1. How talent management is related to organisational performance?
Q2. How organisational leadership helps in attracting, managing and retaining talent?
Q3. What are the different talent management strategies to implement in organisations?
Q4. What are the challenges that emerge in the way of talent management strategy implementation?
Q5. How the identified challenges of talent management strategies can be mitigated?
2. Literature Review
Competitive advantages are critical for businesses across hour procedures. Several businesses have felt the need to decrease their costs under current economic conditions. This, as per Karthikvel and Samydoss (2019), could be the best place to apply a talent management method as a technique to improve each employee's and thus the organisation's efficiency. Skilled personnel and their strength would be the highest quality of each company. Competent workers are the most significant driver of development for the company today's competitive advantage. Talented workers will do things outstanding if they are just well managed. Human resources administrators must be forced to consider and deliver identical wishes and desires, according to Glaister et al. (2018). HR managers need to efficiently handle them efficiently and sustain them for the development of an organisation at the end of the day.
The talent comprises those who can make a difference to structural success by demonstrating the highest potential level either through their immediate contribution or at the end of the day. Simply put, talent is the skills set, stated by Payambarpour and Hooi (2015). Talented workers have creative skills, knowledge, abilities and positive skills. Organisations wishing to develop the most successful skills and keep workers at all levels should take advantage of talent management and engagement. This ensures business success, accepting something that a company means to achieve the goals of the structure at the end of the day by the talent and thus by the approach it squarely measures. It aims to ensure that companies value natural skills and perceive obstacles to good performances.
Since the source of the competitive advantage of the knowledge economy shifts to the people, the importance of leaders and how leaders lead and manage human resources strategically is now inevitable. The global economic downturn has brought stronger leadership and made talent management a priority for the business. According to Sadeli (2015), this has also created new realities for organisations and developed new priorities in terms of management and development of talents. Talented workers with dynamic skills alone are not enough. Employees must instead be interested in ensuring improved efficiency at work, thereby helping businesses to achieve competitive advantage. Talent management, which today is a common subject at management levels, is an extensive structure for managing and optimising talented workers. The creation of talent (employees) is one of the key tasks a company and its leaders can undertake to continually enhance employee skills and knowledge.
In a nutshell, the key to the development of talent is efficient leadership. Betchoo (2014) has stated that talent management practices driven by leadership involve high potential talent, ensuring success and performance in organisational activities. Culture and talent management practises mediating variables in leadership behaviour, all of which influence employee involvement. The practice of execution of talent management affects employee involvement considerably. Workers, particularly with talents, appreciate the creation of skills, objective measures of their success and job promotions and retention schemes.
The following are strategies to improve organisational efficiency with an emphasis on the workforce.
Talent Attraction: The willingness of the organisations to minimise costs and to attract the most suitable workers will boost the results. This process attracts applicants, builds a picture of the employer and has a significant influence on organisational culture through recruiting strategies, as per Humaid (2018). An efficient and consistent recruitment process includes the determination of vacancies, a plan for sourcing, recruitment policies such as the recruitment of candidates, degree of flexibility in the response of recruitment needs, and the connection between recruitment and other policies.
Talent Motivation: Motivation can be described as an inner force that makes people act in many ways and thus it is an integral part of understanding individuality in humans. The motivation for understanding is important because of the success and retention effects of employee involvement.
Talent Development: For both organisations and individuals, development is critical, because workers with appropriate skills and abilities will improve the productivity of the organisation, and the ability to adapt to a changing setting. The phase of growth includes learning, education, capacity building and training integration.
Talent Retention: Humaid (2018) further opined that retention guidelines are made out to ensure that individuals remain dedicated to organisations. The outcome is a talent flow which creates and maintains the pool of talents. The employee stays or leaves work for several reasons, including organisational and management considerations, work relations, work-life balance, rewards and compensation, benefits and success, job training and growth and policy and practices of employers.
Talent management has many challenges in implementation. Initially, many companies do not have the core competencies or systems for the production of talent. According to Tafti, Mahmoudsalehi and Amiri (2017), organisations live by the benefit and consequent profit of their instrumental resources, and thus they use of the instrumentality of capital and their share of opportunity. Nevertheless, it is often not possible to search the value of human potential and talent in an organisation because most organisations don't live those things, but they are only live values instead. They usually build theories about people in an organisation that foreshadows them from sound to unknown talent potential and ends up in lacking talent or generally lacks in important places. Besides, corporate talent acquisition processes usually concentrate on a few and dispense the unknown talent potential throughout the rest of the company, as per Hejase et al. (2016). Through applying the idea that all workers of an organisation have talent, they are helping to unleash the untapped potential by offering the resources and strategies required to make their job position dependent on the skills they have.
The talent-driven by-products of interest to a person would be enhanced by learning and private growth. Integration of corporate processes is one of the greatest obstacles in integrating talent management. Determined talent management incorporates the expectations of the company individual so that the individual talent is matched to this and the organisation's potential talent needs (Claus, 2019). Implementation and promotion of talent management in a business need to correctly change the intelligent structure and to look at certain issues. The scope and promise of the changes mean that talent management will take on many challenges.
Leveraging four simple yet crucial steps can help the leadership and management personnel to manage talent in their workforce more efficiently, as per Pichette (2019):
Designing: Market leaders also don't consider whether they have the right talent to adopt a plan. Aligning with strategic priorities at the top would avoid a spread of confusion and loss of efficiency. Companies can improve efficiency by being mindful of how talent maps back to the accepted plan.
Diagnosis: Through using engagement surveys, exit interviews, computational and cognitive tests and other information collection tools, organisations can hold an instinct about what is happening. When these new ideas have been compiled, they can look at the problem areas that drive the effectiveness of their staffs.
Hiring and Recruitment: Using cognitive and behavioural knowledge that makes someone a high-level leader in a given position helps to get an organisation, suitable workers. The additional advantage of attracting the right applicants would be to get a clearer understanding of the position and create a more oriented job description.
Inspiration: Workers perform well when their drives and requirements are taken into account. The discretionary efforts directed by the employee are a naturally occurring by-product for the business.
2.5 Literature Gap
While there is a huge database on the variables of talent management and organisational performance and its relation with each other, a significant lack of data have been found while conducting the literary research on this topic. There is no evidence of the leaders' role as the mediator variable in the relationship of talent management as the independent variable and organisational performance as the dependent variable. Besides, though the variable of employee engagement has been discussed in many types of research, it needs to be more evaluated in the context of the other three variables.
3. Methodology and Data Collection
3.1 Research Philosophy
The pragmatism philosophy has been selected to research this research. Pragmatism philosophy in research suggests that the researcher adopts an approach based on possibility or need while selecting methods and approaches (Korte and Mercurio, 2017). In this research, pragmatism demands the outcome to produce an answer to whether talent management plays a role in the organisational performance or not, which led both the quantitative and qualitative approaches to be selected.
3.2 Research Approaches
While inductive approach gathers data to develop a theory from analysed information, deductive approach examines an existing theory (Myers and Powers, 2017). This research is aimed at establishing the theory on the role of talent management on the way an organisation performs, which demands to reach a broad generalisation from specific observations. Hence, the mixed methodology of both quantitative and qualitative methods under inductive reasoning has been chosen in this context.
3.3 Sampling Strategy
As the research follows the mixed method of study, the sampling has been based on collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. The former kind of data has been chosen from the reviewing of three literary articles in the area of talent management and organisational performance. The quantitative data, on the other hand, has been collected through an interview conducted among four managers of two different organisations, as well as a survey of 30 employees of some anonymous reputed organisations.
3.4 Data Collection Method
Based on the data sampling strategy mentioned above, both primary (survey and interview) and secondary (literary articles) data have been chosen for quantitative and qualitative analysis. These two types of data, once analysed, would lead the research to reach an outcome that can answer the research questions and meet the research objectives to fulfil the aim of the research.
3.5 Data Analysis Method
Once the data has been gathered, the primary data from the survey and interviews have followed the quantitative method of analysis. Results from primary data analysis give the researcher numerical based information which is analysed to reach expected research outcome through discussion (Dos Santos et al., 2017). On the other hand, the secondary data from literary articles have followed a thematic analysis approach of qualitative method, which provided conceptualisation on the opinions of experts regarding talent management and its role in organisational performance.
3.6 Ethical Consideration
In the process of maintaining research ethics, the data collected from survey and interview has been published devoid of any direct and personal information regarding the participants and their working organisations, based on the opinion of Hammersley (2015). Besides, the secondary data has been reviewed with the details of the authors and the publishing journal as well.
4. Data analysis and Interpretations
Literary Review 1
The most significant competitive aspect for an organisation is human capital. In the research paper of Rane and Gaikwad (2020), the authors have stated that management of talents means not only recruiting the best talents and maintaining them but also recognising workers who do not contribute to the company. The production of human resources should not be limited to technical and specialised training but needs to be holistically educated. It is opined based on the suggested models of talent management that this technique is linked not only with employee behaviour but also with high organisational performance. Opportunities for training and development contribute to the greater incentive for employee conduct and job opportunities, which will inevitably lead to satisfaction for workers. Such an advanced job position with a possible growth combined leads to enhanced workforce efficiency. There are also greater chances for workers to be efficient and less likely to abandon the work who are happier with their organisations. A satisfied and efficient employee breaks the 9-5-hour barrier, which in the end leads to enhanced organisational efficiency.
Literary Review 2
Global competition for talented and valued people remains high. To maintain a competitive advantage, companies have to invest in their managers' development. The aim of the study by Payambarpour and Hooi (2015) was to determine the effect on the organisational success of talent management. The information is collected by sample MNC managers. The authors suggested that the creation of management has implications on organisational efficiency. In this regard, management improvement should be considered by the company to improve organisational efficiency. Besides, human resources activities are closely and positively linked to organisational success. Furthermore, human resources strategies affect employee participation positively and dramatically. Additionally, the contribution of workers to organisational success has a positive and measurable impact, as opined by the authors. There is a consensus among scholars and practitioners that high levels of dedication have a high degree of success. Also, the presence of workers mediates the interaction between human and performance practises. In this respect, companies should conduct HR practises (training and developing) for managers to inspire committed people and to achieve high organisational efficiency.
Literary Review 3
The exclusive management of talents is the two-tier categorization of workers in which only a certain number of selected employees are deemed 'talented' or 'more skilled'. O'Connor and Crowley-Henry (2019) have suggested in their paper that they react by trying to rebalance their social exchange with their company, which can minimise employee participation. This indicates a disconnect between the expected ethical practises of inclusion and real exclusion practises as reified in exclusive TM, say the authors. This may lead to a lack of justice in the HRM activities of an organisation. This can contribute to negative effects at the micro and meso-levels, such as decreased participation and increased employee turnover. Clear and transparent processes for workers should be given and equally managed and valued, argue the authors. HR administrators and clinicians in their practices should stress continuity and accountability. Selection processes must be used to display the possible contributions of those the organisation considers 'untalented,' they have added. At this point, the order impact of justice is critical.
Q1. What, from your viewpoint, is a successful recruitment process? Which ones do you consider the main points to be?
Respondent 1: First of all, we need to understand what recruitment is for. From my viewpoint, it is conducted solely for finding a suitable candidate for a vacant job role, and suitability of the candidates depends on their talent and skill to perform the assigned job with efficiency.
Respondent 2: The field of talent management is still critical to understand for many companies; fortunately, our organisation has attained the focus of recruitment to be in managing the talent of selected candidates once the hiring and selection process is completed.
Respondent 3: From my perspective, a successful recruitment process must align with concentrating on employee engagement, such as the selection of candidates who are both suitable and more probable of staying in the job. In my organisation, both the talent of the candidates and their degree of commitment towards a job are considered.
Respondent 4: Probably the main points in the recruitment process for any organisation are to attract, manage and retain talented workers and boost their intention of engagement. The reason behind this perception of mine is that I think the recruiting process does not end in selecting proper employees for a job role; it rather includes optimising their talents as well.
Q2. Do you think leaders of an organisation can overcome talent management challenges? What does your organisation do in this context?
Respondent 1: The HRM of our organisation is most dependable in terms of overcoming talent management challenges. Executive or leadership body, on the other hand, do not have much to do in this context; however, there seems to be an emerging need of leaders to play a crucial role in talent management, which is likely to be implemented in our business strategies shortly.
Respondent 2: It is of no doubt that leaders play a crucial role in managing and retaining talented workers. Our company is putting the utmost stress on leaders and the management body of all the departments to take part in understanding their employees and the kind of skill-sets needed for a job role in the workforce.
Respondent 3: Our organisation and every management personnel including the leadership body pays extreme attention to the employee engagement as they are the most important part of an organisation to proceed towards success.
Respondent 4: Leaders are the ones who should be a part of anything that considers the satisfaction of employees and attracting the potential talents for different job roles. Since I have started my job here, I have seen our executive body is concerned with the engagement of employees.
During the conduction of the survey, it has evaluated that 27% and 30% of employees belong to the group of 18-28 and 28-38 respectively. Also, 23% and 20% of employees belong to the group of 38-48 and 48-58 respectively. In this way, it has clarified that the age group 28-38, which is very significant for developing the organisational business. Because they can fetch some changes and take heavy loads during their organisational job practices with having some experience in this period.
Moreover, the survey has evaluated that in most of the organisations around 40% of male and 50% of female employees perform their jobs. In this aspect, it is a fact that evaluated in the survey is the organisations have found the talent more than in female employees than the male. Moreover, various organisations in the world offer jobs around 10% to the candidates that belong to the group of other to significantly utilise their talent for the organisational development.
On the other hand, during the conduction of the survey, it becomes clear that 36% and 30% of unmarried and married employees respectively perform their job and demonstrate their talent regarding specific jobs. Also, there are 17% of married with one child and 17% of married with two child employees perform their jobs within the organisational culture.
Generally, 27% of employees strongly agreed that the leadership team of the organisations efficiently manage, engage and retain the talent in the organisational culture. Also, around 30% of employees agreed with this question. On the other hand, 20% employees do not respond to this question, 13% employees disagreed and 10% employees strongly disagreed that their leaders efficiently manage, engage and retain the talent within the organisational culture.
23% of employees strongly agreed, 23% of employees agreed that their organisational current utilisations of different talent management strategies are very helpful for their organisational performance and employee talent management. Around 17% of employees do not respond to this question. However, 27% and 10% of employees disagreed and strongly disagreed that the current talent management strategy that their organisation utilise are not so helpful.
Fundamentally, 16% of employee strongly agreed and 27% of employees agreed that the strategies which have been implemented and adopted by their organisation for mitigating various challenges during the talent management process are appropriate and effective. 20% of employees do not provide any response to this question. However, 20% of employees disagreed and 17% of employees strongly disagreed to this statement that the strategies which have been selected by their organisations to mitigate numerous threats are appropriate.
29% of employees strongly agreed and another 29% of employees agreed to the thought that their organisational talent management strategies and organisational performance are interrelated. Around 21% of employees do not provide any response to this. However, 7% of employees disagreed and 14% of employees strongly disagreed that the talent management strategies and the organisational performance are interrelated in the aspect of their organisational culture.
5. Research Outcomes
The entire research has elaborated the importance of talent management in organisational performance and the role of leadership in attracting and managing the talented workforce and overcoming the TM challenges.
Based on the secondary and primary data analysis, talent management seems to be an important part of employee engagement in the perspective of scholars and managers and employees of organisations. This is because eventually, the commitment of employees staying engaged in the organisational functions leads the business towards success.
Talent Management Impacts Organisational Performance
It is evident in the entire research study that employees feel motivated and inspired when their talents are nourished by the organisation, and they can put their best effort to complete the assigned tasks to them. Thus, the organisation performs better in the competitive market using the engagement of its employees.
Role of Leaders in Employee Engagement
Both managers and staff-base have this conception that when leaders concentrate on attracting and retaining a talented workforce, the organisation can gain a strong performance result. Leaders are the entities that the sub-ordinates look up to for techniques while performing a task, and their sense of motivation strengthens their engagement and commitment towards the business.
Organisations are Adopting Different Strategies to Mitigate Talent Management Challenges
In the 21st century, the global workforce contains individuals from different cultures and skills, which demands the implication of strong talent management strategies and effective mitigation procedures that can overcome all the challenges appearing in the way of the implementation.
Organisations Should Start Implementing Talent Management Strategies Widely and Effectively
Keeping the importance of talent management in consideration in terms of employees and businesses, every organisation throughout the world should start implementing TM strategies in their organisational structure. These strategies boost employee engagement and retention, which are crucial factors to be seen in organisational productivity.
While scholars have put importance on talent management to be an integral part of human capital management, survey and interview data do not say otherwise. The survey data demonstrates the employees to agree with the fact that the more efficiently the organisations manage their talents, the more productive they become. Alongside, the interview data showcases the managers to consider the factor of talent management emerging as the most crucial part of employee management and optimisation for business success.
6. Conclusion and Recommendations
Talent Management aims to hire, train, manage and retain talented staff. The organisation seeks top applicants and then works for the development and satisfaction of its employees. Throughout an organisation, an employee's talent acquisition is constant, which only stops when the employee leaves the organisation. By managing talent, an organisation assures its workers the full opportunity and job satisfaction. Companies (in particular managers) are unified to enhance the development of its workers. For employee satisfaction and development, HR is thus not solely responsible, but the leaders and managers of other units as well. Talent management enhances the performance of the company and concurrently provides data and resources for development, transformation, purchases and initiatives for major new product and repair. The depth and complexity of effective talent management show that it's a system with numerous obstacles and that the rewards are immense and effective talent management. In this context, organisations can follow some certain recommendations to implement talent management strategies:
7. Reflection and Recommendation of Alternative Research Methodology
What the discussion of the entire research has enforced to prove is that, if organisations focus on implementing proper talent management strategies, they can gain better success in terms of success through engaging and retaining suitable and talented candidates. The challenges that emerge in the way of implementing talent management strategies indicate the fact that organisations face viable issues in the management of human capital. The mitigation techniques of these challenges and the role of leaders in attracting and retaining employees are important from the perspective of the scholars in the concerned field and managers and employees of certain organisations.
The paper has elevated a fact that there is a lack in research data and information in the subject matter based on the four variables of talent management, organisational performance, the role of leadership and employee engagement, where the former two plays the part of independent and dependent variables respectively, while the other ones can be used as mediator variables. In future, to conduct research that is focused on addressing these variables together and their collective impact on business, descriptive and case study analysis in qualitative approach as well as exploratory design in research method can be used. These methods could have been used in the current research study as well as alternative methods.
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